Identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of the ubiquitin ligases Siah1/2 in melanoma and prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of ubiquitin ligases with small molecule remains a very challenging task, given the lack of catalytic activity of the target and the requirement of disruption of its interactions with other proteins. Siah1/2, which are E3 ubiquitin ligases, are implicated in melanoma and prostate cancer and represent high-value drug targets. We utilized three independent screening approaches in our efforts to identify small-molecule Siah1/2 inhibitors: Affinity Selection-Mass Spectrometry, a protein thermal shift-based assay and an in silico based screen. Inhibitors were assessed for their effect on viability of melanoma and prostate cancer cultures, colony formation, prolyl-hydroxylase-HIF1? signaling, expression of selected Siah2-related transcripts, and Siah2 ubiquitin ligase activity. Several analogs were further characterized, demonstrating improved efficacy. Combination of the top hits identified in the different assays demonstrated an additive effect, pointing to complementing mechanisms that underlie each of these Siah1/2 inhibitors.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Yet, it is not known how UPR-signaling coordinates adaptation versus cell death. Previous studies suggested that signaling through PERK/ATF4 is required for cell death. We show that high levels of ER stress (i.e., ischemia-like conditions) induce transcription of the ubiquitin ligases Siah1/2 through the UPR transducers PERK/ATF4 and IRE1/sXBP1. In turn, Siah1/2 attenuates proline hydroxylation of ATF4, resulting in its stabilization, thereby augmenting ER stress output. Conversely, ATF4 activation is reduced upon Siah1/2 KD in cultured cells, which attenuates ER stress-induced cell death. Notably, Siah1a(+/-)::Siah2(-/-) mice subjected to neuronal ischemia exhibited smaller infarct volume and were protected from ischemia-induced death, compared with the wild type (WT) mice. In all, Siah1/2 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism that predisposes cells to death under severe ER stress conditions.
Project description:Seven-in-absentia homolog (SIAH) proteins are evolutionary conserved RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases responsible for the degradation of key molecules regulating DNA damage response, hypoxic adaptation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Many studies suggest a tumorigenic role for SIAH2. In breast cancer patients SIAH2 expression levels correlate with cancer aggressiveness and overall patient survival. In addition, SIAH inhibition reduced metastasis in melanoma. The role of SIAH1 in breast cancer is still ambiguous; both tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions have been reported. Other studies categorized SIAH ligases as either pro- or antimigratory, while the significance for metastasis is largely unknown. Here, we re-evaluated the effects of SIAH1 and SIAH2 depletion in breast cancer cell lines, focusing on migration and invasion. We successfully knocked down SIAH1 and SIAH2 in several breast cancer cell lines. In luminal type MCF7 cells, this led to stabilization of the SIAH substrate Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 3 (PHD3) and reduced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? (HIF1?) protein levels. Both the knockdown of SIAH1 or SIAH2 led to increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation, with comparable effects. These results point to a tumor promoting role for SIAH1 in breast cancer similar to SIAH2. In addition, depletion of SIAH1 or SIAH2 also led to decreased cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. SIAH knockdown also controlled microtubule dynamics by markedly decreasing the protein levels of stathmin, most likely via p27(Kip1). Collectively, these results suggest that both SIAH ligases promote a migratory cancer cell phenotype and could contribute to metastasis in breast cancer.
Project description:Activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase linked to cellular transformation. The aberrant regulation of ACK1 promotes tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, ACK1 is regarded as a valid target in cancer therapy. Seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) ubiquitin ligases facilitate substrate ubiquitinylation that targets proteins to the proteasomal degradation pathway. Here we report that ACK1 and SIAH1 from Homo sapiens interact in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Protein-protein interaction studies and protein degradation analyses using deletion and point mutants of ACK1 verify that SIAH1 and the related SIAH2 interact with ACK1. The association between SIAHs and ACK1 depends on the integrity of a highly conserved SIAH-binding motif located in the far C-terminus of ACK1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the interaction of ACK1 with SIAH1 and the induction of proteasomal degradation of ACK1 by SIAH1 are independent of ACK1's kinase activity. Chemical inhibitors blocking proteasomal activity corroborate that SIAH1 and SIAH2 destabilize the ACK1 protein by inducing its proteasomal turnover. This mechanism apparently differs from the lysosomal pathway targeting ACK1 after stimulation with the epidermal growth factor. Our data also show that ACK1, but not ACK1 mutants lacking the SIAH binding motif, has a discernable negative effect on SIAH levels. Additionally, knockdown approaches targeting the SIAH2 mRNA uncover specifically that the induction of SIAH2 expression, by hormonally-induced estrogen receptor (ER) activation, decreases the levels of ACK1 in luminal human breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms modulating ACK1 and they position SIAH ubiquitin ligases as negative regulators of ACK1 in transformed cells.
