Deprivation-specific life tables using multivariable flexible modelling - trends from 2000-2002 to 2010-2012, Portugal.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Completing mortality data by information on possible socioeconomic inequalities in mortality is crucial for policy planning. The aim of this study was to build deprivation-specific life tables using the Portuguese version of the European Deprivation Index (EDI) as a measure of area-level socioeconomic deprivation, and to evaluate mortality trends between the periods 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. METHODS:Statistics Portugal provided the counts of deaths and population by sex, age group, calendar year and area of residence (parish). A socioeconomic deprivation level was assigned to each parish according to the quintile of their national EDI distribution. Death counts were modelled within the generalised linear model framework as a function of age, deprivation level and calendar period. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were estimated to evaluate variations in mortality between deprivation groups and periods. RESULTS:Life expectancy at birth increased from 74.0 and 80.9 years in 2000-2002, for men and women, respectively, and to 77.6 and 83.8 years in 2010-2012. Yet, life expectancy at birth differed by deprivation, with, compared to least deprived population, a deficit of about 2 (men) and 1 (women) years among most deprived in the whole study period. The higher mortality experienced by most deprived groups at birth (in 2010-2012, mortality rate ratios of 1.74 and 1.29 in men and women, respectively) progressively disappeared with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS:Persistent differences in mortality and life expectancy were observed according to ecological socioeconomic deprivation. These differences were larger among men and mostly marked at birth for both sexes.
Project description:Socioeconomic inequalities are major health determinants. To monitor and understand them at local level, ecological indexes of socioeconomic deprivation constitute essential tools. In this study, we describe the development of the updated version of the European Deprivation Index for Portuguese small-areas (EDI-PT), describe its spatial distribution and evaluate its association with a general health indicator-all-cause mortality in the period 2009-2012. Using data from the 2011 European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC), we obtained an indicator of individual deprivation. After identifying variables that were common to both the EU-SILC and the census, we used the indicator of individual deprivation to test if these variables were associated with individual-level deprivation, and to compute weights. Accordingly, eight variables were included. The EDI-PT was produced for the smallest area unit possible (n = 18084 census block groups, mean/area = 584 inhabitants) and resulted from the weighted sum of the eight selected variables. It was then categorized into quintiles (Q1-least deprived to Q5-most deprived). To estimate the association with mortality we fitted Bayesian spatial models. The EDI-PT was unevenly distributed across Portugal-most deprived areas concentrated in the South and in the inner North and Centre of the country, and the least deprived in the coastal North and Centre. The EDI-PT was positively and significantly associated with overall mortality, and this relation followed a rather clear dose-response relation of increasing mortality as deprivation increases (Relative Risk Q2 = 1.012, 95% Credible Interval 0.991-1.033; Q3 = 1.026, 1.004-1.048; Q4 = 1.053, 1.029-1.077; Q5 = 1.068, 1.042-1.095). Summing up, we updated the index of socioeconomic deprivation for Portuguese small-areas, and we showed that the EDI-PT constitutes a sensitive measure to capture health inequalities, since it was consistently associated with a key measure of population health/development, all-cause mortality. We strongly believe this updated version will be widely employed by social and medical researchers and regional planners.
