Targeted Co-Delivery of siRNA and Methotrexate for Tumor Therapy via Mixed Micelles.
ABSTRACT: A combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA is emerging as a new modality for cancer therapy. A safe and effective carrier platform is needed for combination drug delivery. Here, a functionalized mixed micelle-based delivery system was developed for targeted co-delivery of methotrexate (MTX) and survivin siRNA. Linolenic acid (LA) was separately conjugated to branched polyethlenimine (b-PEI) and methoxy-polyethyleneglycol (mPEG). MTX was then conjugated to LA-modified b-PEI (MTX-bPEI-LA) to form a functionalized polymer-drug conjugate. Functionalized mixed micelles (M-MTX) were obtained by the self-assembly of MTX-bPEI-LA and LA-modified mPEG (mPEG-LA). M-MTX had a narrow particle size distribution and could successfully condense siRNA at an N/P ratio of 16/1. M-MTX/siRNA was selectively taken up by HeLa cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR) and facilitated the release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm. In vitro, M-MTX/siRNA produced a synergy between MTX and survivin siRNA and markedly suppressed survivin protein expression. In tumor-bearing mice, M-MTX/Cy5-siRNA showed an elevated tumor uptake. In addition, M-MTX/siRNA inhibited tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and a western blot analysis showed a significant target gene downregulation. In conclusion, M-MTX/siRNA was highly effective as a delivery system and may serve as a model for the targeted co-delivery of therapeutic agents.
Project description:Purpose: Methotrexate (MTX) is a first-line drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)therapy. However, MTX monotherapy often results in irreversible joint damage due to its slow onset of action and long duration. microRNA-124 (miR-124) has shown direct bone protection activity against RA. A co-delivery system for MTX and microRNA combination may provide therapeutic synergy. Methods: Methotrexate-conjugated polymer hybrid micelles (M-PHMs) were prepared by self-assembly of two functional amphiphilic polymers (MTX-PEI-LA and mPEG-LA) at an optimized weight ratio. Incorporation of microRNA was achieved through electrostatic interactions between microRNA and cationic polymer MTX-PEI-LA. Cellular uptake, endosome escape, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy of M-PHMs/miR-124 complexes were investigated and evaluated in RAW264.7 cells and a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Results: M-PHMs/miR-124 complexes exhibited folate receptor-mediated uptake in activated RAW264.7 cells. miR-124 was able to escape from the endosome and down-regulate nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic1 (NFATc1). M-PHMs/miR-124 complexes accumulated in inflamed joints of AIA rats and showed superior therapeutic efficacy through both anti-inflammatory effect and direct bone protective effect. Combination of miR-124 and MTX in these micelles induced disease remission. Conclusions: M-PHMs/miR-124 was highly effective against RA through therapeutic synergy. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate its therapeutic potential and delineate its mechanisms of action.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) has significant therapeutic promise for the genetic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Targeted vectors are able to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) into HCC cells with high transfection efficiency and stability. The tripeptide arginine glycine aspartic acid (RGD)-modified non-viral vector, polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine functionalized with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (RGD-PEG-g-PEI-SPION), was constructed as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible nanocarrier for the delivery of Survivin siRNA targeting the human HCC cell line Bel-7402. The biophysical characterization of the RGD-PEG-g-PEI-SPION was performed. The RGD-modified complexes exhibited a higher transfection efficiency in transferring Survivin siRNA into Bel-7402 cells compared with a non-targeted delivery system, which resulted in more significant gene suppression at both the Survivin mRNA and protein expression levels. Then, the level of caspase-3 activation was significantly elevated, and a remarkable level of tumor cell apoptosis was induced. As a result, the tumor growth in the nude mice Bel-7402 hepatoma model was significantly inhibited. The targeting ability of the RGD-PEG-g-PEI-SPION was successfully imaged by MRI scans performed in vitro and in vivo. Our results strongly indicated that the RGD-PEG-g-PEI-SPION can potentially be used as a targeted non-viral vector for altering gene expression in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and for detecting the tumor in vivo as an effective MRI probe.