Project description:A functioning ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is essential for a number of diverse cellular processes and maintenance of overall cellular homeostasis. The ability of proteasome inhibitors, such as Velcade, to promote extrinsic apoptotic effects illustrates the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the regulation of death receptor signaling. Here, we set out to define the UPS machinery, particularly the E3 ubiquitin ligases, that repress apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. A cell-based genome-wide E3 ligase siRNA screen was established to monitor caspase-8 activity following the addition of TRAIL.Data from the high-throughput screen revealed that targeting the RING-finger containing E3 ligase Siah2 as well as the signaling platform molecule POSH (SH3RF1) conferred robust caspase-8 activation in response to TRAIL stimulus. Silencing Siah2 or POSH in prostate cancer cells led to increased caspase activity and apoptosis in response to both TRAIL and Fas ligand. The E3 activity of Siah2 was responsible for mediating apoptosis resistance; while POSH protein levels were critical for maintaining viability. Further characterization of Siah2 revealed it to function downstream of early death receptor events in the apoptotic pathway. The observed apoptosis resistance provides one biological explanation for the induction of Siah2 and POSH reported in lung and prostate cancer, respectively. Expanding on an initial yeast-two-hybrid screen we have confirmed a physical interaction between E3 ligases Siah2 and POSH. Utilizing a yeast-two-hybrid mapping approach we have defined the spacer region of POSH, more specifically the RPxAxVxP motif encompassing amino acids 601-607, to be the site of Siah2 binding.The data presented here define POSH and Siah2 as important mediators of death receptor mediated apoptosis and suggest targeting the interaction of these two E3 ligases is a promising novel cancer therapeutic strategy.
Project description:The functionally redundant ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been implicated in the regulation of several processes, but their role in inflammatory signaling and gene expression remains unclear. Here we have downregulated the expression of both SIAH proteins with specific siRNAs and investigated the functional consequences for IL-1α-induced gene expression and the signaling pathways activating NF-κB and AP1. The knockdown of SIAH1/2 had no significant impact on IL-1α-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, but modulated the expression of approximately one third of IL-1α-regulated genes. Most of the proteins encoded by SIAH1/2-regulated genes form a regulatory network of proinflammatory factors. Thus SIAH1/2 proteins function as variable rheostats that control the amplitude of inflammatory gene expression.
Project description:Super elongation complexes (SECs) contain two different transcription elongation factors, P-TEFb and ELL1/2, linked by the scaffolding protein AFF4 or AFF1. They stimulate the expression of both normal and disease-related genes, especially those of HIV or those involved in leukemogenesis. Among all SEC subunits, ELL2 is stoichiometrically limiting and uniquely regulated at the level of protein stability. Here we identify the RING domain protein Siah1, but not the homologous Siah2, as the E3 ubiquitin ligase for ELL2 polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Siah1 cannot access and ubiquitinate ELL2 bound to AFF4, although, at high concentrations, it also degrades AFF4/1 to destroy SECs. Prostratin and HMBA, two well-studied activators of HIV transcription and latency, enhance ELL2 accumulation and SECs formation largely through decreasing Siah1 expression and ELL2 polyubiquitination. Given its importance in formation of SECs, the Siah1 ubiquitination pathway provides a fresh avenue for developing strategies to control disease-related transcription.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The RAS signaling pathway is a pivotal developmental pathway that controls many fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, movement and apoptosis. Drosophila Seven-IN-Absentia (SINA) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that is the most downstream signaling "gatekeeper" whose biological activity is essential for proper RAS signal transduction. Vertebrate SINA homologs (SIAHs) share a high degree of amino acid identity with that of Drosophila SINA. SINA/SIAH is the most conserved signaling component in the canonical EGFR/RAS/RAF/MAPK signal transduction pathway.<h4>Results</h4>Vertebrate SIAH1, 2, and 3 are the three orthologs to invertebrate SINA protein. SINA and SIAH1 orthologs are found in all major taxa of metazoans. These proteins have four conserved functional domains, known as RING (Really Interesting New Gene), SZF (SIAH-type zinc finger), SBS (substrate binding site) and DIMER (Dimerization). In addition to the siah1 gene, most vertebrates encode two additional siah genes (siah2 and siah3) in their genomes. Vertebrate SIAH2 has a highly divergent and extended N-terminal sequence, while its RING, SZF, SBS and DIMER domains maintain high amino acid identity/similarity to that of SIAH1. But unlike vertebrate SIAH1 and SIAH2, SIAH3 lacks a functional RING domain, suggesting that SIAH3 may be an inactive E3 ligase. The SIAH3 subtree exhibits a high degree of amino acid divergence when compared to the SIAH1 and SIAH2 subtrees. We find that SIAH1 and SIAH2 are expressed in all human epithelial cell lines examined thus far, while SIAH3 is only expressed in a limited subset of cancer cell lines.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Through phylogenetic analyses of metazoan SINA and SIAH E3 ligases, we identified many invariant and divergent amino acid residues, as well as the evolutionarily conserved functional motifs in this medically relevant gene family. Our phylomedicinal study of this unique metazoan SINA/SIAH protein family has provided invaluable evolution-based support towards future effort to design logical, potent, and durable anti-SIAH-based anticancer strategies against oncogenic K-RAS-driven metastatic human cancers. Thus, this method of evolutionary study should be of interest in cancer biology.
