Alterations in fecal short-chain fatty acids in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recent studies indicate that gut microbiota disorders potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which can be partly reflected by fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated from gut microbiota. Previous studies on SCFA alterations in patients with IBS have yielded conflicting results. No prior systematic review has been conducted on the alterations in fecal SCFAs in IBS patients. AIMS:We performed a meta-analysis to explore and clarify alterations in fecal SCFAs in IBS patients. METHODS:Case-control studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and self-controlled studies were identified through electronic database searches. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in fecal SCFA levels between different groups was calculated. RESULTS:The proportion of fecal propionate in patients with IBS was significantly higher than in healthy controls (HCs) (SMD = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.76). A subgroup analysis showed that the concentration of fecal propionate (SMD = -0.91, 95% CI = -1.41, -0.41) and butyrate (SMD = -0.53, 95% CI = -1.01, -0.04) in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C) was significantly lower than that in HCs, and the concentration of fecal butyrate in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) was higher than that in HCs (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.67). Finally, we found that restricted diets correlated with fecal butyrate reduction in IBS (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.51, -0.01). CONCLUSIONS:In terms of fecal SCFAs, there were differences between patients with IBS and HCs. In IBS-C patients, propionate and butyrate were reduced, whereas butyrate was increased in IBS-D patients in comparison to HCs. Propionate and butyrate could be used as biomarkers for IBS diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) alteration have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the results are conflicting. Our study aims to explore the alteration of SCFAs in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and their potential role in the occurrence and development of IBS. METHODS:We recruited patients with IBS-D defined by Rome IV criteria and age-and-gender matched healthy controls (HCs). A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in feces and serum. RESULTS:Compared with HCs, the levels of the serum propionate (2.957?±?0.157 vs 2.843?±?0.098?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) and butyrate (2.798?±?0.126 vs 2.697?±?0.077?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) were significantly higher in IBS-D group. No significant differences were found among two groups with regard to the concentration of fecal acetate (4.953?±?1.065 vs 4.774?±?1.465?mg/g, P?=?0.679), propionate (6.342?±?1.005 vs 6.282?±?1.077?mg/g, P?=?0.868) and butyrate (2.984?±?0.512 vs 3.071?±?0.447?mg/g, P?=?0.607). CONCLUSIONS:Metabolites of gut microbiota, the propionic and butyric acid, are increased in patients with IBS-D in serum but not in feces. It suggests that propionic and butyric acid might be associated with the occurrence and development of IBS.
Project description:There have been mixed results regarding the relationship among short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), microbiota, and obesity in human studies. We selected studies that provided data on SCFA levels or fecal microbiota abundance in obese and nonobese individuals and then combined the published estimates using a random-effects meta-analysis. Obese individuals had significantly higher fecal concentrations of acetate (SMD (standardized mean differences) = 0.87, 95% CI (confidence interva) = 0.24-1.50, I2 (I-squared) = 88.5), propionate (SMD = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.35-1.36, I2 = 82.3%), and butyrate (SMD = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.29-1.27, I2 = 81.7%) than nonobese controls. The subgroup analyses showed no evidence of heterogeneity among obese individuals with a BMI >30 kg/m2 (I2 = 0.0%). At the phylum level, the abundance of fecal microbiota was reduced in obese compared to nonobese individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant (Bacteroidetes phylum, SMD = -0.36, 95% CI = -0.73-0.01; Firmicutes phylum, SMD = -0.10, 95% CI = -0.31-0.10). The currently available human case-control studies show that obesity is associated with high levels of SCFA but not gut microbiota richness at the phylum level. Additional well-designed studies with a considerable sample size are needed to clarify whether this association is causal, but it is also necessary to identify additional contributors to SCFA production, absorption, and excretion in humans.
