Characteristics of the First Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase with Phytase Activity from a Soil Metagenome.
ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) fulfil multiple key regulatory functions. Within the group of PTPs, the atypical lipid phosphatases (ALPs) are known for their role as virulence factors associated with human pathogens. Another group of PTPs, which is capable of using inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP?) as substrate, are known as phytases. Phytases play major roles in the environmental phosphorus cycle, biotechnology, and pathogenesis. So far, all functionally characterized PTPs, including ALPs and PTP-phytases, have been derived exclusively from isolated microorganisms. In this study, screening of a soil-derived metagenomic library resulted in identification of a gene (pho16B), encoding a PTP, which shares structural characteristics with the ALPs. In addition, the characterization of the gene product (Pho16B) revealed the capability of the protein to use InsP? as substrate, and the potential of soil as a source of phytases with so far unknown characteristics. Thus, Pho16B represents the first functional environmentally derived PTP-phytase. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 38 kDa. The enzyme is promiscuous, showing highest activity and affinity toward naphthyl phosphate (Km 0.966 mM). Pho16B contains the HCXXGKDR[TA]G submotif of PTP-ALPs, and it is structurally related to PtpB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study demonstrates the presence and functionality of an environmental gene codifying a PTP-phytase homologous to enzymes closely associated to bacterial pathogenicity.
Project description:Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases establish the crucial balance of tyrosine phosphorylation in cellular signaling, but creating specific inhibitors of protein Tyr phosphatases (PTPs) remains a challenge. Here, we report the development of a potent, selective inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PtpB, a bacterial PTP that is secreted into host cells where it disrupts unidentified signaling pathways. The inhibitor, (oxalylamino-methylene)-thiophene sulfonamide (OMTS), showed an IC(50) of 440 +/- 50 nM and >60-fold specificity for PtpB over six human PTPs. The 2 A resolution crystal structure of PtpB in complex with OMTS revealed a large rearrangement of the enzyme, with some residues shifting >27 A relative to the PtpB:PO(4) complex. Extensive contacts with the catalytic loop provide a potential basis for inhibitor selectivity. Two OMTS molecules bound adjacent to each other, raising the possibility of a second substrate phosphotyrosine binding site in PtpB. The PtpB:OMTS structure provides an unanticipated framework to guide inhibitor improvement.
Project description:Phosphosignaling through pSer/pThr/pTyr is emerging as a common signaling mechanism in prokaryotes. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces two low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), PtpA and PtpB, with unknown functions. To provide the structural context for understanding PtpA function and substrate recognition, establish PtpA's structural relations within the PTP family, and provide a framework for the design of specific inhibitors, we solved the crystal structure of PtpA at 1 Å resolution. While PtpA adopts the common, conserved PTP fold and shows close overall similarity to eukaryotic PTPs, several features in the active site and surface organization are unique and can be explored to design selective inhibitors. A peptide bound in the active site mimics a phosphotyrosine substrate, affords insight into substrate recognition, and provides a testable substrate prediction. Genetic deletion of ptpA or ptpB does not affect in vitro growth or cell wall integrity, raising the possibility that PtpA and PtpB have specialized functions during infection.
Project description:Phosphatases, including phytases, play a major role in cell metabolism, phosphorus cycle, biotechnology, and pathogenic processes. Nevertheless, their discovery by functional metagenomics is challenging. Here, soil metagenomic libraries were successfully screened for genes encoding phosphatase activity. In this context, we report the largest number and diversity of phosphatase genes derived from functional metagenome analysis. Two of the detected gene products carry domains which have never been associated with phosphatase activity before. One of these domains, the SNARE-associated domain DedA, harbors a so-far-overlooked motif present in numerous bacterial SNARE-associated proteins. Our analysis revealed a previously unreported phytase activity of the alkaline phosphatase and sulfatase superfamily (cl23718) and of purple acid phosphatases from nonvegetal origin. This suggests that the classical concept comprising four classes of phytases should be modified and indicates high performance of our screening method for retrieving novel types of phosphatases/phytases hidden in metagenomes of complex environments.IMPORTANCE Phosphorus (P) is a key element involved in numerous cellular processes and essential to meet global food demand. Phosphatases play a major role in cell metabolism and contribute to control the release of P from phosphorylated organic compounds, including phytate. Apart from the relationship with pathogenesis and the enormous economic relevance, phosphatases/phytases are also important for reduction of phosphorus pollution. Almost all known functional phosphatases/phytases are derived from cultured individual microorganisms. We demonstrate here for the first time the potential of functional metagenomics to exploit the phosphatase/phytase pools hidden in environmental soil samples. The recovered diversity of phosphatases/phytases comprises new types and proteins exhibiting largely unknown characteristics, demonstrating the potential of the screening method for retrieving novel target enzymes. The insights gained into the unknown diversity of genes involved in the P cycle highlight the power of function-based metagenomic screening strategies to study Earth's phosphatase pools.
