Neonatal overfeeding in mice aggravates the development of methionine and choline-deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis in adulthood.
ABSTRACT: Overfeeding in early life is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in adulthood. In the present study, a well-characterized mouse model was used to investigate whether neonatal overfeeding increases susceptibility to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) following feeding with a methionine and choline- deficient (MCD) diet. Neonatal overfeeding was induced by adjusting litters to 3 pups per dam (small litter size, SL) in contrast to 10 pups per dam as control (normal litter size, NL). At 11 weeks of age, mice were fed with standard (S) or a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests, tissue staining with haematoxylin and eosin, oil-red O and immunohistochemistry for F4/80, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting were performed. Compared with NL mice, SL mice exhibited higher body weight gain from 2 weeks of age throughout adulthood, and more profound glucose intolerance as adults. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression levels in liver were upregulated in SL mice at 3 weeks of age. MCD diet induced typical NASH, especially in SL-MCD mice, evidenced by marked fat accumulation, macrovescular steatosis, ballooned hepatocytes, inflammatory cells infiltration and tumour necrosis factor-α mRNA upregulation in the liver, as well as increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in the serum. There were no significant differences in liver fibrosis in all groups. Overfeeding during early life exhibited effect with administration of MCD diet in inducing adverse effects on the metabolic function and in promoting the progression of NASH in mice, possibly mediated through dysregulated lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and aggravated hepatic inflammation.
Project description:Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL) or normal litters of 7 pups (NL) and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD) from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression. On HFD, adult SL mice had greater inguinal fat mass compared to NL mice, however both groups showed similar increases in visceral fat depots and adipocyte hypertrophy. Despite the similar levels of visceral adiposity, SL-HFD mice displayed greater impairments in glucose homeostasis and more pronounced hepatic steatosis compared to NL-HFD mice. In addition, WAT from SL mice fed a HFD displayed greater crown-like structure formation, increased M1 macrophages, and higher cytokine gene expression. Together, these data suggest that early postnatal overnutrition may be a critical determinant of fatty liver and insulin resistance in obese adults by programming the inflammatory capacity of adipose tissue.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the pandemic liver disease of our time. Although there are several animal models of NASH, consensus regarding the optimal model is lacking. We aimed to compare features of NASH in the two most widely-used mouse models: methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet and Western diet.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were fed standard chow, MCD diet for 8 weeks, or Western diet (45% energy from fat, predominantly saturated fat, with 0.2% cholesterol, plus drinking water supplemented with fructose and glucose) for 16 weeks. Liver pathology and metabolic profile were compared.<h4>Results</h4>The metabolic profile associated with human NASH was better mimicked by Western diet. Although hepatic steatosis (i.e., triglyceride accumulation) was also more severe, liver non-esterified fatty acid content was lower than in the MCD diet group. NASH was also less severe and less reproducible in the Western diet model, as evidenced by less liver cell death/apoptosis, inflammation, ductular reaction, and fibrosis. Various mechanisms implicated in human NASH pathogenesis/progression were also less robust in the Western diet model, including oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy deregulation, and hedgehog pathway activation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Feeding mice a Western diet models metabolic perturbations that are common in humans with mild NASH, whereas administration of a MCD diet better models the pathobiological mechanisms that cause human NAFLD to progress to advanced NASH.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progresses from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, efficacious drugs for NASH treatment are lacking. Sodium alginate (SA), a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown algae, could protect the small intestine from enterobacterial invasion. NASH pathogenesis has been suggested to be associated with enterobacterial invasion, so we examined the effect of SA on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice (the most widely-used model of NASH). The mice (n = 31) were divided into three groups (mice fed with regular chow, MCD diet, and MCD diet premixed with 5% SA) for 4 and 8 weeks. The MCD diet increased lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, the NAFLD Activity Score and hepatic mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and collagen 1?1, and induced macrophage infiltration. Villus shortening, disruption of zonula occludens-1 localization and depletion of mucus production were observed in the small intestine of the MCD-group mice. SA administration improved lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, and impaired barrier function in the small intestine. Collectively, these results suggest that SA is useful for NASH treatment because it can prevent hepatic inflammation and fatty degeneration by maintaining intestinal barrier function.