Neuronal NO synthase mediates plenylephrine induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through facilitation of NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity.
ABSTRACT: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) has been consistently shown to be the predominant isoform of NOS and/or NOS-derived NO that may be involved in the myocardial remodeling including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the direct functional contribution of NOS1 in this process remains to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we attempted to use silent RNA and adenovirus mediated silencing or overexpression to investigate the role of NOS1 and the associated molecular signaling mechanisms during OKphenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy growth in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs). We found that the expression of NOS1 was enhanced in PE-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, LVNIO treatment, a selective NOS1 inhibitor, significantly decreased PE-induced NRVMs hypertrophy and [3H]-leucine incorporation. We demonstrated that NOS1 gene silencing attenuated both the increased size and the transcriptional activity of the hypertrophic marker atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) induced by PE stimulation. Further investigation suggested that deficiency of NOS1-induced diminished NRVMS hypertrophy resulted in decreased calcineurin protein expression and activity (assessed by measuring the transcriptional activity of NFAT) and, an increased activity of the anti-hypertrophic pathway, GSK-3? (estimated by its augmented phosphorylated level). In contrast, exposing the NOS1 overexpressed NRVMs to PE-treatment further increased the hypertrophic growth, ANF transcriptional activity and calcineurin activity. Together, the results of the present study suggest that NOS1 is directly involved in controlling the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Project description:PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that has been shown to regulate cell growth and survival through dephosphorylation of several members of the AGC family of kinases. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is an AGC kinase that regulates phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy through its noncanonical function of directly targeting proteins to the nucleus to regulate transcription. Here we investigated the possibility that the PHLPP2 isoform can regulate GRK5-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). We show that removal of PHLPP2 by siRNA induces hypertrophic growth of NRVMs as measured by cell size changes at baseline, potentiated PE-induced cell size changes, and re-expression of fetal genes atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide. Endogenous GRK5 and PHLPP2 were found to interact in NRVMs, and PE-induced nuclear accumulation of GRK5 was enhanced upon down-regulation of PHLPP2. Conversely, overexpression of PHLPP2 blocked PE-induced hypertrophic growth, re-expression of fetal genes, and nuclear accumulation of GRK5, which depended on its phosphatase activity. Finally, using siRNA against GRK5, we found that GRK5 was necessary for the hypertrophic response induced by PHLPP2 knockdown. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a novel regulation of GRK5 by the phosphatase PHLPP2, which modulates hypertrophic growth. Understanding the signaling pathways affected by PHLPP2 has potential for new therapeutic targets in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and failure.
Project description:Activation of the phosphatase calcineurin and its downstream targets, transcription factors of the NFAT family, results in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Recently, it has been shown that the dual specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is able to antagonize calcineurin signaling by directly phosphorylating NFATs. We thus hypothesized that DYRK1A might modulate the hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes. In a model of phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of DYKR1A completely abrogated the hypertrophic response and significantly reduced the expression of the natriuretic peptides ANF and BNP. Furthermore, DYRK1A blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by overexpression of constitutively active calcineurin and attenuated the induction of the hypertrophic gene program. Conversely, knockdown of DYRK1A, utilizing adenoviruses encoding for a specific synthetic miRNA, resulted in an increase in cell surface area accompanied by up-regulation of ANF- mRNA. Similarly, treatment of cardiomyocytes with harmine, a specific inhibitor of DYRK1A, revealed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy on morphological and molecular level. Moreover, constitutively active calcineurin led to robust induction of an NFAT-dependent luciferase reporter, whereas DYRK1A attenuated calcineurin-induced reporter activation in cardiomyocytes. Conversely, both knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of DYRK1A significantly augmented the effect of calcineurin in this assay. In summary, we identified DYRK1A as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mechanistically, this effect appears to be mediated via inhibition of NFAT transcription factors.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) are being developed for tissue repair and as a model system for cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. However, the signaling requirements of their growth have not yet been fully characterized. We showed that hESC-CM retain their capacity for increase in size in long-term culture. Exposing hESC-CM to hypertrophic stimuli such as equiaxial cyclic stretch, angiotensin II, and phenylephrine (PE) increased cell size and volume, percentage of hESC-CM with organized sarcomeres, levels of ANF, and cytoskeletal assembly. PE effects on cell size were separable from those on cell cycle. Changes in cell size by PE were completely inhibited by p38-MAPK, calcineurin/FKBP, and mTOR blockers. p38-MAPK and calcineurin were also implicated in basal cell growth. Inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and CaMK II partially reduced PE effects; PKG or GSK3? inhibitors had no effect. The role of p38-MAPK was confirmed by an additional pharmacological inhibitor and adenoviral infection of hESC-CM with a dominant-inhibitory form of p38-MAPK. Infection of hESC-CM with constitutively active upstream MAP2K3b resulted in an increased cell size, sarcomere and cytoskeletal assembly, elongation of the cells, and induction of ANF mRNA levels. siRNA knockdown of p38-MAPK inhibited PE-induced effects on cell size. These results reveal an important role for active protein kinase signaling in hESC-CM growth and hypertrophy, with potential implications for hESC-CM as a novel in vitro test system. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".
