Five-year exposure to PM2.5 and ozone and subclinical atherosclerosis in late midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Effects of more than one-year exposure to air pollution on atherosclerosis is seldom studied. This paper aims to examine the association between five-year exposure to particulate matter ?2.5??m (PM2.5), ozone (O3) and atherosclerosis observed about seven years later in late midlife women. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This study was conducted among 1188 women of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) from five sites, Detroit, MI; Oakland, CA; Pittsburgh, PA; Chicago, IL; and Newark, NJ, with available data on both air pollutant exposure and carotid ultrasound scans. Five-year mean annualized exposure levels of two air pollutants, PM2.5 and ozone (O3), were collected during 5 SWAN visits (1999-2005) from monitors 20?km within the participant's residential address. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association of prior five-year mean annualized exposure to PM2.5 and O3 with common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) examined approximately seven years later (2009-2013). Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were applied to assess the associations of air pollutants with plaque presence and plaque index, respectively. RESULTS:At time of carotid ultrasound scan, women were on average 59.6 (±2.7) years old and a majority was postmenopausal (88.4%). The women were White (48.4%), Black (31.2%), Chinese (13.3%) and Hispanic (7.1%). A 1??g/m3 higher 5-year mean annualized exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an 8.0??m (95% CI: 1.0-15.1) greater maximum cIMT at a later mid-life, adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors; but was only related to IAD after adjusting for site. No association was found between either pollutant and plaque presence or plaque index. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to elevated risk of atherosclerosis in the post-menopausal period.
Project description:Objective: This article aims to examine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis with 2-year follow-up among midlife women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Materials and Methods: Carotid duplex ultrasonography was performed in participants from a SWAN ancillary study carried out at the Pittsburgh and Chicago sites. Mean and maximum carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque burden were assessed throughout the common, bulb, and internal carotid artery. The yearly mean exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter) and ozone was generated based on monitors within 20?km of the participants' home. The effect of air pollutants during follow-up on progression of CIMT was estimated using linear mixed-effects models, and the effect on progression of plaque presence and plaque index, a measure of extent of plaque, was evaluated using logistic regression. Results: This study included 417 (257 White and 160 Black) women with a mean age of 51 years at baseline. A 1??g/m3 higher yearly mean exposure to PM2.5 during follow-up was associated with a 4.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-8.54) ?m/year increase in maximum CIMT, after adjusting for socioeconomic and traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Exposure to PM2.5 contributed to a 30% (95% CI: 3%-65%) higher odds of plaque index progression adjusting for socioeconomic factors only. Conclusions: PM2.5 independently contributed to progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, among women transitioning through menopause, a time of increasing CVD risk. Yet no significant associations between ozone and subclinical atherosclerosis were observed.
Project description:While experiments in animals demonstrate neurotoxic effects of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3), epidemiologic evidence is sparse regarding the relationship between different constituencies of air pollution mixtures and cognitive function in adults. We examined cross-sectional associations between various ambient air pollutants [O3, PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and six measures of cognitive function and global cognition among healthy, cognitively intact individuals (n=1496, mean age 60.5 years) residing in the Los Angeles Basin. Air pollution exposures were assigned to each residential address in 2000-06 using a geographic information system that included monitoring data. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive function; a principal components analysis defined six domain-specific functions and a measure of global cognitive function was created. Regression models estimated effects of air pollutants on cognitive function, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, study and mood. Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower verbal learning (β=-0.32 per 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5, 95% CI=-0.63, 0.00; p=0.05). Ambient exposure to NO2 >20 ppb tended to be associated with lower logical memory. Compared to the lowest level of exposure to ambient O3, exposure above 49 ppb was associated with lower executive function. Including carotid artery intima-media thickness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in models as a possible mediator did not attenuate effect estimates. This study provides support for cross-sectional associations between increasing levels of ambient O3, PM2.5 and NO2 and measures of domain-specific cognitive abilities.