Project description:Life expectancy inequalities are an established indicator of health inequalities. More recent attention has been given to lifespan variation, which measures the amount of heterogeneity in age at death across all individuals in a population. International studies have documented diverging socioeconomic trends in lifespan variation using individual level measures of income, education and occupation. Despite using different socioeconomic indicators and different indices of lifespan variation, studies reached the same conclusion: the most deprived experience the lowest life expectancy and highest lifespan variation, a double burden of mortality inequality. A finding of even greater concern is that relative differences in lifespan variation between socioeconomic group were growing at a faster rate than life expectancy differences. The magnitude of lifespan variation inequalities by area-level deprivation has received limited attention. Area-level measures of deprivation are actively used by governments for allocating resources to tackle health inequalities. Establishing if the same lifespan variation inequalities emerge for area-level deprivation will help to better inform governments about which dimension of mortality inequality should be targeted. We measure lifespan variation trends (1981-2011) stratified by an area-level measure of socioeconomic deprivation that is applicable to the entire population of Scotland, the country with the highest level of variation and one of the longest, sustained stagnating trends in Western Europe. We measure the gradient in variation using the slope and relative indices of inequality. The deprivation, age and cause specific components driving the increasing gradient are identified by decomposing the change in the slope index between 1981 and 2011. Our results support the finding that the most advantaged are dying within an ever narrower age range while the most deprived are facing greater and increasing uncertainty. The least deprived group show an increasing advantage, over the national average, in terms of deaths from circulatory disease and external causes.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The aim of this study was to assess the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in the associations between type 2 diabetes and life expectancy in a complete national population. METHODS:An observational population-based cohort study was performed using the Scottish Care Information - Diabetes database. Age-specific life expectancy (stratified by SES) was calculated for all individuals with type 2 diabetes in the age range 40-89 during the period 2012-2014, and for the remaining population of Scotland aged 40-89 without type 2 diabetes. Differences in life expectancy between the two groups were calculated. RESULTS:Results were based on 272,597 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 2.75 million people without type 2 diabetes (total for 2013, the middle calendar year of the study period). With the exception of deprived men aged 80-89, life expectancy in people with type 2 diabetes was significantly reduced (relative to the type 2 diabetes-free population) at all ages and levels of SES. Differences in life expectancy ranged from -5.5 years (95% CI -6.2, -4.8) for women aged 40-44 in the second most-deprived quintile of SES, to 0.1 years (95% CI -0.2, 0.4) for men aged 85-89 in the most-deprived quintile of SES. Observed life-expectancy deficits in those with type 2 diabetes were generally greater in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced life expectancy at almost all ages and levels of SES. Elimination of life-expectancy deficits in individuals with type 2 diabetes will require prevention and management strategies targeted at all social strata (not just deprived groups).
Project description:Although mortality and health inequalities at birth have increased both geographically and in socioeconomic terms, little is known about inequalities at age 85, the fastest growing sector of the population in Great Britain (GB).To determine whether trends and drivers of inequalities in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at age 85 between 1991 and 2001 are the same as those at birth.DFLE at birth and age 85 for 1991 and 2001 by gender were calculated for each local authority in GB using the Sullivan method. Regression modelling was used to identify area characteristics (rurality, deprivation, social class composition, ethnicity, unemployment, retirement migration) that could explain inequalities in LE and DFLE.Similar to values at birth, LE and DFLE at age 85 both increased between 1991 and 2001 (though DFLE increased less than LE) and gaps across local areas widened (and more for DFLE than LE). The significantly greater increases in LE and DFLE at birth for less-deprived compared with more-deprived areas were still partly present at age 85. Considering all factors, inequalities in DFLE at birth were largely driven by social class composition and unemployment rate, but these associations appear to be less influential at age 85.Inequalities between areas in LE and DFLE at birth and age 85 have increased over time though factors explaining inequalities at birth (mainly social class and unemployment rates) appear less important for inequalities at age 85.
