Biomolecular Composition and Revenue Explained by Interactions between Extrinsic Factors and Endogenous Rhythms of Saccharina latissima.
ABSTRACT: This review provides a systematic overview of the spatial and temporal variations in the content of biomolecular constituents of Saccharina latissima on the basis of 34 currently-available scientific studies containing primary measurements. We demonstrate the potential revenue of seaweed production and biorefinery systems by compiling a product portfolio of high-value extract products. An investigation into the endogenous rhythms and extrinsic factors that impact the biomolecular composition of S. latissima is presented, and key performance factors for optimizing seaweed production are identified. Besides the provisioning ecosystem service, we highlight the contribution of green-engineered seaweed production systems to the mitigation of the ongoing and historical anthropogenic disturbances of the climate balance and nutrient flows. We conclude that there are risks of mismanagement, and we stress the importance and necessity of creating an adaptive ecosystem-based management framework within a triple-helix partnership for balancing the utilization of ecosystem services and long-term resilience of aquatic environment.
Project description:Sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) is an economically important species, and natural populations provide diverse and productive habitats as well as important ecosystem services. For seaweed aquaculture to be successful in newly emerging industry in Europe and other Western countries, it will have to develop sustainable production management strategies. A key feature in this process is the capacity to conserve genetic diversity for breeding programs aimed at developing seed stock for onward cultivation, as well as in the management of wild populations, as potentially interesting genetic resources are predicted to disappear due to climate change. In this study, the cryopreservation of male and female gametophytes (haploid life stage) of S. latissima by different combinations of two-step cooling methods and cryoprotectants was explored. We report here that cryopreservation constitutes an attractive option for the long-term preservation of S. latissima gametophytes, with viable cells in all treatment combinations. The highest viabilities for both male and female gametophytes were found using controlled-rate cooling methods combined with dimethyl sulfoxide 10% (v/v). Morphological normal sporophytes were observed to develop from cryopreserved vegetative gametophytic cells, independent of treatment. This indicates that cryopreservation is a useful preservation method for male and female S. latissima gametophytes.
Project description:The lack of recovery in Norwegian populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G. W. Saunders after a large-scale disturbance that occurred sometime between the late 1990s and early 2000s has raised considerable concerns. Kelp forests are areas of high production that serve as habitats for numerous species, and their continued absence may represent the loss of an entire ecosystem. Some S. latissima populations remain as scattered patches within the affected areas, but today, most of the areas are completely devoid of kelp. The question is if natural recolonization by kelp and the reestablishment of the associated ecosystem is possible. Previous studies indicate that a high degree of reproductive synchrony in macrophytes has a positive effect on their potential for dispersal and on the connectivity between populations, but little is known about the patterns of recruitment in Norwegian S. latissima. More is, however, known about the development of fertile tissue (sori) on adult individuals, which is easily observed. The present study investigated the degree of coupling between the appearance of sori and the recruitment on clean artificial substrate beneath adult specimens. The pattern of recruitment was linked to the retreat of visible sori (i.e. spore release) and a seasonal component unrelated to the fertility of the adults. The formation and the retreat of visible sori are processes that seem synchronized along the south coast of Norway, and the link between sori development and recruitment may therefore suggest that the potential for S. latissima dispersal is relatively large. These results support the notion that the production and dispersal of viable spores is unlikely to be the bottleneck preventing recolonization in the south of Norway, but studies over larger temporal and spatial scales are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Project description:Complete mitogenome of <i>Saccharina</i> variety 'Ailunwan' (<i>Saccharina japonica</i>?×<i>?latissima</i>) was obtained in this work. Circular-mapping mitogenome was 37,657?bp with overall A?+?T content of 64.71%, encoding 3 rRNAs (23S, 16S and 5S), 25 tRNAs, 35 protein-coding genes and 3 open reading frames (ORFs). Gene content and genome organization of 'Ailunwan' mitogenome were identical to those <i>Saccharina</i> species. From the total alignment of 'Ailunwan' and another reported variety 'Rongfu' (<i>S. japonica</i>?×<i>?latissima</i>), 33 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and one intergenic region of 19 nucleotides insertion/deletion was found which located between <i>rps</i>3 and <i>rps</i>9. The phylogenetic analysis based on mitogenomes showed that 'Ailunwan' had a closer evolutionary relationship with <i>Saccharina</i> than <i>Laminaria</i> and validated the genus <i>Saccharina</i> and <i>Laminaria</i> were polyphyletic.