Project description:Concentrations of both fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in the United States (US) have decreased significantly since 1990, mainly because of air quality regulations. Exposure to these air pollutants is associated with premature death. Here we quantify the annual mortality burdens from PM2.5 and O3 in the US from 1990 to 2010, estimate trends and inter-annual variability, and evaluate the contributions to those trends from changes in pollutant concentrations, population, and baseline mortality rates. We use a fine-resolution (36 km) self-consistent 21-year simulation of air pollutant concentrations in the US from 1990 to 2010, a health impact function, and annual county-level population and baseline mortality rate estimates. From 1990 to 2010, the modeled population-weighted annual PM2.5 decreased by 39 %, and summertime (April to September) 1 h average daily maximum O3 decreased by 9 % from 1990 to 2010. The PM2.5-related mortality burden from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and stroke steadily decreased by 54% from 123 700 deaths year-1 (95% confidence interval, 70 800-178 100) in 1990 to 58 600 deaths year-1 (24 900-98 500) in 2010. The PM2.5-related mortality burden would have decreased by only 24% from 1990 to 2010 if the PM2.5 concentrations had stayed at the 1990 level, due to decreases in baseline mortality rates for major diseases affected by PM2.5. The mortality burden associated with O3 from chronic respiratory disease increased by 13% from 10 900 deaths year-1 (3700-17 500) in 1990 to 12 300 deaths year-1 (4100-19 800) in 2010, mainly caused by increases in the baseline mortality rates and population, despite decreases in O3 concentration. The O3-related mortality burden would have increased by 55% from 1990 to 2010 if the O3 concentrations had stayed at the 1990 level. The detrended annual O3 mortality burden has larger inter-annual variability (coefficient of variation of 12%) than the PM2.5-related burden (4%), mainly from the inter-annual variation of O3 concentration. We conclude that air quality improvements have significantly decreased the mortality burden, avoiding roughly 35 800 (38%) PM2.5-related deaths and 4600 (27%) O3-related deaths in 2010, compared to the case if air quality had stayed at 1990 levels (at 2010 baseline mortality rates and population).
Project description:Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for the variability of the indoor infiltration of ambient PM2.5 and O3, and time indoors, can induce exposure errors. We developed an exposure model called TracMyAir, which is an iPhone application ("app") that determines seven tiers of individual-level exposure metrics in real-time for ambient PM2.5 and O3 using outdoor concentrations, weather, home building characteristics, time-locations, and time-activities. We linked a mechanistic air exchange rate (AER) model, a mass-balance PM2.5 and O3 building infiltration model, and an inhaled ventilation model to determine outdoor concentrations (Tier 1), residential AER (Tier 2), infiltration factors (Tier 3), indoor concentrations (Tier 4), personal exposure factors (Tier 5), personal exposures (Tier 6), and inhaled doses (Tier 7). Using the application in central North Carolina, we demonstrated its ability to automatically obtain real-time input data from the nearest air monitors and weather stations, and predict the exposure metrics. A sensitivity analysis showed that the modeled exposure metrics can vary substantially with changes in seasonal indoor-outdoor temperature differences, daily home operating conditions (i.e., opening windows and operating air cleaners), and time spent outdoors. The capability of TracMyAir could help reduce uncertainty of ambient PM2.5 and O3 exposure metrics used in epidemiology studies.
Project description:Estimates of the health impacts of air pollution are needed to make informed air quality management decisions at both the national and local levels. Using design values of ambient pollution concentrations from 2011-2013 as a baseline, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Marron Institute of Urban Management estimated excess morbidity and mortality in the United States attributable to exposure to ambient ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at levels above the American Thoracic Society-recommended standards. Within the subset of counties with valid design values for each pollutant, 14% had PM2.5 concentrations greater than the ATS recommendation, whereas 91% had O3 concentrations greater than the ATS recommendation. Approximately 9,320 excess deaths (69% from O3; 31% from PM2.5), 21,400 excess morbidities (74% from O3; 26% from PM2.5), and 19,300,000 adversely impacted days (88% from O3; 12% from PM2.5) in the United States each year are attributable to pollution exceeding the ATS-recommended standards. California alone is responsible for 37% of the total estimated health impacts, and the next three states (Pennsylvania, Texas, and Ohio) together contributed to 20% of the total estimates. City-specific health estimates are provided in this report and through an accompanying online tool to help inform air quality management decisions made at the local level. Riverside and Los Angeles, California have the most to gain by attaining the ATS recommendations for O3 and PM2.5. This report will be revised and updated regularly to help cities track their progress.
Project description:Renal dysfunction is prevalent in the US among African Americans. Air pollution is associated with renal dysfunction in mostly white American populations, but has not been studied among African Americans. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between 1-year and 3-year fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) concentrations, and renal function among 5090 African American participants in the Jackson Heart Study. We used mixed-effect linear regression to estimate associations between 1-year and 3-year PM2.5 and O3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), serum creatinine, and serum cystatin C, adjusting for: sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and medical history and accounting for clustering by census tract. At baseline, JHS participants had mean age 55.4 years, and 63.8% were female; mean 1-year and 3-year PM2.5 concentrations were 12.2 and 12.4 µg/m3, and mean 1-year and 3-year O3 concentrations were 40.2 and 40.7 ppb, respectively. Approximately 6.5% of participants had reduced eGFR (<?60 mL/min/1.73m2) and 12.7% had elevated UACR (>?30 mg/g), both indicating impaired renal function. Annual and 3-year O3 concentrations were inversely associated with eGFR and positively associated with serum creatinine; annual and 3-year PM2.5 concentrations were inversely associated with UACR. We observed impaired renal function associated with increased O3 but not PM2.5 exposure among African Americans.
