Validation study of MARCKSL1 as a prognostic factor in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: Protein expression of Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate like-1 (MARCKSL1) has been identified as a prognostic factor in lymph-node negative (LN-) breast cancer patients. We aim to validate MARCKSL1 protein expression as a prognostic marker for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in a new cohort of LN- breast cancer patients. MARCKSL1 expression was evaluated in 151 operable T1,2N0M0 LN- breast cancer patients by immunohistochemistry. Median follow-up time was 152 months, range 11-189 months. Results were compared with classical prognosticators (age, tumor diameter, grade, estrogen receptor, and proliferation) using single (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox model) survival analysis. Thirteen patients (9%) developed distant metastases. With both single and multiple analysis of all features, MARCKSL1 did not show a significant prognostic value for DMFS (p = 0.498). Of the assessed classical prognosticators, only tumor diameter showed prognostic value (hazard ratio 9.3, 95% confidence interval 2.8-31.0, p <0.001). MARCKSL1 expression could not be confirmed as a prognostic factor in this cohort. Possible reasons include changes in diagnostic and treatment guidelines between the discovery and validation cohorts. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential biological role of this protein in breast cancer.
Project description:We aimed to assess prognostic value of metastatic pelvic lymph node (mPLN) in early-stage cervical cancer treated with radical surgery followed by postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Also, we sought to define a high-risk group using prognosticators for recurrence.A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using the data from 13 Korean institutions from 2000 to 2010. A total of 249 IB-IIA patients with high-risk factors were included. We evaluated distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in relation to clinicopathologic factors including pNstage, number of mPLN, lymph node (LN)ratio (number of positive LN/number of harvested LN), and log odds of mPLNs (log(number of positive LN+0.5/number of negative LN+0.5)).In univariate analysis, histology (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC] vs. others), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of mPLNs (? 3 vs. > 3), LN ratio (? 17% vs. > 17%), and log odds of mPLNs (? ?0.58 vs. > ?0.58) were significant prognosticators for DMFS and DFS. Resection margin involvement only affected DFS. No significant survival difference was observed between pN0 patients and patients with 1-3 mPLNs. Multivariate analysis revealed that mPLN > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC were unfavorable index for both DMFS (p < 0.001, p=0.020, and p=0.031, respectively) and DFS (p < 0.001, p=0.017, and p=0.001, respectively). A scoring system using these three factors predicts risk of recurrence with relatively high concordance index (DMFS, 0.69; DFS, 0.71).mPLN > 3 in early-stage cervical cancer affects DMFS and DFS. A scoring system using mPLNs > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC could stratify risk groups of recurrence in surgically resected early-stage cervix cancer with high-risk factors.
Project description:Lung cancer is the most common cancer in males and females and ~40% of lung cancer cases are adenocarcinomas. Previous studies have demonstrated that myristoylated alanine rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) is upregulated in several types of cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. However, its expression level and role in lung adenocarcinoma remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression level and biological functions of MARCKS like 1 (MARCKSL1), a member of the MARCKS family, in lung adenocarcinoma. The expression level of MARCKSL1 was examined in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. MARCKSL1-specific small interfering RNAs effectively suppressed its expression level and significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Additionally, the role of MARCKSLI in the regulation of metastasis was examined. Silencing MARCKSL1 decreased the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin and snail family transcriptional repressor 2, and decreased the phosphorylation level of AKT. The results obtained in the current study suggested that MARCKSL1 promoted the progression of lung adenocarcinoma by regulating EMT. MARCKSLI may have prognostic value and serve as a novel therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The prognostic importance of lymph node (LN) status and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), is well established, particularly TILs in triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). So far, few studies have interrogated changes in involved and uninvolved LNs and evaluated if their morphological patterns add valuable information for the prediction of disease progression in breast cancer. In a cohort of 309 patients enriched for TNBCs (170/309), we histologically characterised immune and stromal features in primary tumours and associated involved and uninvolved axillary LNs on routine haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Of the 309 patients, 143 had LN-positive disease. Twenty-five histopathological features were assessed, including the degree of TIL presence, quantitative and qualitative assessment of germinal centres (GCs) and sinus histiocytosis. Multivariate and cross-validated proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify optimal covariate sets for prediction of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). The degree of intratumoural and peritumoural immune infiltrate was associated with architectural changes in both uninvolved and involved LNs. By including clinicopathological characteristics as well as tumour and LN histopathological features in L2-regularised proportional hazard models, the prediction of 5-year DMFS was improved by 3-15% over the baseline in all cancers and in TNBCs. In LN-positive cancers, the combination of Salgado's classification, lymphocytic lobulitis, size and number of GCs in the uninvolved LNs and location of GCs in the involved LNs carried significant prognostic information. From these features, a multivariate cross-validation-stable risk signature was constructed, which identified low-risk groups within both LN-positive breast cancers and the LN-positive TNBCs group with a 10-year DMFS probability of 78 and 87%, respectively. This study illustrates that, by incorporating histopathological patterns of involved and uninvolved LNs combined with primary tumour immune and stromal features, the prediction of developing distant metastasis in LN-positive breast cancers can be estimated more accurately.