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in the Western population. By mechanisms that are not completely understood, this disease may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). db/db mice spontaneously develop hepatic steatosis, which progresses to NASH when these mice are fed a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet. The goal of our studies was to identify lipid and methionine metabolism pathways affected by MCD feeding to determine potential causal events leading to the development of NASH from benign steatosis. db/db mice fed the MCD diet for 2 weeks exhibited signs of incipient NASH development such as upregulated cytokines and chemokines. At this time point, MCD diet feeding caused S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) depletion in db/db mice, while wild-type mice on the same diet retained hepatic SAMe levels. SAMe depletion exerts pleiotropic effects upon liver homeostasis and is commonly associated with a variety of liver insults such as thioacetamide, CCL4, and alcohol treatment; thus, SAMe depletion may serve as the second hit in NASH development. It is possible that differences in hepatic lipid and/or methionine metabolism between wild-type and db/db mice underlay the differential maintenance of SAMe levels during methionine and choline restriction. Indeed, db/db mice exhibited inhibited lipid oxidation pathways, which may be a priming factor for NASH development, and db/db mice fed the MCD diet had differential methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) expression. The occurrence of SAMe depletion at this early, benign stage of NASH development in db/db mice with fatty liver suggests that SAMe supplementation may be (A) targeted to individuals susceptible to NASH (i.e., NAFLD patients) and (B) preventative of NASH before substantial liver injury has occurred.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which occurs in association with insulin resistance and hepatic fat accumulation, is characterized by chronic liver injury and fibrosis. NASH onset and progression is closely related to hepatic inflammation, which is partly regulated by the vagus nerve through the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAchR). Hepatic ?7nAchR action is impeded in obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, using ?7nAchR knockout (?7KO) mice, we elucidated the effect of ?7nAchR deficiency on NASH-related inflammation and fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:?7KO mice were fed an atherogenic high-fat diet (AD) for 32 weeks or methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 6 weeks, both of which induce NASH. Mice were then examined for the degree of NASH-related inflammation and fibrosis by hepatic gene expression analysis and Sirius red histological staining. RESULTS:Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and elevated plasma transaminase levels were observed in both AD and MCD mice, but the plasma transaminase level increase was higher in ?7KO mice than in control mice. ?7KO mice fed an AD showed significant upregulation of the Col1a1 gene encoding alpha-1 type I collagen, which is involved in liver fibrosis, and the Ccl2 gene encoding C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, a pro-inflammatory chemokine; ?7KO mice fed an MCD had significant upregulation of the Col1a1 gene and the Tnf gene, an inflammatory cytokine. Histological analysis showed that AD and MCD exacerbated liver fibrosis in ?7KO mice. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study suggest that ?7nAchR deficiency exacerbates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a diet-induced mouse model of NASH.
Project description:Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively. Exercised mothers showed low mesenteric fat pad stores and fasting glucose and improved glucose-insulin tolerance, VO2max during lactation and sympathetic activity. Moreover, the breast milk contained elevated levels of insulin. In addition, SL of sedentary mothers presented metabolic dysfunction and glucose and insulin intolerance and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in adulthood. SL of exercised mothers showed lower fat tissue accretion and improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia and glycemia. The results suggest that maternal exercise during the perinatal period can have a possible reprogramming effect to prevent metabolic dysfunction in adult rat offspring exposed to early overnutrition, which may be associated with the improvement in maternal health caused by exercise.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative modulator of insulin and cytokine signaling, is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. We investigated the impact of PTP1B deficiency during NAFLD, particularly in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).<h4>Methods</h4>NASH features were evaluated in livers from wild-type (PTP1BWT) and PTP1B-deficient (PTP1BKO) mice fed methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 8 weeks. A recovery model was established by replacing MCD to chow diet (CHD) for 2-7 days. Non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Oval cells markers were measured in human and mouse livers with NASH, and in oval cells from PTP1BWT and PTP1BKO mice.<h4>Results</h4>PTP1BWT mice fed MCD for 8 weeks exhibited NASH, NPCs infiltration, and elevated Fgf21, Il6 and Il1b mRNAs. These parameters decreased after switching to CHD. PTP1B deficiency accelerated MCD-induced NASH. Conversely, after switching to CHD, PTP1BKO mice rapidly reverted NASH compared to PTP1BWT mice in parallel to the normalization of serum triglycerides (TG) levels. Among NPCs, a drop in cytotoxic natural killer T (NKT) subpopulation was detected in PTP1BKO livers during recovery, and in these conditions M2 macrophage markers were up-regulated. Oval cells markers (EpCAM and cytokeratin 19) significantly increased during NASH only in PTP1B-deficient livers. HGF-mediated signaling and proliferative capacity were enhanced in PTP1BKO oval cells. In NASH patients, oval cells markers were also elevated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PTP1B elicits a dual role in NASH progression and reversion. Additionally, our results support a new role for PTP1B in oval cell proliferation during NAFLD.
