The PERK Branch of the Unfolded Protein Response Promotes DLL4 Expression by Activating an Alternative Translation Mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Delta-like 4 (DLL4) is a pivotal endothelium specific Notch ligand that has been shown to function as a regulating factor during physiological and pathological angiogenesis. DLL4 functions as a negative regulator of angiogenic branching and sprouting. Interestingly, Dll4 is with Vegf-a one of the few examples of haplo-insufficiency, resulting in obvious vascular abnormalities and in embryonic lethality. These striking phenotypes are a proof of concept of the crucial role played by the bioavailability of VEGF and DLL4 during vessel patterning and that there must be a very fine-tuning of DLL4 expression level. However, to date the expression regulation of this factor was poorly studied. In this study, we showed that the DLL4 5'-UTR harbors an Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES) that, in contrast to cap-dependent translation, was efficiently utilized in cells subjected to several stresses including hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). We identified PERK, a kinase activated by ER stress, as the driver of DLL4 IRES-mediated translation, and hnRNP-A1 as an IRES-Trans-Acting Factor (ITAF) participating in the IRES-dependent translation of DLL4 during endoplasmic reticulum stress. The presence of a stress responsive internal ribosome entry site in the DLL4 msRNA suggests that the process of alternative translation initiation, by controlling the expression of this factor, could have a crucial role in the control of endothelial tip cell function.
Project description:Protein translation is inhibited by the unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced eIF-2? phosphorylation to protect against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, we found additional inhibition of protein translation owing to diminished mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex1) activity in ER-stressed multiple myeloma (MM) cells. However, c-myc protein levels and myc translation was maintained. To ascertain how c-myc was maintained, we studied myc IRES (internal ribosome entry site) function, which does not require mTORC1 activity. Myc IRES activity was upregulated in MM cells during ER stress induced by thapsigargin, tunicamycin or the myeloma therapeutic bortezomib. IRES activity was dependent on upstream MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and MNK1 (MAPK-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) signaling. A screen identified hnRNP A1 (A1) and RPS25 as IRES-binding trans-acting factors required for ER stress-activated activity. A1 associated with RPS25 during ER stress and this was prevented by an MNK inhibitor. In a proof of principle, we identified a compound that prevented binding of A1 to the myc IRES and specifically inhibited myc IRES activity in MM cells. This compound, when used alone, was not cytotoxic nor did it inhibit myc translation or protein expression. However, when combined with ER stress inducers, especially bortezomib, a remarkable synergistic cytotoxicity ensued with associated inhibition of myc translation and expression. These results underscore the potential for targeting A1-mediated myc IRES activity in MM cells during ER stress.
Project description:Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a master transcription regulator, indispensable for controlling several cellular pathways. Earlier work in our laboratory led to the identification of dual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) structure of p53 mRNA that regulates translation of full-length p53 and ?40p53. IRES-mediated translation of both isoforms is enhanced under different stress conditions that induce DNA damage, ionizing radiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, oncogene-induced senescence and cancer. In this study, we addressed nutrient-mediated translational regulation of p53 mRNA using glucose depletion. In cell lines, this nutrient-depletion stress relatively induced p53 IRES activities from bicistronic reporter constructs with concomitant increase in levels of p53 isoforms. Surprisingly, we found scaffold/matrix attachment region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1), a predominantly nuclear protein is abundant in the cytoplasm under glucose deprivation. Importantly under these conditions polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein, an established p53 ITAF did not show nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization highlighting the novelty of SMAR1-mediated control in stress. In vivo studies in mice revealed starvation-induced increase in SMAR1, p53 and ?40p53 levels that was reversible on dietary replenishment. SMAR1 associated with p53 IRES sequences ex vivo, with an increase in interaction on glucose starvation. RNAi-mediated-transient SMAR1 knockdown decreased p53 IRES activities in normal conditions and under glucose deprivation, this being reflected in changes in mRNAs in the p53 and ?40p53 target genes involved in cell-cycle arrest, metabolism and apoptosis such as p21, TIGAR and Bax. This study provides a new physiological insight into the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor in nutrient starvation, also suggesting important functions of the p53 isoforms in these conditions as evident from the downstream transcriptional target activation.
Project description:Translational control represents an important mode of regulation of gene expression under stress conditions. We have studied the translation of interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) mRNA, a negative regulator of transcription of interferon-stimulated genes and demonstrated the presence of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element in the 5'UTR of IRF2 RNA. Various control experiments ruled out the contribution of leaky scanning, cryptic promoter activity or RNA splicing in the internal initiation of IRF2 RNA. It seems IRF2-IRES function is not sensitive to eIF4G cleavage, since its activity was only marginally affected in presence of Coxsackievirus 2A protease. Interferon alpha treatment did not affect the IRF2-IRES activity or the protein level significantly. Also, in cells treated with tunicamycin [an agent causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress], the IRF2-IRES activity and the protein levels were unaffected, although the cap-dependent translation was severely impaired. Analysis of the cellular protein binding with the IRF2-IRES suggests certain cellular factors, which might influence its function under stress conditions. Interestingly, partial knockdown of PTB protein significantly inhibited the IRF2-IRES function. Taken together, it appears that IRF2 gene expression during stress condition is controlled by the IRES element, which in turn influences the cellular response.