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis strain VTT E-68013 was chosen for purification and characterization of its excreted phytase. Purified enzyme had maximal phytase activity at pH 7 and 55 degrees C. Isolated enzyme required calcium for its activity and/or stability and was readily inhibited by EDTA. The enzyme proved to be highly specific since, of the substrates tested, only phytate, ADP, and ATP were hydrolyzed (100, 75, and 50% of the relative activity, respectively). The phytase gene (phyC) was cloned from the B. subtilis VTT E-68013 genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence (383 residues) showed no homology to the sequences of other phytases nor to those of any known phosphatases. PhyC did not have the conserved RHGXRXP sequence found in the active site of known phytases, and therefore PhyC appears not to be a member of the phytase subfamily of histidine acid phosphatases but a novel enzyme having phytase activity. Due to its pH profile and optimum, it could be an interesting candidate for feed applications.
Project description:The potential roles of protein tyrosine kinases (TKs) and of phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in pancreatic islet function are not known. In this study, we investigated whether vanadate, a potent PTP inhibitor, affects phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism by a TK-dependent pathway in isolated mouse islets. To avoid the confounding effects of changes in Ca2+ influx, all experiments were performed in the absence of Ca2+. In the presence of 15mM glucose, vanadate, acetylcholine (ACh) or [Arg]vasopressin (AVP) strongly stimulated InsP production. Vanadate also increased PtdInsP levels in membranes. The TK inhibitor genistein (not its inactive analogues genistin and daidzein) significantly reduced vanadate effects, but was without effect in the absence of stimulation or in the presence of ACh or AVP. Islet proteins resolved by SDS/PAGE were analysed by immunobloting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Under control conditions, several phosphotyrosyl-proteins (PYPs) were present. Vanadate increased phosphotyrosine residues on several PYPs, notably two proteins of 145 and 85 kDa. This effect was prevented by genistein, p145 and p85 could correspond to phospholipate Cgamma(PLCgamma) and the regulatory subunit of PtdIns-3-kinase (PtdIns-3K) respectively. Both proteins are expressed in islets, as revealed by immunoblots with specific antibodies. Tungstate, another PTP inhibitor, reproduced vanadate effects, but inhibition of PtdIns-3K by wortmannin failed to affect vanadate-increased PtdInsP levels. Incubation of the islets in the presence of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum instead of BSA increased InsP production and this effect was prevented by genistein. These results suggest that inhibition of PTP increases InsP production in mouse islets by a TK-dependent pathway. They also provide evidence for a potential role of TK and PTP in pancreatic B-cell function.
Project description:Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases) and 168phyA (BPP family) under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2. The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate that future crop biotechnologies involving such enzymes will require a very careful evaluation of phytase source and activity. Overall, our data suggest feasibility of using bacterial phytases to improve plant growth in conditions of phosphorus deficiency and demonstrate that inducible expression of recombinant enzymes should be investigated further as a viable approach to plant biotechnology.
Project description:Protein phosphatases, in coordination with protein kinases, play crucial roles in regulation of signaling pathways. To identify protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and serine-threonine (ser-thr) phosphatases in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, 179 annotated sequences were studied (122 PTPs, 57 ser-thr phosphatases). Sequence analysis identified 91 phosphatases (33 conventional PTPs, 31 dual specificity phosphatases, 1 Class III Cysteine-based PTP, 1 Asp-based PTP, and 25 ser-thr phosphatases). Using catalytic sites, levels of conservation and constraint in amino acid sequence were examined. Nine of 25 receptor PTPs (RPTPs) corresponded to human, nematode, or fly homologues. Domain structure revealed that sea urchin-specific RPTPs including two, PTPRLec and PTPRscav, may act in immune defense. Embryonic transcription of each phosphatase was recorded from a high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarray experiment. Most RPTPs are expressed at very low levels, whereas nonreceptor PTPs (NRPTPs) are generally expressed at moderate levels. High expression was detected in MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) and numerous ser-thr phosphatases. For several expressed NRPTPs, MKPs, and ser-thr phosphatases, morpholino antisense-mediated knockdowns were performed and phenotypes obtained. Finally, to assess roles of annotated phosphatases in endomesoderm formation, a literature review of phosphatase functions in model organisms was superimposed on sea urchin developmental pathways to predict areas of functional activity.