Project description:Effects of the microbiome associated with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) on the gut have been reported, but no study has reported the effects of the IBS-D gut microbiome on the liver. We transplanted the fecal microbiota from an IBS-D patient and from a healthy volunteer to GF rats. The hepatic inflammation, serum biochemical parameters and metabolome, fecal microbiota profile, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and correlations among them before and after berberine intervention were assessed. Compared with the healthy control fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) rats, the fecal microbiota of IBS-D patients induces significant Kupffer cell hyperplasia, hepatic sinusoid hypertrophy, and elevated levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-<i>?</i> and interferon-<i>?</i> and decreases the synthesis of ALB in GF rats. This is possibly related to <i>Faecalibacterium</i> and <i>Bifidobacterium</i> attributable to fecal formate, acetate, and propionate levels, which are associated with the host linoleic acid pathway. Berberine can partially reverse the Kupffer cell hyperplasia, <i>Faecalibacterium</i>, fecal formate, acetate, and propionate by modulating the gut microbiome composition. These results may imply that IBS-D not only is an intestinal functional disorder but can cause liver inflammation, thus providing some implications regarding the clinical cognition and treatment of IBS-D.
Project description:Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity. We aimed to investigate differences in fecal SCFAs and intermediate metabolites in 163 infants at 3-5?months of age according to breastfeeding status. Compared to no exposure to human milk at time of fecal sample collection, exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower absolute concentrations of total SCFAs, acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, yet higher concentrations of lactate. Further, the relative proportion of acetate was higher with exclusive breastfeeding. Compared to non-breastfed infants, those exclusively breastfed were four times more likely (aOR 4.50, 95% CI 1.58-12.82) to have a higher proportion of acetate relative to other SCFAs in their gut. This association was independent of birth mode, intrapartum antibiotics, infant sex, age, recruitment site, and maternal BMI or socioeconomic status. Our study confirms that breastfeeding strongly influences the composition of fecal microbial metabolites in infancy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet.<h4>Methods</h4>OmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (?30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (?30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters.<h4>Results</h4>From baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (?: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (?: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (?: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (?: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.03) and Unsat (?: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (?: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Macronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.
Project description:BackgroundIntestinal microbiota and their metabolites (e.g. short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)) may influence nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).ObjectiveThe objective of this article is to analyze gut bacterial diversity together with fecal SCFA concentrations and immunophenotyping of peripheral blood in histology-proven NAFLD patients.MethodsThirty-two NAFLD patients (14 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), 18 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)) and 27 healthy controls (HCs)) were included in this study. Bacterial communities in feces were profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of the V3–V4 region. Fecal SCFA levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsNASH patients were characterized by higher abundance of Fusobacteria and Fusobacteriaceae compared to NAFL and HCs. Conforming to our finding that NAFLD patients had higher fecal acetate and propionate levels, taxonomical differences of fecal bacteria were dominated by SCFA-producing bacteria. Higher fecal propionate and acetate levels were associated with lower resting regulatory T-cells (rTregs) (CD4+CD45RA+CD25++) as well as higher Th17/rTreg ratio in peripheral blood as immunological characteristics of NASH patients.ConclusionsNASH patients are characterized by a different gut microbiome composition with higher fecal SCFA levels and higher abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria in NAFLD. These changes are associated with immunological features of disease progression. Our data suggest an important role of the intestinal microbiome and immunomodulatory bacterial metabolites in human NAFLD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may play a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study analyzed fecal SCFAs after performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the IBS patients who were included in our previous study of the efficacy of FMT.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 142 of the 164 IBS patients who participated in our previous study. They were belonging to three groups: placebo (own feces), 30-g (superdonor feces), and 60-g (superdonor feces) FMT. The patients completed the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) Birmingham IBS Symptom, Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS), the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QoL) and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) questionnaires and delivered fecal samples at the baseline and 1 month after FMT. The SCFA levels were determined by vacuum distillation followed by gas chromatography.<h4>Key results</h4>The fecal butyric acid level was significantly increased after FMT in both the 30-g and 60-g groups (both P ? 0.001). In the 60-g group, the levels of total SCFAs and isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids increased after FMT. Butyric acid levels in the responders in both the 30-g and 60-g FMT groups were significantly inversely correlated with IBS-SSS and FAS scores (P = 0.001, r = -0.3 and P = 0.0001. r=- 0.3, respectively). There were no differences in the SCFA levels in the placebo group after FMT.<h4>Conclusion and inferences</h4>FMT increases the fecal SCFA levels in IBS patients. The increase in the butyric acid level is inversely correlated with symptoms in IBS patients following FMT, suggesting that SCFAs might play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. www.clini?caltr?ials.gov (NCT03822299).