Project description:<i>Saccharina</i> is one of the most important economic seaweed. We presented the complete mitogenome of <i>Saccharina</i> variety 'Pingbancai' (<i>Saccharina japonica</i>?×<i>?latissima</i>) in this work. Circular-mapping mitogenome was 37,658?bp in length with overall A?+?T content of 64.70%, encoding 3 rRNAs (23S, 16S and 5S), 25 tRNAs, 38 genes (including 3 open reading frames, ORFs). Gene arrangement and component of 'Pingbancai' mitogenome were identical to those <i>Saccharina</i> species and cultivation varieties, which show highly conservative evolution in mitochondrial genomes within <i>Saccharina</i>. The phylogenetic analysis based on mitogenomes showed that 'Pingbancai' had a closer evolutionary relationship with <i>Saccharina japonica</i> than <i>Saccharina latissima</i> and the supported mitogenome was maternally inherited.
Project description:Brown macroalgae Saccharina latissima (30-40 individuals) and Alaria esculenta (15-20 individuals) were collected from natural populations in winter in Iceland. The algal thalli were sectioned into different parts (e.g. holdfast, stipe, old frond, young frond and sori-containing frond sections) that differed in age and biological function. The work elucidated that arsenic (As) was not uniformly distributed within the two brown macroalgal species, with lower levels of total As were found in the stipe/midrib compared to other thallus parts. The arsenosugars mirrored the total arsenic in the seaweed mainly due to AsSugSO<sub>3</sub> being the most abundant As species. However, arsenic speciation using parallel HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS elucidated that the arsenic-containing lipids (AsL) had a different distribution where the arsenosugarphospholipids (AsPL) differed by approximately a factor of 4 between the sections containing the lowest and highest concentrations of AsPLs. When placing the sections in order of metabolic activity and an estimate of tissue age, there appeared to be a relationship between the activity and AsPLs, with lower levels of AsPLs in oldest parts. This is the first time such a relationship has been shown for AsLs. Hence, by applying sophisticated analytical techniques, it was possible to gain a deeper understanding of arsenolipids in seaweed.
Project description:We performed a laboratory experiment with vegetative gametophytes of the kelp Saccharina latissima and exposed the gametophytes to three temperatures (4°C, 12°C and 20°C) by sex (female, male) for 14 days.
Project description:The data is a result of a large laboratory experiment targeting interactive effects of salinity and temperature on the transcriptomic level in algae from two populations of an ecologically relevant kelp species (Laminariales), Saccharina latissima. Research interest in S. latissima has recently been increasing given its importance as ecosystem engineer along temperate rocky shores in the Atlantic Ocean, and its growing potential in industrial applications such as aquaculture, pharmaceutics, food and feed. Young sporophytes of S. latissima were raised from stock cultures of clonal male and female gametophytes at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Cultures originated from sporophyte collected at Kongsfjorden (79°N, 11°E; Spitsbergen, Norway) and at Roscoff (48° 43? 39? N, 3° 59? 13.2? W; Brittany, France). Sporophytes of both populations were grown aerated in glass beakers at 8°C and under a photon fluence rate of 20 µmol photons m–2 s–1 of photosynthetically active radiation with a 18 h light: 6 h dark photoperiod and were cultivated in sterile seawater enriched with Provasoli (Starr & Zeikus 1993) with an absolute salinity (SA) of ~30 during three months. At the start of the experiment, sporophytes were either kept at 8°C (or transferred to 0°C and 15°C) in temperature controlled rooms. After one week, per each temperature, sporophytes were divided into a low salinity treatment of SA 20 or kept at the control salinity (SA 30).
Project description:Glacial vicariance is regarded as one of the most prevalent drivers of phylogeographic structure and speciation among high-latitude organisms, but direct links between ice advances and range fragmentation have been more difficult to establish in marine than in terrestrial systems. Here we investigate the evolution of largely disjunct (and potentially reproductively isolated) phylogeographic lineages within the amphi-boreal kelp Saccharina latissima s. l. Using molecular data (COI, microsatellites) we confirm that S. latissima comprises also the NE Pacific S. cichorioides complex and is composed of divergent lineages with limited range overlap and genetic admixture. Only a few genetic hybrids were detected throughout a Canadian Arctic/NW Greenland contact zone. The degree of genetic differentiation and sympatric isolation of phylogroups suggest that S. latissima s. l. represents a complex of incipient species. Phylogroup distributions compared with paleo-environmental reconstructions of the cryosphere further suggest that diversification within S. latissima results from chronic glacial isolation in disjunct persistence areas intercalated with ephemeral interglacial poleward expansions and admixture at high-latitude (Arctic) contact zones. This study thus supports a role for glaciations not just in redistributing pre-existing marine lineages but also as a speciation pump across multi-glacial cycles for marine organisms otherwise exhibiting cosmopolite amphi-boreal distributions.