Project description:The 5' UTR of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) contains internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which allows cap-independent translation of the viral RNA and a 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure that regulates viral replication, translation and stability. Here, we demonstrate that host protein PSF (PTB associated splicing factor) interacts with the cloverleaf RNA as well as the IRES element. PSF was found to be an important IRES trans acting factor (ITAF) for efficient translation of CVB3 RNA. Interestingly, cytoplasmic abundance of PSF protein increased during CVB3 infection and this is regulated by phosphorylation status at two different amino acid positions. Further, PSF protein was up-regulated in CVB3 infection. The expression of CVB3-2A protease alone could also induce increased PSF protein levels. Furthermore, we observed the presence of an IRES element in the 5'UTR of PSF mRNA, which is activated during CVB3 infection and might contribute to the elevated levels of PSF. It appears that PSF IRES is also positively regulated by PTB, which is known to regulate CVB3 IRES. Taken together, the results suggest for the first time a novel mechanism of regulations of ITAFs during viral infection, where an ITAF undergoes IRES mediated translation, sustaining its protein levels under condition of translation shut-off.
Project description:Expression of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) is unexpectedly repressed at the level of translation under normal physiological conditions in many cell lines. We have previously shown that the 5' untranslated region of cIAP1 mRNA contains a stress-inducible internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that governs expression of cIAP1 protein. Although inactive in unstressed cells, the IRES supports cap-independent translation of cIAP1 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. To gain an insight into the mechanism of cIAP1 IRES function, we empirically derived the minimal free energy secondary structure of the cIAP1 IRES using enzymatic cleavage mapping. We subsequently used RNA affinity chromatography to identify several cellular proteins, including nuclear factor 45 (NF45) as cIAP1 IRES binding proteins. In this report we show that NF45 is a novel RNA binding protein that enhances IRES-dependent translation of endogenous cIAP1. Further, we show that NF45 is required for IRES-mediated induction of cIAP1 protein during the unfolded protein response. The data presented are consistent with a model in which translation of cIAP1 is governed, at least in part, by NF45, a novel cellular IRES trans-acting factor.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disease in which excessive amount of lipids is accumulated as droplets in hepatocytes. Recently, cumulative evidences suggested that a sustained de novo lipogenesis can play an important role in NAFLD. Dysregulated expression of lipogenic genes, including ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), has been found in liver diseases associated with lipid accumulation. ACLY is a ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme positioned at the intersection of nutrients catabolism and cholesterol and fatty acid biosyntheses. In the present study, the molecular mechanism of ACLY expression in a cell model of steatosis has been reported. We identified an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region of the ACLY mRNA, that can support an efficient mRNA translation through a Cap-independent mechanism. In steatotic HepG2 cells, ACLY expression was up-regulated through IRES-mediated translation. Since it has been demonstrated that lipid accumulation in cells induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the involvement of this cellular pathway in the translational regulation of ACLY has been also evaluated. Our results showed that ACLY expression was increased in ER-stressed cells, through IRES-mediated translation of ACLY mRNA. A potential role of the Cap-independent translation of ACLY in NAFLD has been discussed.
Project description:Cells and viruses can utilize internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) to drive translation when cap-dependent translation is inhibited by stress or viral factors. IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) are known to participate in such cap-independent translation, but there are gaps in the understanding as to how ITAFs, particularly negative ITAFs, regulate IRES-driven translation. This study found that Lys109, Lys121 and Lys122 represent critical ubiquitination sites for far upstream element-binding protein 2 (KHSRP, also known as KH-type splicing regulatory protein or FBP2), a negative ITAF. Mutations at these sites subsequently reduced KHSRP ubiquitination and abolished its inhibitory effect on IRES-driven translation. We further found that interaction between the Kelch domain of Kelch-like protein 12 (KLHL12) and the C-terminal domain of KHSRP contributed to KHSRP ubiquitination, leading to downregulation of enterovirus IRES-mediated translation in infected cells and increased competition against other positive ITAFs. Together, these results show that ubiquitination can exert control over IRES-driven translation via modification of ITAFs, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of such a regulatory mechanism for IRES-dependent translation.
Project description:An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that directs the initiation of viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation of internal initiation requires the interaction of IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) with the internal ribosomal entry site. Biotinylated RNA-affinity chromatography and proteomic approaches were employed to identify far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 2 (FBP2) as an ITAF for EV71. The interactions of FBP2 with EV71 IRES were confirmed by competition assay and by mapping the association sites in both viral IRES and FBP2 protein. During EV71 infection, FBP2 was enriched in cytoplasm where viral replication occurs, whereas FBP2 was localized in the nucleus in mock-infected cells. The synthesis of viral proteins increased in FBP2-knockdown cells that were infected by EV71. IRES activity in FBP2-knockdown cells exceeded that in the negative control (NC) siRNA-treated cells. On the other hand, IRES activity decreased when FBP2 was over-expressed in the cells. Results of this study suggest that FBP2 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and negatively regulates viral translation.
Project description:Fragile X syndrome (FXS) caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Numerous studies show that FMRP is an RNA binding protein that regulates translation of its binding targets and plays key roles in neuronal functions. However, the regulatory mechanism for FMRP expression is incompletely understood. Conflicting results regarding internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated fmr1 translation have been reported. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that the fmr1 gene, which encodes FMRP, exploits both IRES-mediated translation and canonical cap-dependent translation. Furthermore, we find that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (hnRNP Q) acts as an IRES-transacting factor (ITAF) for IRES-mediated fmr1 translation in neurons. We also show that semaphorin 3A (Sema3A)-induced axonal growth cone collapse is due to upregulation of hnRNP Q and subsequent IRES-mediated expression of FMRP. These data elucidate the regulatory mechanism of FMRP expression and its role in axonal growth cone collapse.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation.The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially enhance the translation of virus protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes Sam68 actively participating in the life cycle of EV71 at a molecular level. These studies will not only improve our understanding of the replication of EV71 but also have the potential for aiding in developing a therapeutic strategy against EV71 infection.