A novel optimization approach incorporating non-stomatal limitations predicts stomatal behaviour in species from six plant functional types.
ABSTRACT: The primary function of stomata is to minimize plant water loss while maintaining CO2 assimilation. Stomatal water loss incurs an indirect cost to photosynthesis in the form of non-stomatal limitations (NSL) via reduced carboxylation capacity (CAP) and/or mesophyll conductance (MES). Two optimal formulations for stomatal conductance (gs) arise from the assumption of each type of NSL. In reality, both NSL could coexist, but one may prevail for a given leaf ontogenetic stage or plant functional type, depending on leaf morphology. We tested the suitability of two gs formulations (CAP versus MES) on species from six plant functional types (C4 crop, C3 grass, fern, conifer, evergreen, and deciduous angiosperm trees). MES and CAP parameters (the latter proportional to the marginal water cost to carbon gain) decreased with water availability only in deciduous angiosperm trees, while there were no clear differences between leaf ontogenetic stages. Both CAP and MES formulations fit our data in most cases, particularly under low water availability. For ferns, stomata appeared to operate optimally only when subjected to water stress. Overall, the CAP formulation provided a better fit across all species, suggesting that sub-daily stomatal responses minimize NSL by reducing carboxylation capacity predominantly, regardless of leaf morphology and ontogenetic stage.
Project description:Stomata, the microvalves on leaf surfaces, exert major influences across scales, from plant growth and productivity to global carbon and water cycling. Stomatal opening enables leaf photosynthesis, and plant growth and water use, whereas plant survival of drought depends on stomatal closure. Here we report that stomatal function is constrained by a safety-efficiency trade-off, such that species with greater stomatal conductance under high water availability (g<sub>max</sub>) show greater sensitivity to closure during leaf dehydration, i.e., a higher leaf water potential at which stomatal conductance is reduced by 50% (?<sub>gs50</sub>). The g<sub>max</sub> - ?<sub>gs50</sub> trade-off and its mechanistic basis is supported by experiments on leaves of California woody species, and in analyses of previous studies of the responses of diverse flowering plant species around the world. Linking the two fundamental key roles of stomata-the enabling of gas exchange, and the first defense against drought-this trade-off constrains the rates of water use and the drought sensitivity of leaves, with potential impacts on ecosystems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stomata in rice control a number of physiological processes by regulating gas and water exchange between the atmosphere and plant tissues. The impact of the structural diversity of these micropores on its conductance level is an important area to explore before introducing stomatal traits into any breeding program in order to increase photosynthesis and crop yield. Therefore, an intensive measurement of structural components of stomatal complex (SC) of twenty three Oryza species spanning the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools of rice has been conducted. RESULTS:Extensive diversity was found in stomatal number and size in different Oryza species and Oryza complexes. Interestingly, the dynamics of stomatal traits in Oryza family varies differently within different Oryza genetic complexes. Example, the Sativa complex exhibits the greatest diversity in stomatal number, while the Officinalis complex is more diverse for its stomatal size. Combining the structural information with the Oryza phylogeny revealed that speciation has tended towards increasing stomatal density rather than stomatal size in rice family. Thus, the most recent species (i.e. the domesticated rice) eventually has developed smaller yet numerous stomata. Along with this, speciation has also resulted in a steady increase in stomatal conductance (anatomical, gmax) in different Oryza species. These two results unambiguously prove that increasing stomatal number (which results in stomatal size reduction) has increased the stomatal conductance in rice. Correlations of structural traits with the anatomical conductance, leaf carbon isotope discrimination (?13C) and major leaf morphological and anatomical traits provide strong supports to untangle the ever mysterious dependencies of these traits in rice. The result displayed an expected negative correlation in the number and size of stomata; and positive correlations among the stomatal length, width and area with guard cell length, width on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. In addition, gmax is found to be positively correlated with stomatal number and guard cell length. The ?13C values of rice species showed a positive correlation with stomatal number, which suggest an increased water loss with increased stomatal number. Interestingly, in contrast, the ?13C consistently shows a negative relationship with stomatal and guard cell size, which suggests that the water loss is less when the stomata are larger. Therefore, we hypothesize that increasing stomatal size, instead of numbers, is a better approach for breeding programs in order to minimize the water loss through stomata in rice. CONCLUSION:Current paper generates useful data on stomatal profile of wild rice that is hitherto unknown for the rice science community. It has been proved here that the speciation has resulted in an increased stomatal number accompanied by size reduction during Oryza's evolutionary course; this has resulted in an increased gmax but reduced water use efficiency. Although may not be the sole driver of water use efficiency in rice, our data suggests that stomata are a potential target for modifying the currently low water use efficiency in domesticated rice. It is proposed that Oryza barthii can be used in traditional breeding programs in enhancing the stomatal size of elite rice cultivars.