Project description:Inositol-6-phosphate, also known as phytic acid, is a phosphorus source that plays several important roles in the phosphorus cycle and in cell metabolism. The known characterized enzymes responsible for its degradation, the phytases, are mostly derived from cultured individual microorganisms. The catalytic signatures of phytases are restricted to the molecular domains of four protein superfamilies: histidine phosphatases, protein tyrosine phosphatases, the purple acid phosphatases and the ?-propeller phosphatases. During function-based screening of previously generated forest soil metagenomic libraries for Escherichia coli clones conferring phytase activity, two positive clones harboring the plasmids pLP05 and pLP12 were detected. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed the absence of classic phosphatase/phytase signatures of the proteins deduced from the putative genes, but the genes mblp01 (pLP05) and mblp02 (pLP12) encoded putative metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs). Several MBL representatives are promiscuous proteins with phosphoesterase activity, but phytase activity was previously not reported. Both mblp01 and mblp02 were subcloned, expressed, and analyzed. Mblp01 and Mblp02 are members of the lactamase B2 family. Protein modeling showed that the closest structural homologue of both proteins was ZipD of E. coli Mblp01 and Mblp02 showed activity toward the majority of the tested phosphorylated substrates, including phytate. The maximal enzyme activities were recorded for Mblp01 at 50°C under acidic conditions and for Mblp02 at 35°C and a neutral pH. In the presence of Cu2+ or SDS, the activities of Mblp01 and Mblp02 were strongly inhibited. Analyses of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of several ?-lactam antibiotics revealed that recombinant E. coli cells carrying mblp01 or mblp02 showed reduced sensitivity toward ?-lactam antibiotics.IMPORTANCE Phytic acid is a phosphorus storage molecule in many plant tissues, a source of phosphorus alternative to phosphate rocks, but it can also be a problematic antinutrient. In comparison to other phosphorus sources, phytic acid exhibits reduced bioavailability. Additionally, it influences functions of secondary messengers and acts as antioxidant in tumor growth prevention. The enzymatic capability to process phytate has been reported for a limited number of protein families. This might be due to the almost exclusive use of proteins derived from individual microorganisms to analyze phytase activity. With such a restriction, the study of the complexity and diversity of the phytases remains incomplete. By using metagenome-derived samples, this study demonstrates the existence of phytase activity in one of the most promiscuous superfamilies, the metallo-?-lactamases. Our results increase the general knowledge on phytase diversity in environmental samples and could provide new avenues for the study and engineering of new biocatalysts.
Project description:Phytases hydrolyse phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the principal form of phosphate stored in plant seeds to produce phosphate and lower phosphorylated myo-inositols. They are used extensively in the feed industry, and have been characterised biochemically and structurally with a number of structures in the PDB. They are divided into four distinct families: histidine acid phosphatases (HAP), ?-propeller phytases, cysteine phosphatases and purple acid phosphatases and also split into three enzyme classes, the 3-, 5- and 6-phytases, depending on the position of the first phosphate in the inositol ring to be removed. We report identification, cloning, purification and 3D structures of 6-phytases from two bacteria, Hafnia alvei and Yersinia kristensenii, together with their pH optima, thermal stability, and degradation profiles for phytate. An important result is the structure of the H. alvei enzyme in complex with the substrate analogue myo-inositol hexakissulphate. In contrast to the only previous structure of a ligand-bound 6-phytase, where the 3-phosphate was unexpectedly in the catalytic site, in the H. alvei complex the expected scissile 6-phosphate (sulphate in the inhibitor) is placed in the catalytic site.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a family of enzymes essential for numerous cellular processes, and several PTPs have been validated as therapeutic targets for human diseases. Historically, the development of drugs targeting PTPs has been highly challenging, leading to stigmatization of these enzymes as undruggable targets. Despite these difficulties, efforts to drug PTPs have persisted, and recent years have seen an influx of new probes providing opportunities for biological examination of old and new PTP targets. Here we discuss progress towards drugging PTPs with special emphasis on the development of selective probes with biological activity. We describe the development of new small-molecule orthosteric, allosteric, and oligomerization-inhibiting PTP inhibitors and discuss new studies targeting the receptor PTP (RPTP) subfamily with biologics.