Project description:PURPOSE: To synthesize a ternary cationic copolymer called CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) and characterize its features as a non-viral siRNA carrier; in turn, to investigate the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IkappaB kinase subunit beta (IKKbeta) on the proliferation of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) in vitro. METHODS: First, a novel cationic copolymer composed of low molecular weight, linear poly(ethyleneimine) [PEI] blocked with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and grafted onto a chitosan (CS) molecule was synthesized. CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) was then compacted with 21nt siRNA at various copolymer/siRNA charge (N/P) ratios, and the resulting complexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel electrophoresis, and serum incubation. Cell Titer 96 AQ(ueous) One Solution cell proliferation assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of this cationic copolymer. Second, siRNAs targeting IKKbeta (IKKBeta-siRNAs) were delivered into the HTFs using CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) as the vehicle. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) subsequently assessed the mRNA level of IKKbeta, and western blot assay was used to determine protein expression. After IKKB-siRNA transfection, Cell Titer 96 AQ(ueous) One Solution cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of HTFs. RESULTS: The diameter of the CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG)/siRNA complexes tended to decrease whereas their zeta potential tended to increase as the N/P ratio increased. The CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) copolymer showed good siRNA binding ability and high siRNA protection capacity. Furthermore, the copolymer presented remarkable transfection efficiency and showed much less cytotoxicity than 25 kDa PEI. IKKB-siRNAs were successfully delivered into HTFs using CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) as a vector. As a result, the expression of IKKbeta was downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the HTFs was subsequently inhibited. Most impressively, the proliferation of HTFs was also effectively suppressed through the blocking of the NF-kappaB pathway. CONCLUSIONS: All the results demonstrate that CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) is a promising candidate for siRNA delivery, featuring excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and transfection efficiency. The RNA interference (RNAi) strategy using cationic copolymers as siRNA carriers will be a safe and efficient anti-scarring method following glaucoma filtration surgery.
Project description:The use of small interference RNA (siRNA) to target oncogenes is a promising treatment approach for cancer. However, siRNA cancer therapies are hindered by poor delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells and therefore is a potential target for the selective delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Here, we used the TfR binding peptide HAIYPRH (HAI peptide) conjugated to cationic polymer branched polyethylenimine (bPEI), optimized the coupling strategy, and the TfR selective delivery of siRNA was evaluated in cells with high (H1299) and low TfR expression (A549 and H460). The HAI-bPEI conjugate exhibited chemico-physical properties in terms of size, zeta-potential, and siRNA condensation efficiency similar to unmodified bPEI. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results revealed that HAI-bPEI selectively delivered siRNA to H1299 cells compared with A549 or H460 cells. Moreover, HAI-bPEI achieved more efficient glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene knockdown in H1299 cells compared with bPEI alone. However, despite optimization of the targeting peptide and coupling strategy, HAI-bPEI can only silence reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) at the protein level when chloroquine is present, indicating that further optimization of the conjugate is required. In conclusion, the HAI peptide may be useful to target TfR overexpressing tumors in targeted gene and siRNA delivery approaches.
Project description:The co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and small interfering RNA (siRNA) within one cargo can enhance the anticancer outcomes through its synergistic therapeutic effects.We prepared smart polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with pH-responsive and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-detachable properties to systemically co-deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and siRNA against survivin gene for lung cancer therapy. The cationic polyethyleneimine-block-polylactic acid (PEI-PLA) was first synthesized and characterized, with good biocompatibility. PTX was encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of the PEI-PLA polymers by dialysis, and then the survivin siRNA was loaded onto the PTX-loaded NPs (PEI-PLA/PTX) through electrostatic interaction between siRNA and PEI block. Finally, the negatively charged poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-aspartic acid sodium salt) (PEG-PAsp) was coated onto the surface of NPs by electrostatic interaction to form final smart polymeric NPs with mean particle size of 82.4 nm and zeta potential of 4.1 mV. After uptake of NPs by tumor cells, the PEG-PAsp segments became electrically neutral owing to the lower endosome pH and consequently detached from the smart NPs. This process allowed endosomal escape of the NPs through the proton-sponge effect of the exposed PEI moiety.The resulting NPs achieved drug loading of 6.04 wt% and exhibited good dispersibility within 24 h in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). At pH 5.5, the NPs presented better drug release and cellular uptake than at pH 7.4. The NPs with survivin siRNA effectively knocked down the expression of survivin mRNA and protein owing to enhanced cell uptake of NPs. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that the NPs presented low systemic toxicity and improved antiproliferation effect of PTX on A549 cells. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that accumulated NPs in the tumor site were capable of inhibiting the tumor growth and extending the survival rate of the mice by silencing the survivin gene and delivering PTX into tumor cells simultaneously.These results indicate that the prepared nano-vectors could be a promising co-delivery system for novel chemo/gene combination therapy.
Project description:The data provided in this article are related to research entitled "Efficiency of graphene oxide nanoparticles as delivery system of SOX2OT siRNA". In this research, the goal is to use PEI-functionalized graphene oxide (PEI-GO) as a carrier for SOX2OTsiRNA delivery. In this article describes how GO coated with PEI and it was tested whether it can be siRNA carrier in NTERA2? Can it absorb siRNA? Whether Go-PEI affects the viability of NTERA2 (NT2: human embryonic carcinoma stem cell), and HeLa cell lines. In this experiment, graphene oxide nanoparticles functionalized with a polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI). GO-PEI formation was verified with DLS, FTIR tests and zeta sizer. siRNA absorption ability of GO-PEI was tested by gel retardation assay in various weight ratios of GOPEI/siRNA (GOPEI weight/siRNA weight) (w/w ratio). The cell lines were treated with different concentrations of GO-PEI nanoparticles for 24 and 48 hours. Also, the NT2 cells were treated with different concentrations of GO-PEI nanoparticles and PEI for 36 hours. Cytotoxicity of GO-PEI were investigated by calculating the percent of cell survival by MTT assay. MTT data analyzed in excel. Researchers, who want to research on different drugs, could transfer the drug to NT2, HeLa and other cancer cells on GO-PEI (concentration 0 up to 100 mg/L).