Project description:Although exposure to ambient air pollutants increases cardiovascular disease risk in adults little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure. Genetic variation and epigenetic alterations are two mechanisms that may influence the effects of early-life exposures on cardiovascular phenotypes.We investigated whether genetic and epigenetic variation modify associations between prenatal air pollution on markers of cardiovascular risk in childhood.We used linear regression analysis to investigate the associations between prenatal pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE1) and AluYb8 DNA methylation levels measured in newborn blood spot tests, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and blood pressure (BP) in 459 participants as part of the Children's Health Study. Interaction terms were also included to test for effect modification of these associations by genetic variation in methylation reprogramming genes.Prenatal exposure to NO2 in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher systolic BP in 11-year-old children. Prenatal exposure to multiple air pollutants in the first trimester was associated with lower DNA methylation in LINE1, whereas later exposure to O3 was associated with higher LINE1 methylation levels in newborn blood spots. The magnitude of associations with prenatal air pollution varied according to genotype for 11 SNPs within DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B), Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), and Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) genes. Although first-trimester O3 exposure was not associated with CIMT and systolic BP overall, associations within strata of DNMT1 or DNMT3B were observed, and the magnitude and the direction of these associations depended on DNMT1 genotypes.Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in downstream cardiovascular consequences of prenatal air pollution exposure. Citation: Breton CV, Yao J, Millstein J, Gao L, Siegmund KD, Mack W, Whitfield-Maxwell L, Lurmann F, Hodis H, Avol E, Gilliland FD. 2016. Prenatal air pollution exposures, DNA methyl transferase genotypes, and associations with newborn LINE1 and Alu methylation and childhood blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness in the Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1905-1912;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP181.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambient air pollution and maternal diabetes may affect common biological pathways underlying adverse neurodevelopmental effects. However, joint effects of maternal diabetes and air pollution on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been studied. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated whether prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure interacts with maternal diabetes status to affect ASD risk. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 246,420 singleton children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals in 1999-2009. Children were followed from birth until age 5, during which 2471 ASD cases were diagnosed. Ozone (O3), particulate matter?<?2.5??m (PM2.5) and <10??m in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide measured at regulatory air monitoring stations were interpolated to estimate exposures during preconception and each pregnancy trimester, and first year of life at each child's birth address. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ASD were estimated adjusting for birth year, KPSC service areas, and relevant maternal and child characteristics. For each exposure window, interactions were tested between pollutants and a 4-category maternal diabetes variable (none, GDM???24 and <24?weeks' gestation, and pre-existing type 2 diabetes). For an exposure window with statistically significant global interaction between pollutant and diabetes (p?<?0.05), pollutant-associated HRs were estimated separately for each category of maternal diabetes. RESULTS:There were associations of ASD with preconception, first and third trimesters, and first year of life PM2.5, but not with other pollutants. There were, however, interactions of maternal diabetes with first trimester and first year of life O3. Increased ASD risk was associated with first trimester O3 among mothers with GDM?<?24?weeks' gestation [adjusted HR 1.50 per 15.7?ppb O3 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09)]. No O3 associations with ASD were observed in other categories of maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:GDM onset early in pregnancy may increase children's susceptibility to prenatal O3-associated ASD risk. These novel findings merit further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution-induced changes in cardiac electrophysiological properties could be a pathway linking air pollution and cardiovascular events. The evidence of air pollution effects on the cardiac conduction system is incomplete yet. We investigated short-term effects of particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on cardiac electrical impulse propagation and repolarization as recorded in surface electrocardiograms (ECG). METHODS:We analyzed repeated 12-lead ECG measurements performed on 5,332 patients between 2001 and 2012. The participants came from the Duke CATHGEN Study who underwent cardiac catheterization and resided in North Carolina, United States (NC, U.S.). Daily concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 at each participant's home address were predicted with a hybrid air quality exposure model. We used generalized additive mixed models to investigate the associations of PM2.5 and O3 with the PR interval, QRS interval, heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), and heart rate (HR). The temporal lag structures of the associations were examined using distributed-lag models. RESULTS:Elevated PM2.5 and O3 were associated with four-day lagged lengthening of the PR and QRS intervals, and with one-day lagged increases in HR. We observed immediate effects on the lengthening of the QTc interval for both PM2.5 and O3, as well as delayed effects for PM2.5 (lagged by 3 - 4 days). The associations of PM2.5 and O3 with the PR interval and the association of O3 with the QRS interval persisted until up to seven days after exposure. CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, short-term exposure to air pollution was associated with increased HR and delays in atrioventricular conduction, ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
Project description:High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS).We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination of O3 plus PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were collected.Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive and insulin resistant, and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. Decreases in HR and BP, which were found in all exposure groups, were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared with those fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3 plus PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after 2 days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, whereas ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3 plus PM2.5 coexposures.Cardiovascular depression in O3- and PM2.5-exposed rats was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants.