Wedelolactone Attenuates Pulmonary Fibrosis Partly Through Activating AMPK and Regulating Raf-MAPKs Signaling Pathway.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, there is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that the ethanol extract of Eclipta prostrata L. can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin (BLM) in mice. In the present study, we studied whether wedelolactone (WEL), a major coumarin ingredient of E. prostrata, provided protection against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. ICR or C57/BL6 strain mice were treated with BLM to establish lung fibrosis model. WEL (2 or 10 mg/kg) was given daily via intragastric administration for 2 weeks starting at 7-day after intratracheal instillation. WEL at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, pro-inflammatory factors expression, and collagen deposition in lung tissues. Additionally, treatment with WEL also impaired BLM-induced increases in fibrotic marker expression (collagen I and α-SMA) and decrease in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Treatment with WEL significantly prevented BLM-induced increase in TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 phosphorylation in the lungs. WEL administration (10 mg/kg) also significantly promoted AMPK activation compared to model group in BLM-treated mice. Further investigation indicated that activation of AMPK by WEL can suppressed the transdifferentiation of primary lung fibroblasts and the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells, the inhibitive effects of WEL was significantly blocked by an AMPK inhibitor (compound C) in vitro. Together, these results suggest that activation of AMPK by WEL followed by reduction in TGFβ1/Raf-MAPK signaling pathways may have a therapeutic potential in pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several studies demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the process of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid with chaperone properties, is an inhibitor of ER stress. This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of TUDCA on BLM-induced EMT and lung fibrosis.<h4>Methods</h4>The model of lung fibrosis was established by intratracheal injection with a single dose of BLM (3.0 mg/kg). In TUDCA + BLM group, mice were intraperitoneally injected with TUDCA (250 mg/kg) daily.<h4>Results</h4>BLM-induced alveolar septal destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were alleviated by TUDCA. BLM-induced interstitial collagen deposition, as determined by Sirius Red staining, was attenuated by TUDCA. BLM-induced elevation of pulmonary α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and reduction of pulmonary E-cadherin were attenuated by TUDCA. BLM-induced pulmonary Smad2/3 phosphorylation was suppressed by TUDCA. BLM-induced elevation of Ki67 and PCNA was inhibited by TUDCA in mice lungs. In addition, BLM-induced elevation of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine) was alleviated by TUDCA. Finally, BLM-induced upregulation of pulmonary GRP78 and CHOP was attenuated by TUDCA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results provide evidence that TUDCA pretreatment inhibits Smad2/3-medited EMT and subsequent lung fibrosis partially through suppressing BLM-induced ER stress and oxidative stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) that significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a critical factor in vascular remodeling of the pulmonary circulation. OBJECTIVES:We tested the effects of two small molecules targeting MIF on bleomycin (BLM)-induced collagen deposition, PH, and vascular remodeling in mouse lungs. METHODS:We examined the distribution pattern of MIF, CD74, and CXCR4 in the lungs of patients with IPF-PH and the lungs of BLM-injected mice. Then, treatments were realized with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) and N-(3-hydroxy-4-fluorobenzyl)-5 trifluoromethylbenzoxazol-2-thione 31 (20 mg/kg/day per os for 3 weeks) started 24 h after an intratracheal BLM administration. RESULTS:More intense immunoreactivity was noted for MIF, CD74, and CXCR4 in lungs from IPF-PH patients and BLM-injected mice. Furthermore, we found that treatments of BLM-injected mice with ISO-1 or compound 31 attenuated lung collagen deposition and right ventricular systolic pressure increase. Additionally, reduced pulmonary inflammatory infiltration and pulmonary arterial muscularization were observed in the lungs of BLM-injected mice treated with ISO-1 or compound 31. CONCLUSIONS:Treatments with ISO-1 or compound 31 attenuates BLM-induced inflammation and fibrosis in lung, and prevents PH development in mice, suggesting that MIF is an important factor for IPF-PH development.
Project description:Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-?1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ? along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKC? associated with TGF-? signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.
Project description:Aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are the main features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Kallistatin is an anti-angiogenic peptide with known effects on endothelial cells. This study aimed to demonstrate that kallistatin has beneficial effects on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model by inhibiting angiogenesis. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups: (A) Saline only (SA)-as the negative control, (B) BLM only (BLM)-as the model group, (C) BLM and 0.1 mg/kg kallistatin (L-Kal), (D) BLM and 0.5 mg/kg kallistatin (M-Kal), and (E) BLM and 2.5 mg/kg kallistatin (H-Kal). Fibrillar collagen was quantified by Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), ?-smooth-muscle-actin (?-SMA) and microvascular density (MVD) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assayed by Western immunoblotting or ELISA. Daily administration of kallistatin attenuated fibrosis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as shown by histology. During inflammation from BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, kallistatin reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Kallistatin also inhibited VEGF expression and phosphorylation of VEGFR2 (Flk-1). In vitro, kallistatin blocked tube formation by inhibiting Flk-1 and GSK-3? phosphorylation. The results demonstrated that continuous administration of kallistatin attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved survival of BLM rats. Reducing pulmonary fibrosis was achieved by partial inhibition of pulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis.
Project description:Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe and irreversible interstitial pulmonary disease with high mortality and few treatments. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is a hydrosoluble component of Salvia miltiorrhiza and has been reported to have antifibrotic effects in other forms of tissue fibrosis. In this research, we studied the effects of MLB on pulmonary fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms. Our results indicated that MLB treatment (50 mg/kg) for seven days could attenuate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by reducing the alveolar structure disruption and collagen deposition in the C57 mouse model. MLB was also found to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-stimulated myofibroblastic transdifferentiation of human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) cells and collagen production by human type II alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) cells, mainly by decreasing the expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) and regulating the TGF-β/Smad pathway. Further studies confirmed that the molecular mechanisms of MLB in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice were similar to those observed in vitro. In summary, our results demonstrated that MLB could alleviate experimental pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that MLB has great potential for pulmonary fibrosis treatment.