Project description:Background:One of the most important aspects of drug delivery is extended nanoparticle (NP) residence time in vivo. Herein, we report a series of methotrexate (MTX)-loaded chito-san (CS) NPs coated with differently sized methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) at different mPEG surface densities. Materials and methods:MTX was incorporated into NPs (112.8-171.2 nm in diameter) prepared from the resulting mPEG-g-CS. The NPs had a zeta potential of +7.4-35.0 mV and MTX loading efficiency of 17.1%-18.4%. MTX/mPEG-g-CS NPs showed an initial burst release of MTX followed by a sustained-release profile in PBS at pH 7.4. Results:The in vitro cellular uptake study showed that MTX accumulation in J774A.1 macrophage cells decreased with increasing the mPEG surface density or the mPEG molecular weight. The pharmacokinetic study on Sprague Dawley rats revealed an increase in AUC0-72 h (area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve over a period of 72 hours) with increasing the mPEG surface density or the mPEG molecular weight and a linear correlation between the mPEG surface density and AUC0-72 h. Conclusion:The biodistribution study on Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice revealed that MTX/mPEG-g-CS NPs significantly enhanced blood circulation time in the body and decreased accumulation in liver, spleen, and lung. These results suggest the potential of the mPEG-g-CS NPs as a promising candidate for drug delivery.
Project description:Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which is highly expressed in gastric cancers, interacts with programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T cells and is involved in T-cell immune resistance. To increase the therapeutic safety and accuracy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, RNA interference through targeted gene delivery was performed in our study. We developed folic acid (FA)- and disulfide (SS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI) complexed with superparamagnetic iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a siRNA-delivery system for PD-L1 knockdown. The characterization, binding ability, cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and cellular internalization of the polyplex were determined. At nitrogen:phosphate (N:P) ratios of 10 or above, the FA-PEG-SS-PEI-SPIONs bound to PD-L1 siRNA to form a polyplex with a diameter of approximately 120 nm. Cell-viability assays showed that the polyplex had minimal cytotoxicity at low N:P ratios. The FA-conjugated polyplex showed higher transfection efficiency and cellular internalization in the folate receptor-overexpressing gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 than a non-FA-conjugated polyplex. Subsequently, we adopted the targeted FA-PEG-SS-PEI-SPION/siRNA polyplexes at an N:P ratio of 10 for function studies. Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the polyplex could also act as a T2-weighted contrast agent for cancer MRI. Furthermore, one of four PD-L1 siRNAs exhibited effective PD-L1 knockdown in PD-L1-overexpressing SGC-7901. To determine the effects of the functionalized polyplex on T-cell function, we established a coculture model of activated T cells and SGC-7901 cells and demonstrated changes in secreted cytokines. Our findings highlight the potential of this class of multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles for effective targeted PD-L1-knockdown therapy and MRI diagnosis in gastric cancers.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly specific gene-silencing mechanism triggered by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Effective intracellular delivery requires the development of potent siRNA carriers. Here, we describe the synthesis and screening of a series of siRNA delivery materials. Short polyethyleneimine (PEI, Mw 600) was selected as a cationic backbone to which lipid tails were conjugated at various levels of saturation. In solution these polymer-lipid hybrids self-assemble to form nanoparticles capable of complexing siRNA. The complexes silence genes specifically and with low cytotoxicity. The efficiency of gene knockdown increased as the number of lipid tails conjugated to the PEI backbone increased. This is explained by reducing the binding affinity between the siRNA strands to the complex, thereby enabling siRNA release after cellular internalization. These results highlight the importance of complexation strength when designing siRNA delivery materials.
Project description:Amylose is a promising nanocarrier for gene delivery in terms of its good biocompatibility and high transfection efficiency. Small interfering RNA against survivin (survivin-siRNA) can cause tumor apoptosis by silencing a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific gene at the messenger RNA level. In this study, we developed a new class of folate-functionalized, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles to deliver survivin-siRNA to HCC cells. The cellular uptake of nanocomplexes, cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and gene suppression mediated by siRNA-complexed nanoparticles were tested. The results demonstrated that folate-functionalized, SPIO-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles can mediate a specific and safe cellular uptake of survivin-siRNA with high transfection efficiency, resulting in a robust survivin gene downregulation in HCC cells. The biocompatible complex of cationic amylose could be used as an efficient, rapid, and safe gene delivery vector. Upon SPIO loading, it holds a great promise as a theranostic carrier for gene therapy of HCC.