Project description:PURPOSE:Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Probiotics and synbiotics have been shown to improve symptoms of IBS, although mechanisms of action are currently not understood. METHODS:We investigated the effects of a 4-week oral synbiotic treatment (OMNi-BiOTiC® Stress Repair) in ten IBS-D patients on gastrointestinal mucosal and fecal microbiota, mucosa-associated immune cells, and fecal short-chain fatty acids. The upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts were compared before and after a 4-week synbiotic treatment using endoscopic evaluation to collect mucosal specimens for FACS analysis and mucosal 16S rRNA gene analysis. In stool samples, analysis for fecal SCFAs using GC-MS, fecal zonulin using ELISA, and fecal 16S rRNA gene analysis was performed. RESULTS:Synbiotics led to an increased microbial diversity in gastric (p?=?0.008) and duodenal (p?=?0.025) mucosal specimens. FACS analysis of mucosal immune cells showed a treatment-induced reduction of CD4+ T cells (60 vs. 55%, p?=?0.042) in the ascending colon. Short-chain fatty acids (acetate 101 vs. 202 µmol/g; p?=?0.007) and butyrate (27 vs. 40 µmol/g; p?=?0.037) were elevated in fecal samples after treatment. Furthermore, treatment was accompanied by a reduction of fecal zonulin concentration (67 vs. 36 ng/ml; p?=?0.035) and disease severity measured by IBS-SSS (237 vs. 54; p?=?0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that a short-course oral synbiotic trial may influence the human gastrointestinal tract in IBS-D patients on different levels which are region specific.
Project description:Fiber fermentation by gut microbiota yields short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are either absorbed by the gut or excreted in feces. Studies are conflicting as to whether SCFAs are beneficial or detrimental to cardiometabolic health, and how gut microbiota associated with SCFAs is unclear. In this study of 441 community-dwelling adults, we examined associations of fecal SCFAs, gut microbiota diversity and composition, gut permeability, and cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity and hypertension. We assessed fecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFA concentrations by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fecal SCFA concentrations were inversely associated with microbiota diversity, and 70 unique microbial taxa were differentially associated with at least one SCFA (acetate, butyrate or propionate). Higher SCFA concentrations were associated with a measure of gut permeability, markers of metabolic dysregulation, obesity and hypertension. Microbial diversity showed association with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Associations were significant after adjusting for measured confounders. In conclusion, higher SCFA excretion was associated with evidence of gut dysbiosis, gut permeability, excess adiposity, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Studies assessing both fecal and circulating SCFAs are needed to test the hypothesis that the association of higher fecal SCFAs with obesity and cardiometabolic dysregulation is due to less efficient SCFA absorption.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose increases median lifespan by approximately 20% in male mice and 5% in females. This longevity extension differs from dietary restriction based on a number of features, including the relatively small effects on weight and the sex-specificity of the lifespan effect. By inhibiting host digestion, acarbose increases the flux of starch to the lower digestive system, resulting in changes to the gut microbiota and their fermentation products. Given the documented health benefits of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the dominant products of starch fermentation by gut bacteria, this secondary effect of acarbose could contribute to increased longevity in mice. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the fecal microbiome of mice treated with acarbose to control mice at three independent study sites. RESULTS:Microbial communities and the concentrations of SCFAs in the feces of mice treated with acarbose were notably different from those of control mice. At all three study sites, the bloom of a single bacterial taxon was the most obvious response to acarbose treatment. The blooming populations were classified to the largely uncultured Bacteroidales family Muribaculaceae and were the same taxonomic unit at two of the three sites. Propionate concentrations in feces were consistently elevated in treated mice, while the concentrations of acetate and butyrate reflected a dependence on study site. Across all samples, Muribaculaceae abundance was strongly correlated with propionate and community composition was an important predictor of SCFA concentrations. Cox proportional hazards regression showed that the fecal concentrations of acetate, butyrate, and propionate were, together, predictive of mouse longevity even while controlling for sex, site, and acarbose. CONCLUSION:We observed a correlation between fecal SCFAs and lifespan in mice, suggesting a role of the gut microbiota in the longevity-enhancing properties of acarbose. Treatment modulated the taxonomic composition and fermentation products of the gut microbiome, while the site-dependence of the responses illustrate the challenges facing reproducibility and interpretation in microbiome studies. These results motivate future studies exploring manipulation of the gut microbial community and its fermentation products for increased longevity, testing causal roles of SCFAs in the observed effects of acarbose.