Project description:Stomata are microscopic pores formed by specialized cells in the leaf epidermis and permit gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal pavement cell and, individually, overlay a single substomatal cavity within the leaf. This spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function. Yet, there are several genera naturally exhibiting stomata in clusters and therefore deviating from the one-cell spacing rule with multiple stomata overlaying a single substomatal cavity. We made use of two Begonia species to investigate whether clustering of stomata alters guard cell dynamics and gas exchange under different light and dark treatments. Begonia plebeja, which forms stomatal clusters, exhibited enhanced kinetics of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation upon light stimuli that in turn were translated into greater water use efficiency. Our findings emphasize the importance of spacing in stomatal clusters for gaseous exchange and plant performance under environmentally limited conditions.
Project description:Stomata, flanked by pairs of guard cells, are small pores on the leaf surfaces of plants and they function to control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Stomata will open when water is available to allow for the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. During periods of drought, stomata will close to reduce desiccation stress. As such, optimal functioning of stomata will impact on water use efficiency by plants. The development of an inducible, modular system for robust and targeted gene expression in stomatal guard cells is reported here. It is shown that application of ethanol vapour to activate the gene expression system did not affect the ability of stomata to respond to ABA in bioassays to determine the promotion of stomatal closure and the inhibition of stomatal opening. The system that has been developed allows for robust spatio-temporal control of gene expression in all cells of the stomatal lineage, thereby enabling molecular engineering of stomatal function as well as studies on stomatal development.
Project description:Previous studies on cytokinin (CK) and drought have suggested that the hormone has positive and negative effects on plant adaptation to restrictive conditions. This study examined the effect of CK on transpiration, stomatal activity, and response to drought in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana CK-degrading enzyme CK oxidase/dehydrogenase 3 (CKX3) maintained higher leaf water status under drought conditions due to reduced whole-plant transpiration. The reduced transpiration could be attributed to smaller leaf area and reduced stomatal density. CKX3-overexpressing plants contained fewer and larger pavement cells and fewer stomata per leaf area than wild-type plants. In addition, wild-type leaves treated with CK exhibited enhanced transpiration and had more pavement cells and increased numbers of stomata per leaf area than untreated leaves. Manipulation of CK levels did not affect stomatal movement or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, we found no correlation between stomatal aperture and the activity of the CK-induced promoter Two-Component Signaling Sensor (TCS) in guard cells. Previous studies have shown that drought reduces CK levels, and we propose this to be a mechanism of adaptation to water deficiency: the reduced CK levels suppress growth and reduce stomatal density, both of which reduce transpiration, thereby increasing tolerance to prolonged drought conditions.
Project description:Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production.