Project description:Steatosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis underlie the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Protein kinase C delta (PKC?) has been implicated in fatty liver disease and is activated in the methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH, yet its pathophysiological importance towards steatohepatitis progression is uncertain. We therefore addressed the role of PKC? in the development of steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis in an animal model of NASH. We fed PKC?(-/-) mice and wildtype littermates a control or MCD diet. PKC?(-/-) primary hepatocytes were used to evaluate the direct effects of fatty acids on hepatocyte lipid metabolism gene expression. A reduction in hepatic steatosis and triglyceride levels were observed between wildtype and PKC?(-/-) mice fed the MCD diet. The hepatic expression of key regulators of ?-oxidation and plasma triglyceride metabolism was significantly reduced in PKC?(-/-) mice and changes in serum triglyceride were blocked in PKC?(-/-) mice. MCD diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis were reduced in PKC?(-/-) mice. MCD diet-induced NADPH oxidase activity and p47(phox) membrane translocation were blunted and blocked, respectively, in PKC?(-/-) mice. Expression of pro-apoptotic genes and caspase 3 and 9 cleavage in the liver of MCD diet fed PKC?(-/-) mice were blunted and blocked, respectively. Surprisingly, no differences in MCD diet-induced fibrosis or pro-fibrotic gene expression were observed in 8 week MCD diet fed PKC?(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKC? plays a role in key pathological features of fatty liver disease but not ultimately in fibrosis in the MCD diet model of NASH.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) afflicts 20-36% of individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A lipotoxic hepatic environment, altered innate immune signaling and inflammation are defining features of progression to NASH. Activated resident liver macrophages express folate receptor beta (FR-?) which may be an indicator of progression from steatosis to NASH. The goals of this study were to characterize FR-? protein expression in human NAFLD and rodent models of NASH, and demonstrate liver targeting of an FR-? imaging agent to the liver of a rodent NASH model using FR-?. METHODS:Rat liver lysates from methionine choline deficient (MCD) fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) and methionine choline sufficient (MC+) rat controls were analyzed for hepatic FR-? protein. The FR-?-targeted agent, Etarfolatide was injected into MCD and MC?+?-fed C57BL/6 mice for efficient FastSPECT hepatic imaging. Additionally, FR-? expression across the stages of human NAFLD from normal to NASH was assessed. RESULTS:FastSPECT images show targeting of Etarfolatide to the liver of mice fed 8?weeks of MCD diet but not control-fed mice. The MCD rat model exhibited significantly increased protein expression of hepatic FR-? in contrast to HFD or normal samples. Similarly human liver samples categorized as NASH Fatty or NASH Not Fatty showed elevated FR-? protein when compared to normal liver. FR-? transcript expression levels were elevated across both NASH Fatty and NASH Not Fatty samples. CONCLUSION:The findings in this study indicate that FR-? expression in NASH may be harnessed to target agents directly to the liver.
Project description:CD62L (L-Selectin) dependent lymphocyte infiltration is known to induce inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), while its function in the liver, especially in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), remains unclear. We here investigated the functional role of CD62L in NASH in humans as well as in two mouse models of steatohepatitis. Hepatic expression of a soluble form of CD62L (sCD62L) was measured in patients with steatosis and NASH. Furthermore, CD62L-/- mice were fed with a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks or with a high fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks. Patients with NASH displayed increased serum levels of sCD62L. Hepatic CD62L expression was higher in patients with steatosis and increased dramatically in NASH patients. Interestingly, compared to wild type (WT) mice, MCD and HFD-treated CD62L-/- mice were protected from diet-induced steatohepatitis. This was reflected by less fat accumulation in hepatocytes and a dampened manifestation of the metabolic syndrome with an improved insulin resistance and decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Consistent with ameliorated disease, CD62L-/- animals exhibited an enhanced hepatic infiltration of Treg cells and a strong activation of an anti-oxidative stress response. Those changes finally resulted in less fibrosis in CD62L-/- mice. Additionally, this effect could be reproduced in a therapeutic setting by administrating an anti-CD62L blocking antibody. CD62L expression in humans and mice correlates with disease activity of steatohepatitis. CD62L knockout and anti-CD62L-treated mice are protected from diet-induced steatohepatitis suggesting that CD62L is a promising target for therapeutic interventions in NASH.