Project description:Purpose:Quantitative lymph node burden has been demonstrated to be a critical prognosticator in various malignancies, yet it was seldom explored in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to investigate the impact of the number of metastatic lymph node regions (LRN) on prognosis of NPC and to establish a new N classification system based on LRN. Methods and Materials:The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 354 nondisseminated NPC patients before radical treatment were retrospectively evaluated. The regions with positive lymph nodes (LNs) were quantified according to 2013 updated guidelines for neck node levels. Prognostic value of LRN on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was analyzed using multivariable Cox model after adjusting for other nodal characteristics and therapeutic factors. Results:LRN strongly correlated with the size, laterality, level, extracapsular extension (ECE), and necrosis of LNs. Risk of distant metastasis significantly escalated with increased LRN (P<0.001). 5-year DMFS for LRN 0-1, 2-6, and ?7 was 97.0%, 86.7%, and 69.7%, respectively. In multivariable Cox analysis, LRN (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.55-3.88; P<0.001) and maximal LN diameter (MLD) >6cm (HR 4.11; 95% CI 2.23-7.56; P<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of DMFS. Laterality and level showed no prognostic significance when accounting for LRN. A novel N classification scheme was derived by recursive partitioning analysis based on LRN and MLD. Compared with the 7th and 8th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) systems, the new stratification exhibited better accuracy in predicting survivals. Conclusions:LRN is a promising quantitative predictor of survival in NPC, eclipsing other classic LN characteristics in prognostic value. The simplified N classification scheme with LRN and MLD is predictive and practical, thus warranting further validation in future.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term outcome in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) in a high-volume center and to identify the prognostic impact of clinicopathologic factors.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A total of 132 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria were retrieved from the institutional database from January 1995 to September 2009. All patients received adjuvant treatments at a median of 45 days after the surgery. Median follow-up duration was 57 months (range, 6 to 225 months) for all patients and 105 months for survivors (range, 13 to 225 months).<h4>Results</h4>The 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 70.7%, 55.7%, 49.4%, and 48.1%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed poorly differentiated (P/D) tumors and lymph node (LN) metastasis were significantly associated with DMFS and OS. Additionally, preoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was significantly correlated with DFS, LRRFS, and DMFS. Upon multivariate analysis for OS, P/D tumors (p=0.015) and LN metastasis (p=0.003) were significant prognosticators that predicted inferior OS. Grade 3 or higher late gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in only one patient (0.8%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after PD for DCC is an effective and tolerable strategy without significant side effects. During long-term follow-up, we found that prognosis of DCC was mainly influenced by histologic differentiation and LN metastasis. For patients with these risk factors, further research should focus on improving adjuvant strategies as well as other treatment approaches.
Project description:Tumor deposit (TD) was associated with poor survival in colorectal cancer. However, its prognostic and staging value in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT) is controversial. Four hundred and ninety-five LARC patients following neo-CRT and surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression in all lymph node (LN) -negative and LN-positive patients. Next, we used three methods to classify the counts of LNs and TDs (oN, only LN counts; n1N, counts according to the N1c standards; n2N, total counts of LNs and TDs) to evaluate the impact of TD on N staging. TD-positive patients were associated with more aggressive clinicopathological features. In multivariate analyses, TD was an independent poor prognostic factor of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local recurrence-free survival in all patients. In LN-negative patients, TD was an independent poor prognostic factor of OS, DFS and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). In LN-positive patients, TD has poor prognostic value only in patients with one positive LN. Three multivariate analyses according to three N staging methods showed that oN was not an independent prognostic factor, whereas n1N and n2N were independently associated with poor survival in OS, DFS and DMFS. The n2N method seemed to be better than n1N method. TD is an independent poor prognostic factor in LARC patients following neo-CRT, especially in patients with no more than one positive LN. TD probably should be considered as one positive LN when performing N staging.
Project description:The formation of vascular tubes is driven by extensive changes in endothelial cell (EC) shape. Here, we have identified a role of the actin-binding protein, Marcksl1, in modulating the mechanical properties of EC cortex to regulate cell shape and vessel structure during angiogenesis. Increasing and depleting Marcksl1 expression level in vivo results in an increase and decrease, respectively, in EC size and the diameter of microvessels. Furthermore, endothelial overexpression of Marcksl1 induces ectopic blebbing on both apical and basal membranes, during and after lumen formation, that is suppressed by reduced blood flow. High resolution imaging reveals that Marcksl1 promotes the formation of linear actin bundles and decreases actin density at the EC cortex. Our findings demonstrate that a balanced network of linear and branched actin at the EC cortex is essential in conferring cortical integrity to resist the deforming forces of blood flow to regulate vessel structure.
