GC-MS-based fecal metabolomics reveals gender-attributed fecal signatures in ankylosing spondylitis.
ABSTRACT: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has different clinical features in males and females. Fecal metabolites play significant roles in AS disorders. This study aimed to reveal gender-attributed fecal signatures of AS. Fecal samples from 87 cross-sectional individuals (healthy controls: 20 males, 18 females; AS patients: 26 males, 23 females) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to reveal differences in the fecal signatures of AS between males and females. Fecal signatures were defined by the significantly different fecal metabolites between AS patients and healthy individuals. Therefore, different fecal signatures of male and female AS patients were defined as gender-attributed fecal signatures. Male-specific fecal signatures in AS patients were steroid compounds, including cholestan-3-ol, tocopherol, stigmastan-3,5-diene, cholest-3-ene, cholest-4-en-6-one and 1-heptatriacotanol. Female-specific fecal signatures were ergost-5-en-3-ol, acetate and D-myo-Inositol. Gender-attributed fecal signatures of AS further reveal differences between males and females in terms of AS features.
Project description:1. The echinoderms Asterias rubens and Solaster papposus (Class Asteroidea) metabolize injected [4(-14)C]cholest-5-en-3beta-ol to produce labelled 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 2. Conversion of 5alpha-[4(-14)C]cholestan-3beta-ol into 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol was demonstrated in A. Rubens. 3. Incubations of A. rubens with [4(-14)C]cholest-4-en-3-one resulted in the production of labelled 5alpha-cholestan-3-one, 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 4. [4(-14)C]Sitosterol was metabolized by A. rubens to give 5alpha-stigmastan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol. 5. The significance of these results in relation to the presence of alpha7 sterols in starfish is discussed.
Project description:If the biological conversion of cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I) into cholesterol (IV) occurred thorugh the intermediacy of cholest-7-ene-3beta,5alpha-diol (II) then the factor(s) adversely affecting the convwesion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol must at least equally adversely affect the formation of cholesterol from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. By using partial denaturation techniquws and dual-labelled precursors it was shown that the enzyme system responsible for the conversion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol denatured faster than that for the corresponding conversion from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I).
Project description:1. Twenty-two sterols were identified in the starfish Asterias rubens (Phylum, Echinodermata; Class, Asteroidea). 2. The major 4-demethyl sterols had a Delta(7) bond and the C(27) compound 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol predominated over other mono- and di-unsaturated sterols belonging to the C(26), C(27), C(28) and C(29) series. 3. Small amounts of cholest-5-en-3beta-ol and 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol were also present. 4. The minor sterols identified all contained either one or two methyl groups at C-4 and are considered to be potential biosynthetic precursors of 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 5. Three sterols possessing a 9beta,19-cyclopropane ring were also isolated and were probably derived by the starfish from a dietary source.
Project description:1. [2(-14)C]Mevalonic acid injected into the echinoderm Asterias rubens (Class Asteroidea) was effectively incorporated into the non-saponifiable lipid. 2. The most extensively labelled compounds were squalene and the 4,4-dimethyl sterols with much lower incorporations into the 4alpha-monomethyl and 4-demethyl sterol fractions. 3. Labelled compounds identified were squalene, lanosterol, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol; these are all intermediates in sterol biosynthesis. 4. The major sterol in A. rubens, 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol, was also labelled showing that this echinoderm is capable of sterol biosynthesis de novo. 5. No evidence was obtained for the incorporation of [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into the C28 and C29 components of the 4-demethyl sterols or 9beta,19-cyclopropane sterols found in A. rubens and it is assumed that these sterols are of dietary origin. 6. Another starfish Henricia sanguinolenta also incorporated [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into squalene and lanosterol. 7. Various isolated tissues of A. rubens were all capable of incorporation of [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into the nonsaponifiable lipid. With the body-wall and stomach tissues radioactivity accumulated in squalene and the 4,4-dimethyl sterols, but with the gonads and pyloric caecae there was a more efficient incorporation of radioactivity into the 4-demethyl sterols, principally 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol.