Project description:Background: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a devastating interstitial lung disease and characterized by an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Nintedanib (NDN) and pirfenidone are two approved therapies for PF, but their potential side-effects have been reported. Recently, the use of natural supplements for PF is attracting attention. Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) is an active xanthone-type compound isolated from the nutritious fruit mangosteen. Purpose: In the present study, the potential effect and underlying mechanism of α-MG were evaluated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF and activated primary lung fibroblasts (PLFs). Methods: Histopathological changes and collagen deposition were analyzed via hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining, the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-4 (NOX4) involved in oxidative stress in lung tissues was analyzed by immunochemistry staining. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I (Col I), p-adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/AMPK, and NOX4 were detected by Western blot, immunofluorescence or RT-PCR, and effects of α-MG on cell viability were detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. Results: In vivo results demonstrated that α-MG treatment (10 mg/kg/day) significantly ameliorated BLM-induced deposition of ECM in lung tissues. Moreover, α-MG could inhibit protein expressions of α-SMA and Col I as well as its mRNA levels. In addition, α-MG also significantly inhibited transforming growth factor-β1/Smad2/3 pathway and regulated the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissues. In vitro results demonstrated that α-MG significantly increased p-AMPK/AMPK but reduced the protein expression level of α-SMA and Col I as well as NOX4 in activated PLFs. Further study demonstrated that these improvement effects were significantly blocked by compound C. Conclusion: α-MG treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress in lungs partly by activating AMPK mediated signaling pathway in BLM-induced PF and activated PLFs and decreased the deposition of ECM. The present study provides pharmacological evidence to support therapeutic application of α-MG in the treatment of PF.
Project description:Spermidine is an endogenous biological polyamine that plays various longevity-extending roles and exerts antioxidative, antiaging, and cell growth-promoting effects. We previously reported that spermidine levels were significantly reduced in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) of the lung. The present study assessed the potential beneficial effects of spermidine on lung fibrosis and investigated the possible mechanism. Lung fibrosis was established in mice using bleomycin (BLM), and exogenous spermidine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg in phosphate-buffered saline). BLM-induced alveolar epithelial cells showed significant increases in apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related mediators, and spermidine attenuated BLM-induced apoptosis and activation of the ERS-related pathway. Senescence-associated β-gal staining and decreased expression of p16 and p21 showed that spermidine ameliorated BLM-induced premature cellular senescence. In addition, spermidine enhanced beclin-1-dependent autophagy and autophagy modulators in IPF fibroblasts and BLM-induced mouse lungs, in which inflammation and collagen deposition were significantly decreased. This beneficial effect was related to the antiapoptotic downregulation of the ERS pathway, antisenescence effects, and autophagy activation. Our findings suggest that spermidine could be a therapeutic agent for IPF treatment.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by the extensive accumulation of myofibroblasts and collagens. However, the exact mechanism that underlies this condition is unclear. Growing evidence suggests that NADPH oxidases (NOXs), especially NOX4-derived oxidative stress, play an important role in the development of lung fibrosis. Bleomycin (BLM) is a tumor chemotherapeutic agent, which has been widely employed to establish IPF animal models. Osthole (OST) is an active constituent of the fruit of <i>Cnidium ninidium</i>. Here, we used an in vivo mouse model and found that OST suppressed BLM-induced body weight loss, lung injury, pulmonary index increase, fibroblast differentiation, and pulmonary fibrosis. OST also significantly downregulated BLM-induced NOX4 expression and oxidative stress in the lungs. In vitro, OST could inhibit TGF-<i>β</i>1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, differentiation, proliferation, collagen synthesis, NOX4 expression, and ROS generation in human lung fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, NOX4 overexpression could prevent the above effects of OST. We came to the conclusion that OST could significantly attenuate BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, via the mechanism that involved downregulating TGF-<i>β</i>1/NOX4-mediated oxidative stress in lung fibroblasts.
Project description:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to increased mortality in pulmonary fibrosis. Its key feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation, known to lead to fibrotic pathology in other organs. We tested the effects of CIH in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Sprague Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin (Blm) or saline (Sal), and exposed to CIH or normal air (Norm) for 9 or 30 days. Pulmonary function was tested and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular analyses. In Blm-treated animals, 30days of CIH compared to Norm increased total lung collagen content (p=0.008) and reduced Quasi-static lung compliance (p=0.04). CIH upregulated lipid peroxidation and increased NF-?B activation, IL-17 mRNA and Col1?1 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that following Blm-induced lung injury, CIH amplifies collagen deposition via oxidative and inflammatory pathways, culminating in stiffer lungs. Thus, OSA may augment fibrosis in patients with interstitial lung disease.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory interstitial lung disease for which there is no effective treatment. Although the pathogenesis of IPF is not fully understood, TGF-β and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to be involved in the fibrotic changes of lung tissues. Kurarinone is a prenylated flavonoid isolated from <i>Sophora Flavescens</i> with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of kurarinone on pulmonary fibrosis. Kurarinone suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT of lung epithelial cells. To assess the therapeutic effects of kurarinone in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, mice were treated with kurarinone daily for 2 weeks starting 7 days after BLM instillation. Oral administration of kurarinone attenuated the fibrotic changes of lung tissues, including accumulation of collagen and improved mechanical pulmonary functions. Mechanistically, kurarinone suppressed phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and AKT induced by TGF-β1 in lung epithelial cells, as well as in lung tissues treated with BLM. Taken together, these results suggest that kurarinone has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis via suppressing TGF-β signaling pathways and may be a novel drug candidate for pulmonary fibrosis.