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Contrasting patterns of divergence at the regulatory and sequence level in European Daphnia galeata natural populations.

ABSTRACT: Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation has long been a focus of evolutionary biology. Recently, there has been increased interest in deciphering the evolutionary role of Daphnia's plasticity and the molecular mechanisms of local adaptation. Using transcriptome data, we assessed the differences in gene expression profiles and sequences in four European Daphnia galeata populations. In total, ~33% of 32,903 transcripts were differentially expressed between populations. Among 10,280 differentially expressed transcripts, 5,209 transcripts deviated from neutral expectations and their population-specific expression pattern is likely the result of local adaptation processes. Furthermore, a SNP analysis allowed inferring population structure and distribution of genetic variation. The population divergence at the sequence level was comparatively higher than the gene expression level by several orders of magnitude consistent with strong founder effects and lack of gene flow between populations. Using sequence homology, the candidate transcripts were annotated using a comparative genomics approach. Additionally, we also performed a weighted gene co-expression analysis to identify population-specific regulatory patterns of transcripts in D. galeata. Thus, we identified candidate transcriptomic regions for local adaptation in this key species of aquatic ecosystems in the absence of any laboratory-induced stressor.

SUBMITTER: Ravindran SP 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6405927 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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