Project description:The RNA binding protein Human antigen R (HuR) interacts with specific AU-rich domains in target mRNAs and is highly expressed in many cell types, including cardiomyocytes. However, the role of HuR in cardiac physiology is largely unknown. Our results show that HuR undergoes cytoplasmic translocation, indicative of its activation, in hypertrophic cardiac myocytes. Specifically, HuR cytoplasmic translocation is significantly increased in NRVMs (neonatal rat ventricular myocytes) following treatment with phenylephrine or angiotensin II, agonists of two independent G?q-coupled GPCRs known to induce hypertrophy. This Gq-mediated HuR activation is dependent on p38 MAP kinase, but not canonical Gq-PKC signaling. Furthermore, we show that HuR activation is necessary for Gq-mediated hypertrophic growth of NRVMs as siRNA-mediated knockdown of HuR inhibits hypertrophy as measured by cell size and expression of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor). Additionally, HuR overexpression is sufficient to induce hypertrophic cell growth. To decipher the downstream mechanisms by which HuR translocation promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, we assessed the role of HuR in the transcriptional activity of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), the activation of which is a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy. Using an NFAT-luciferase reporter assay, we show an acute inhibition of NFAT transcriptional activity following pharmacological inhibition of HuR. In conclusion, our results identify HuR as a novel mediator of cardiac hypertrophy downstream of the Gq-p38 MAPK pathway, and suggest modulation of NFAT activity as a potential mechanism.
Project description:Zinc dyshomeostasis has been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy; however, the dynamic regulation of intracellular zinc and its downstream signaling in cardiac hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Here we screened ZIP (SLC39) family members that were responsible for zinc uptake in a phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model. We found that Slc39a2 was the only member that was altered at mRNA level by PE treatment in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), but its protein level was not affected. Zincpyr1 staining showed a significant decrease in zinc uptake after PE treatment or after Slc39a2 knockdown in NRVMs, indicating an inhibition of its transport activity during hypertrophy. Slc39a2 deficiency caused spontaneous hypertrophy in NRVMs, and further exacerbated the hypertrophic responses after PE treatment. RNA sequencing analysis confirmed a largely aggravated pro-hypertrophic transcriptome reprogramming after Slc39a2 knockdown. Interestingly, the innate immune pathways, including NOD signaling, TOLL-like receptor, NFB, and IRFs, were substantially enriched after Slc39a2 knockdown. Whereas IRF7, the most sensitive among all IRFs, did not mediate the effect of Slc39a2 in hypertrophy, pro-hypertrophy phosphorylations of NFB and STAT3 were significantly enhanced after Slc39a2 knockdown, in parallel with degradation of IkBα protein. Our data demonstrate that SLC39A2-mediated zinc homeostasis contributes to the remodeling of innate immune signaling in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure and its treatment. Overall design: NRVMs were first transfected with siSlc39a2 or siNeg, then treated with PE for 36h after 12h of transfection. NRVMs were used to extracted RNA according to the manufacturer's instructions. Transcriptome sequencing of RNA was completed by Beijing Genomics Institution (BGI). Three independent biological replicate samples were sequenced for each group.
Project description:To define a role for phospholipase C? (PLC?) signaling in cardiac myocyte hypertrophic growth, PLC? protein was depleted from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) using siRNA. NRVMs with PLC? depletion were stimulated with endothelin (ET-1), norepinephrine, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), or isoproterenol and assessed for development of hypertrophy. PLC? depletion dramatically reduced hypertrophic growth and gene expression induced by all agonists tested. PLC? catalytic activity was required for hypertrophy development, yet PLC? depletion did not reduce global agonist-stimulated inositol phosphate production, suggesting a requirement for localized PLC activity. PLC? was found to be scaffolded to a muscle-specific A kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP?) in heart and NRVMs, and mAKAP? localizes to the nuclear envelope in NRVMs. PLC?-mAKAP interaction domains were defined and overexpressed to disrupt endogenous mAKAP?-PLC? complexes in NRVMs, resulting in significantly reduced ET-1-dependent NRVM hypertrophy. We propose that PLC? integrates multiple upstream signaling pathways to generate local signals at the nucleus that regulate hypertrophy.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, and thus represents an attractive target for novel therapeutic intervention. JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-lysine reader proteins, was identified in a high throughput screen designed to discover novel small molecule regulators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. JQ1 dose-dependently blocked agonist-dependent hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and reversed the prototypical gene program associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy. JQ1 also blocked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and improved cardiac function in adult mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The BET family consists of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT. BRD4 protein expression was increased during cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertrophic stimuli promoted recruitment of BRD4 to the transcriptional start site (TSS) of the gene encoding atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Binding of BRD4 to the ANF TSS was associated with increased phosphorylation of local RNA polymerase II. These findings define a novel function for BET proteins as signal-responsive regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, and suggest that small molecule inhibitors of these epigenetic reader proteins have potential as therapeutics for heart failure.