Project description:Congenital retinal dystrophies are a major cause of unpreventable and incurable blindness worldwide. Mutations in CDHR1, a retina specific cadherin, are associated with cone-rod dystrophy. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for mediating orderly and precise targeting of protein degradation to maintain biological homeostasis and coordinate proper development, including retinal development. Recently, our lab uncovered that the seven <i>in absentia</i> (Siah) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases play a role in optic fissure fusion and identified Cdhr1a as a potential target of Siah. Using two-color whole mount <i>in situ</i> hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected <i>siah1</i> and <i>cdhr1a</i> co-expression as well as protein localization in the retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL), and more precisely in the connecting cilium of rods and cones between 3-5 days post fertilization (dpf). We confirmed that Siah1 targets Cdhr1a for proteasomal degradation by co-transfection and co-immunoprecipitation in cell culture. To analyze the functional importance of this interaction, we created two transgenic zebrafish lines that express <i>siah1</i> or an inactive <i>siah1</i> (<i>siah1</i>?RING) under the control of the heat shock promoter to modulate Siah activity during photoreceptor development. Overexpression of <i>siah1</i>, but not <i>siah1</i>?RING, resulted in a decrease in the number of rods and cones at 72 h post fertilization (hpf). The number of retinal ganglion cells, amacrine and bipolar cells was not affected by Siah1 overexpression, and there was no significant reduction of proliferating cells in the Siah1 overexpressing retina. We did, however, detect increased cell death, confirmed by an increase in the number of TUNEL + cells in the ONL, which was proteasome-dependent, as proteasome inhibition rescued the cell death phenotype. Furthermore, reduction in rods and cones resulting from increased Siah1 expression was rescued by injection of <i>cdhr1a</i> mRNA, and to an even greater extent by injection of a Siah1-insensitive <i>cdhr1a</i> variant mRNA. Lastly, CRISPR induced loss of Cdhr1a function phenocopied Siah1 overexpression resulting in a significant reduction of rods and cones. Taken together, our work provides the first evidence that Cdhr1a plays a role during early photoreceptor development and that Cdhr1a is regulated by Siah1 via the UPS.
Project description:Recent studies have revealed a key role of PARP1 that catalyzes the poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of substrates in regulating gene transcription. We show here that HIV-1 transcriptional activation also requires PARP1 activity. Because efficient HIV-1 transactivation is known to depend on the ELL2-containing super elongation complex (SEC), we investigated the functional relationship between PARP1 and ELL2-SEC in HIV-1 transcriptional control. We show that PARP1 elevates ELL2 protein levels to form more ELL2-SEC in cells. This effect is caused by PARP1's suppression of expression of Siah1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for ELL2, at both mRNA and protein levels. At the mRNA level, PARP1 coordinates with the co-repressor NCoR to suppress Siah1 transcription. At the protein level, PARP1 promotes Siah1 proteolysis, likely through inducing PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU) of Siah1. Thus, a PARP1-Siah1 axis activates HIV-1 transcription and controls the expression of ELL2 and other Siah1 substrates.
Project description:Siah1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contributes to proteasome-mediated degradation of multiple targets in key cellular processes and which shows promise as a therapeutic target in oncology. Structures of a truncated Siah1 bound to peptide-based inhibitors have been reported. Here, new crystallization conditions have allowed the determination of a construct encompassing dual zinc-finger subdomains and substrate-binding domains at significantly higher resolution. Although the crystals appear isomorphous, two structures present distinct states in which the spatial orientation of one zinc-finger subdomain differs with respect to the rest of the dimeric protein. Such a difference, which is indicative of conformational freedom, infers potential biological relevance related to recognition of binding partners. The crystallization conditions and improved models of Siah1 may aid future studies investigating Siah1-ligand complexes.