Project description:Recent experimental evidence suggests that socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods influence cardiovascular health, but observational studies which examine deprivation across a wide range of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are lacking.Record-linkage cohort study of 1.93 million people to examine the association between small-area socioeconomic deprivation and 12 CVDs. Health records covered primary care, hospital admissions, a myocardial infarction registry and cause-specific mortality in England (CALIBER). Patients were aged ?30 years and were initially free of CVD. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by general practice were used.During a median follow-up of 5.5 years 114,859 people had one of 12 initial CVD presentations. In women the hazards of all CVDs except abdominal aortic aneurysm increased linearly with higher small-area socioeconomic deprivation (adjusted HR for most vs. least deprived ranged from 1.05, 95%CI 0.83-1.32 for abdominal aortic aneurysm to 1.55, 95%CI 1.42-1.70 for heart failure; I2?=?81.9%, ?2?=?0.01). In men heterogeneity was higher (HR ranged from 0.89, 95%CI 0.75-1.06 for cardiac arrest to 1.85, 95%CI 1.67-2.04 for peripheral arterial disease; I2?=?96.0%, ?2?=?0.06) and no association was observed with stable angina, sudden cardiac death, subarachnoid haemorrhage, transient ischaemic attack and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Lifetime risk difference between least and most deprived quintiles was most marked for peripheral arterial disease in women (4.3% least deprived, 5.8% most deprived) and men (4.6% least deprived, 7.8% in most deprived); but it was small or negligible for sudden cardiac death, transient ischaemic attack, abdominal aortic aneurysm and ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhage, in both women and men.Associations of small-area socioeconomic deprivation with 12 types of CVDs were heterogeneous, and in men absent for several diseases. Findings suggest that policies to reduce deprivation may impact more strongly on heart failure and peripheral arterial disease, and might be more effective in women.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to describe the variation in risks of adverse birth outcomes across ethnic groups and socioeconomic circumstances, and to explore the evidence of mediation by socioeconomic circumstances of the effect of ethnicity on birth outcomes. SETTING:England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS:The data came from the 4.6 million singleton live births between 2006 and 2012. EXPOSURE:The main exposure was ethnic group. Socioeconomic circumstances, the hypothesised mediator, were measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), an area-level measure of deprivation, based on the mother's place of residence. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes were birth outcomes, namely: neonatal death, infant death and preterm birth. We estimated the slope and relative indices of inequality to describe differences in birth outcomes across IMD, and the proportion of the variance in birth outcomes across ethnic groups attributable to IMD. We investigated mediation by IMD on birth outcomes across ethnic groups using structural equation modelling. RESULTS:Neonatal mortality, infant mortality and preterm birth risks were 2.1 per 1000, 3.2 per 1000 and 5.6%, respectively. Babies in the most deprived areas had 47%-129% greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than those in the least deprived areas. Minority ethnic babies had 48%-138% greater risk of adverse birth outcomes compared with white British babies. Up to a third of the variance in birth outcomes across ethnic groups was attributable to differences in IMD, and there was strong statistical evidence of an indirect effect through IMD in the effect of ethnicity on birth outcomes. CONCLUSION:There is evidence that socioeconomic circumstances could be contributing to the differences in birth outcomes across ethnic groups.
Project description:To compare trends in metrics of socioeconomic inequalities in premature coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Great Britain.Time trend ecological study with area-level deprivation as exposure.Great Britain, 1994-2008.Men and women aged younger than 75 years. No lower age limit.None.CHD mortality rates.There has been a decrease in socioeconomic inequalities in CHD mortality in absolute terms but an increase in relative terms. CHD mortality rates in men aged younger than 75 years fell by 69 per 100?000 (95% CIs 64 to 74) in the least deprived quintile and by 92 per 100?000 (95% CI 86 to 98) in the most deprived quintile (p for trend: <0.001). Mortality rate ratios comparing the most deprived quintile to the least deprived quintile increased in women aged younger than 75 years from 1.77 (95% CI 1.68 to 1.86) to 2.32 (95% CI 2.14 to 2.52). There was a weak negative association between the average decline of relative rates and area deprivation.It could either be said that inequalities in premature mortality from CHD between affluent and deprived areas have widened or narrowed between 1994 and 2008 depending on the measurement technique. In the context of falling CHD mortality rates, narrowing of absolute inequalities is to be expected, but increases in relative inequalities are a cause for concern.