Project description:Common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction require that myocytes develop greater than normal force to maintain cardiac pump function. This requires increases in [Ca(2+)]. These diseases induce cardiac hypertrophy and increases in [Ca(2+)] are known to be an essential proximal signal for activation of hypertrophic genes. However, the source of "hypertrophic" [Ca(2+)] is not known and is the topic of this study. The role of Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC), T-type Ca(2+) channels (TTCC) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on the activation of calcineurin (Cn)-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling and myocyte hypertrophy was studied. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and adult feline ventricular myocytes (AFVMs) were infected with an adenovirus containing NFAT-GFP, to determine factors that could induce NFAT nuclear translocation. Four millimolar Ca(2+) or pacing induced NFAT nuclear translocation. This effect was blocked by Cn inhibitors. In NRVMs Nifedipine (Nif, LTCC antagonist) blocked high Ca(2+)-induced NFAT nuclear translocation while SKF-96365 (TRP channel antagonist) and Nickel (Ni, TTCC antagonist) were less effective. The relative potency of these antagonists against Ca(2+) induced NFAT nuclear translocation (Nif>SKF-96365>Ni) was similar to their effects on Ca(2+) transients and the LTCC current. Infection of NRVM with viruses containing TRP channels also activated NFAT-GFP nuclear translocation and caused myocyte hypertrophy. TRP effects were reduced by SKF-96365, but were more effectively antagonized by Nif. These experiments suggest that Ca(2+) influx through LTCCs is the primary source of Ca(2+) to activate Cn-NFAT signaling in NRVMs and AFVMs. While TRP channels cause hypertrophy, they appear to do so through a mechanism involving Ca(2+) entry via LTCCs.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Calcium fluctuations and cardiac hypertrophy occur during pregnancy, but the role of the well-studied calcium-activated phosphatase, calcineurin, has not been studied in this setting. The purpose of this study was to determine whether calcineurin signalling is required for cardiac remodelling during pregnancy in mice.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We first examined calcineurin expression in the heart of mice during pregnancy. We found both calcineurin levels and activity were significantly increased in early-pregnancy and decreased in late-pregnancy. Since progesterone levels start to rise in early-pregnancy, we investigated whether progesterone alone was sufficient to modulate calcineurin levels in vivo. After implantation of progesterone pellets in non-pregnant female mice, cardiac mass increased, whereas cardiac function was maintained. In addition, calcineurin levels increased, which is also consistent with early-pregnancy. To determine whether these effects were occurring in the cardiac myocytes, we treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) with pregnancy-associated sex hormones. We found that progesterone treatment, but not oestradiol, increased calcineurin levels. To obtain a functional read-out of increased calcineurin activity, we measured the activity of the transcription factor NFAT, a downstream target of calcineurin. Progesterone treatment significantly increased NFAT activity in NRVMs, and this was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), showing that the progesterone-mediated increase in NFAT activity requires calcineurin activity. Importantly, CsA treatment of mice completely blocked pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results show that calcineurin is required for pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and that calcineurin activity in early-pregnancy is due at least in part to increased progesterone.
Project description:Phosphodiesterase-9A (PDE9A) expression is upregulated during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests that PDE9A might be a promising therapeutic target for heart diseases. The present study sought to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of C33(S), a novel selective PDE9A inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) with PE (100 ?mol/L) or ISO (1 ?mol/L) induced cardiac hypertrophy characterized by significantly increased cell surface areas and increased expression of fetal genes (ANF and BNP). Furthermore, PE or ISO significantly increased the expression of PDE9A in the cells; whereas knockdown of PDE9A significantly alleviated PE-induced hypertrophic responses. Moreover, pretreatment with PDE9A inhibitor C33(S) (50 and 500 nmol/L) or PF-7943 (2 ?mol/L) also alleviated the cardiac hypertrophic responses in PE-treated NRCMs. Abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and ISO-induced heart failure were established in SD rats. In ISO-treated rats, oral administration of C33(S) (9, 3, and 1 mg·kg-1·d-1, for 3 consecutive weeks) significantly increased fractional shortening (43.55%±3.98%, 54.79%±1.95%, 43.98%±7.96% vs 32.18%±6.28%), ejection fraction (72.97%±4.64%, 84.29%±1.56%, 73.41%±9.37% vs 49.17%±4.20%) and cardiac output (60.01±9.11, 69.40±11.63, 58.08±8.47 mL/min vs 48.97±2.11 mL/min) but decreased the left ventricular internal diameter, suggesting that the transition to heart failure was postponed by C33(S). We further revealed that C33(S) significantly elevated intracellular cGMP levels, phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) and expression of SERCA2a in PE-treated NRCMs in vitro and in ISO-induced heart failure model in vivo. Our results demonstrate that C33(S) effectively protects against cardiac hypertrophy and postpones the transition to heart failure, suggesting that it is a promising agent in the treatment of cardiac diseases.