Project description:Cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol, isolated from human brain, was further characterized by oxidation to 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-ol and to 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid. Identification was achieved by comparison (by t.l.c., g.l.c. and g.l.c.-mass spectrometry) with corresponding reference compounds derived from kryptogenin.
Project description:The 4,4-dimethyl and 4alpha-methyl sterols of the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus were identified as 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-ol and 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholesta-8(14),24-dien-3beta-ol. Sterol biosynthesis is blocked at the level of 4alpha-methyl delta8(14)-sterols.
Project description:1. [3alpha-(3)H]Cholesta-7,9-dien-3beta-ol is converted in high yield into cholesterol by a 10000g(av.) supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate. 2. Incubation of cholesta-7,9-dien-3beta-ol with [4-(3)H]NADPH and rat liver microsomal fractions under anaerobic conditions resulted in (3)H being incorporated into the 14alpha-position of cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 3. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of NADPH cholesta-7,9-dien-3beta-ol was isomerized into cholesta-8,14-dien-3beta-ol by rat liver microsomal fractions.
Project description:Derivatives of 3beta-amino-5-cholestene (3beta-cholesterylamine) are of substantial interest as cellular probes and have potential medicinal applications. However, existing syntheses of 3beta-amino-5-cholestene are of limited preparative utility. We report here a practical method for the stereoselective preparation of 3beta-amino-5-cholestene, 3beta-chloro-5-cholestene, 3beta-bromo-5-cholestene, and 3beta-iodo-5-cholestene from inexpensive cholesterol. A sequential i-steroid/retro-i-steroid rearrangement promoted by boron trifluoride etherate and trimethylsilyl azide converted cholest-5-en-3beta-ol methanesulfonate to 3beta-azido-cholest-5-ene with retention of configuration in 93% yield.
Project description:1. The conversion of cholest-5-en-3beta-ol (cholesterol) into cholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol by axenic Calliphora erythrocephala larvae was demonstrated. 2. The transformation is probably direct (Delta(5)-->Delta(5,7)) and does not involve a Delta(0) intermediate (Delta(5)-->Delta(0)-->Delta(7)--> Delta(5,7)). 3. Delta(7)-bond formation involves the stereospecific elimination of the 7beta hydrogen atom. 4. The relative amounts of free and esterified sterols were determined in larvae grown on cholesterol as sole sterol source and on 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol supplemented with minimal amounts of cholesterol. 5. The significance of the results is assessed in relation to the probable role of cholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ecdysones.
Project description:The development of non-invasive methods, particularly fecal determination, has made possible the assessment of hormone concentrations in wild animal populations. However, measuring fecal metabolites needs careful validation for each species and for each sex. We investigated whether radioimmunoassays (RIAs) previously used to measure fecal testosterone (fT) in male baboons and fecal estrogens (fE) in female baboons were well suited to measure these hormones in the opposite sex. We compared fE and fT concentrations determined by RIA to those measured by liquid chromatography combined with triple quadropole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), a highly specific method. Additionally, we conducted a biological validation to assure that the measurements of fecal concentrations reflected physiological levels of the hormone of interest. Several tests produced expected results that led us to conclude that our RIAs can reliably measure fT and fE in both sexes, and that within-sex comparisons of these measures are valid: (i) fTRIA were significantly correlated to fTLC/MS/MS for both sexes; (ii) fTRIA were higher in adult than in immature males; (iii) fTRIA were higher in pregnant than non-pregnant females; (iv) fERIA were correlated with 17?-estradiol (fE2) and with estrone (fE1) determined by LC/MS/MS in pregnant females; (v) fERIA were significantly correlated with fE2 in non-pregnant females and nearly significantly correlated in males; (vi) fERIA were higher in adult males than in immature males. fERIA were higher in females than in males, as predicted, but unexpectedly, fTRIA were higher in females than in males, suggesting a difference in steroid metabolism in the two sexes; consequently, we conclude that while within-sex comparisons are valid, fTRIA should not be used for intersexual comparisons. Our results should open the field to important additional studies, as to date the roles of testosterone in females and estrogens in males have been little investigated.