Project description:To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England.Population cohort study.England.All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008).Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age.The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (-8.32% per annum 95% CI (-9.39% to -7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997-2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005-2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births.This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regions, and within each English region by deprivation quintile. We also assess disease and injury burden in England attributable to potentially preventable risk factors. England and the English regions are compared with the remaining constituent countries of the UK and with comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and beyond. METHODS:We extracted data from the GBD 2013 to compare mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with a disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in England, the UK, and 18 other countries (the first 15 EU members [apart from the UK] and Australia, Canada, Norway, and the USA [EU15+]). We extended elements of the analysis to English regions, and subregional areas defined by deprivation quintile (deprivation areas). We used data split by the nine English regions (corresponding to the European boundaries of the Nomenclature for Territorial Statistics level 1 [NUTS 1] regions), and by quintile groups within each English region according to deprivation, thereby making 45 regional deprivation areas. Deprivation quintiles were defined by area of residence ranked at national level by Index of Multiple Deprivation score, 2010. Burden due to various risk factors is described for England using new GBD methodology to estimate independent and overlapping attributable risk for five tiers of behavioural, metabolic, and environmental risk factors. We present results for 306 causes and 2337 sequelae, and 79 risks or risk clusters. FINDINGS:Between 1990 and 2013, life expectancy from birth in England increased by 5·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 5·0-5·8) from 75·9 years (75·9-76·0) to 81·3 years (80·9-81·7); gains were greater for men than for women. Rates of age-standardised YLLs reduced by 41·1% (38·3-43·6), whereas DALYs were reduced by 23·8% (20·9-27·1), and YLDs by 1·4% (0·1-2·8). For these measures, England ranked better than the UK and the EU15+ means. Between 1990 and 2013, the range in life expectancy among 45 regional deprivation areas remained 8·2 years for men and decreased from 7·2 years in 1990 to 6·9 years in 2013 for women. In 2013, the leading cause of YLLs was ischaemic heart disease, and the leading cause of DALYs was low back and neck pain. Known risk factors accounted for 39·6% (37·7-41·7) of DALYs; leading behavioural risk factors were suboptimal diet (10·8% [9·1-12·7]) and tobacco (10·7% [9·4-12·0]). INTERPRETATION:Health in England is improving although substantial opportunities exist for further reductions in the burden of preventable disease. The gap in mortality rates between men and women has reduced, but marked health inequalities between the least deprived and most deprived areas remain. Declines in mortality have not been matched by similar declines in morbidity, resulting in people living longer with diseases. Health policies must therefore address the causes of ill health as well as those of premature mortality. Systematic action locally and nationally is needed to reduce risk exposures, support healthy behaviours, alleviate the severity of chronic disabling disorders, and mitigate the effects of socioeconomic deprivation. FUNDING:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Public Health England.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across England. METHODS:Ozone and particulate matter (sub-divided into PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, primary, nitrate and sulphate PM2.5) were simulated at 5 km horizontal resolution using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (EMEP4UK). Annual mean concentrations of these pollutants were assigned to all 1,202,578 residential postcodes in England, which were classified by urban-rural status and socioeconomic deprivation based on the income and employment domains of the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation for the Lower-level Super Output Area of residence. We used life table methods to estimate PM2.5-attributable life years (LYs) lost in both relative and absolute terms. RESULTS:Concentrations of the most particulate fractions, but not of nitrate PM2.5 or ozone, were modestly higher in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Relationships between pollution level and socioeconomic deprivation were non-linear and varied by urban-rural status. The pattern of PM2.5 concentrations made only a small contribution to the steep socioeconomic gradient in LYs lost due to PM2.5 per 103 population, which primarily was driven by the steep socioeconomic gradient in underlying mortality rates. In rural areas, the absolute burden of air pollution-related LYs lost was lowest in the most deprived deciles. CONCLUSIONS:Air pollution shows modest socioeconomic patterning at 5 km resolution in England, but absolute attributable mortality burdens are strongly related to area-level deprivation because of underlying mortality rates. Measures that cause a general reduction in background concentrations of air pollution may modestly help narrow socioeconomic differences in health.