Project description:In addition to acting as a cellular energy source, ATP can also act as a damage-associated molecular pattern in both animals and plants. Stomata are leaf pores that control gas exchange and, therefore, impact critical functions such as photosynthesis, drought tolerance, and also are the preferred entry point for pathogens. Here we show the addition of ATP leads to the rapid closure of leaf stomata and enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Psuedomonas syringae. This response is mediated by ATP recognition by the receptor DORN1, followed by direct phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD, resulting in elevated production of reactive oxygen species and stomatal closure. Mutation of DORN1 phosphorylation sites on RBOHD eliminates the ability of ATP to induce stomatal closure. The data implicate purinergic signaling via DORN1 in the control of stomatal aperture with important implications for the control of plant photosynthesis, water homeostasis, pathogen resistance, and ultimately yield.
Project description:Prediction of stomatal conductance is a key element to relate and scale up leaf-level gas exchange processes to canopy, ecosystem and land surface models. The empirical models that are typically employed for this purpose are simple and elegant formulations which relate stomatal conductance on a leaf area basis to the net rate of CO2 assimilation, humidity and CO2 concentration. Although light intensity is not directly modelled as a stomatal opening cue, it is well-known that stomata respond strongly to light. One response mode depends specifically on the blue-light part of the light spectrum, whereas the quantitative or 'red' light response is less spectrally defined and relies more on the quantity of incident light. Here, we present a modification of an empirical stomatal conductance model which explicitly accounts for the stomatal red-light response, based on a mesophyll-derived signal putatively initiated by the chloroplastic plastoquinone redox state. The modified model showed similar prediction accuracy compared to models using a relationship between stomatal conductance and net assimilation rate. However, fitted parameter values with the modified model varied much less across different measurement conditions, lessening the need for frequent re-parameterization to different conditions required of the current model. We also present a simple and easy to parameterize extension to the widely used Farquhar-Von Caemmerer-Berry photosynthesis model to facilitate coupling with the modified stomatal conductance model, which should enable use of the new stomatal conductance model to simulate ecosystem water vapour exchange in terrestrial biosphere models.
Project description:Stomata are adjustable pores in the aerial epidermis of plants. The role of stomata is usually described in terms of the trade-off between CO2 uptake and water loss. Little consideration has been given to their interaction with below-ground development or diffusion of other gases. We overexpressed the rice EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (OsEPF1) to produce rice plants with reduced stomatal densities, resulting in lowered leaf stomatal conductance and enhanced water use efficiency. Surprisingly, we found that root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is formed constitutively in OsEPF1OE lines regardless of tissue age and position. Aerenchyma is tissue containing air-spaces that can develop in the plant root during stressful conditions, e.g. oxygen deficiency when it functions to increase O2 diffusion from shoot to root. The relationship with stomata is unknown. We conclude that RCA development and stomatal development are linked by two possible mechanisms: first that reduced stomatal conductance inhibits the diffusion of oxygen to the root, creating an oxygen deficit and stimulating the formation of RCA, second that an unknown EPF signalling pathway may be involved. Our observations have fundamental implications for the understanding of whole plant gas diffusion and root-to-shoot signalling events.
Project description:Stomata are simultaneously tasked with permitting the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis while limiting water loss from the plant. This process is mainly regulated by guard cell control of the stomatal aperture, but recent advancements have highlighted the importance of several genes that control stomatal development. Using targeted genetic manipulations of the stomatal lineage and a combination of gas exchange and microscopy techniques, we show that changes in stomatal development of the epidermal layer lead to coupled changes in the underlying mesophyll tissues. This coordinated response tends to match leaf photosynthetic potential (V<sub>cmax</sub> ) with gas-exchange capacity (g<sub>smax</sub> ), and hence the uptake of carbon dioxide for water lost. We found that different genetic regulators systematically altered tissue coordination in separate ways: the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) primarily affected leaf size and thickness, whereas peptides in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) family altered cell density in the mesophyll. It was also determined that interlayer coordination required the cell-surface receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). These results demonstrate that stomata-specific regulators can alter mesophyll properties, which provides insight into how molecular pathways can organize leaf tissues to coordinate gas exchange and suggests new strategies for improving plant water-use efficiency.