Project description:Cell migration is a fundamental biological function, critical during development and regeneration, whereas deregulated migration underlies neurological birth defects and cancer metastasis. MARCKS-like protein 1 (MARCKSL1) is widely expressed in nervous tissue, where, like Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), it is required for neural tube formation, though the mechanism is unknown. Here we show that MARCKSL1 is directly phosphorylated by JNK on C-terminal residues (S120, T148, and T183). This phosphorylation enables MARCKSL1 to bundle and stabilize F-actin, increase filopodium numbers and dynamics, and retard migration in neurons. Conversely, when MARCKSL1 phosphorylation is inhibited, actin mobility increases and filopodium formation is compromised whereas lamellipodium formation is enhanced, as is cell migration. We find that MARCKSL1 mRNA is upregulated in a broad range of cancer types and that MARCKSL1 protein is strongly induced in primary prostate carcinomas. Gene knockdown in prostate cancer cells or in neurons reveals a critical role for MARCKSL1 in migration that is dependent on the phosphorylation state; phosphomimetic MARCKSL1 (MARCKSL1(S120D,T148D,T183D)) inhibits whereas dephospho-MARCKSL1(S120A,T148A,T183A) induces migration. In summary, these data show that JNK phosphorylation of MARCKSL1 regulates actin homeostasis, filopodium and lamellipodium formation, and neuronal migration under physiological conditions and that, when ectopically expressed in prostate cancer cells, MARCKSL1 again determines cell movement.
Project description:Lymph node (LN) status is the most important prognostic variable used to guide ER positive (+) breast cancer treatment. While a positive nodal status is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis, a subset of these patients respond well to treatment and achieve long-term survival. Several gene signatures have been established as a means of predicting outcome of breast cancer patients, but the development and indication for use of these assays varies. Here we compare the capacity of two approved gene signatures and a third novel signature to predict outcome in distinct LN negative (-) and LN+ populations. We also examine biological differences between tumours associated with LN- and LN+ disease.Gene expression data from publically available data sets was used to compare the ability of Oncotype DX and Prosigna to predict Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS) using an in silico platform. A novel gene signature (Ellen) was developed by including patients with both LN- and LN+ disease and using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) software. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to determine biological pathways associated with patient outcome in both LN- and LN+ tumors.The Oncotype DX gene signature, which only used LN- patients during development, significantly predicted outcome in LN- patients, but not LN+ patients. The Prosigna gene signature, which included both LN- and LN+ patients during development, predicted outcome in both LN- and LN+ patient groups. Ellen was also able to predict outcome in both LN- and LN+ patient groups. GSEA suggested that epigenetic modification may be related to poor outcome in LN- disease, whereas immune response may be related to good outcome in LN+ disease.We demonstrate the importance of incorporating lymph node status during the development of prognostic gene signatures. Ellen may be a useful tool to predict outcome of patients regardless of lymph node status, or for those with unknown lymph node status. Finally we present candidate biological processes, unique to LN- and LN+ disease, that may indicate risk of relapse.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>More accurate prediction of patient outcome based on molecular subtype is required to identify patients who will benefit from specific treatments.<h4>Methods</h4>We selected novel 16 candidate prognostic genes, including 10 proliferation-related genes (p-genes) and 6 immune response-related genes (i-genes), from the gene list identified in our previous study. We then analyzed the association between their expression, measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and clinical outcome in 819 breast cancer patients according to molecular subtype.<h4>Results</h4>The prognostic significance of clinical and gene variables varied according to the molecular subtype. Univariate analysis showed that positive lymph node status was significantly correlated with the increased risk of distant metastasis in all subtypes except the hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive (HR-/HER2+) subtype. Most p-genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with the HR+/HER2- subtype, whereas i-genes correlated with a favorable outcome in patients with HR-/HER2+ breast cancer. In HR-/HER2+ breast cancer, four genes (three i-genes BTN3A2, CD2, and TRBC1 and the p-gene MMP11) were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). A new prognostic model for HR-/HER2+ breast cancer based on the expression of MMP11 and CD2 was developed and the DMFS for patients in the high-risk group according to our model was significantly lower than that for those in the low-risk group. Multivariate analyses revealed that our risk score is an independent prognostic factor for DMFS. Moreover, C-index showed that our risk score has a superior prognostic performance to traditional clinicopathological factors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our new prognostic model for HR-/HER2+ breast cancer provides more accurate information on the risk of distant metastasis than traditional clinical prognostic factors and may be used to identify patients with a good prognosis in this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.