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The IAP antagonist birinapant potentiates bortezomib anti-myeloma activity in vitro and in vivo.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mechanisms by which Smac mimetics (SMs) interact with proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib) are largely unknown, particularly in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease in which bortezomib represents a mainstay of therapy. METHODS:Interactions between the clinically relevant IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) antagonist birinapant (TL32711) and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib were investigated in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and primary cells, as well as in vivo models. Induction of apoptosis and changes in gene and protein expression were monitored using MM cell lines and confirmed in primary MM cell populations. Genetically modified cells (e.g., exhibiting shRNA knockdown or ectopic expression) were employed to evaluate the functional significance of birinapant/bortezomib-induced changes in protein levels. A MM xenograft model was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of the birinapant/bortezomib regimen. RESULTS:Birinapant and bortezomib synergistically induced apoptosis in diverse cell lines, including bortezomib-resistant cells (PS-R). The regimen robustly downregulated cIAP1/2 but not the canonical NF-?B pathway, reflected by p65 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. In contrast, the bortezomib/birinapant regimen upregulated TRAF3, downregulated TRAF2, and diminished p52 processing and BCL-XL expression, consistent with disruption of the non-canonical NF-?B pathway. TRAF3 knockdown, ectopic TRAF2, or BCL-XL expression significantly diminished birinapant/bortezomib toxicity. The regimen sharply increased extrinsic apoptotic pathway activation, and cells expressing dominant-negative FADD or caspase-8 displayed markedly reduced birinapant/bortezomib sensitivity. Primary CD138+ (n?=?43) and primitive MM populations (CD138-/19+/20+/27+; n?=?31) but not normal CD34+ cells exhibited significantly enhanced toxicity with combined treatment (P?


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6407248 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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