Characteristics of Gut Microbiota in Sows and Their Relationship with Apparent Nutrient Digestibility.
ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal health and nutrient digestibility. The characteristics of gut microbiota population in grower pigs and their correlation with apparent nutrient digestibility were assessed in previous study. Here we studied characteristics of intestinal microbiota of sows and analyzed their relationships with apparent nutrient (ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF)) digestibility. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla, approximately 73% of the total sequences. Treponema, Oscillibacter and Lactobacillus were the most dominant generas, more than 49% of the total sequences. The microbiota of sows clustered separately from the microbiota of grower pigs at the age of D28 D60, D90 and D150. The abundance of Clostridium and Turicibacter was positively correlated with apparent EE digestibility. The abundance of Anaerofustis and Robinsoniella in sow fecal samples was positively correlated with apparent CF digestibility. The abundance of Collinsella and Sutterella was positively correlated with apparent NDF digestibility. The abundance of Clostridium, Collinsella, Robinsoniella and Turicibacter was positively correlated with apparent ADF digestibility. Sows have their unique gut microbial structure compared with grower pigs and some of them participate in the digestive process of different nutrients.
Project description:The gut microbiota plays an important role in nutrient digestibility in animals. To examine changes in the pig gut microbiota across growth stages and its effects on nutrient digestion, the gut microbiota population in pigs at 28 days (before weaning), and 60, 90, and 150 days of age was assessed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was also assessed in these pigs. A total of 19,875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from all samples. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased with age. A total of 22 phyla and 249 genera were identified from all fecal samples; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla in all samples. With increasing age, the proportion of TM7 and Tenericutes increased, whereas the proportion of Lentisphaerae and Synergistetes decreased. The abundance of 36 genera varied with age, and the apparent digestibility of CF increased with age. Three phyla, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and TM7, and 11 genera, including Anaeroplasma, Campylobacter, and Clostridium, were correlated with apparent CF digestibility.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This experiment was conducted to compare the structure and composition of ruminal microorganisms in goats with high and low neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility. METHODS:Nineteen crossbred goats were used as experimental animals and fed the same total mixed rations during the 30-day pre-treatment and 6-day digestion trialperiods. All faeces were collected during the digestion period for measuring the NDF digestibility. Then, high and the low NDF digestibility individuals were chosen for the high NDF digestibility group (HFD) and low NDF digestibility group (LFD), respectively. Rumen contents were collected for total microbial DNA extraction. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers of bacteria and sequenced using high-throughput sequencer. The sequences were mainly analysed by QIIME 1.8.0. RESULTS:A total of 18,694 operational taxonomic units were obtained, within 81.98% belonged to bacteria, 6.64% belonged to archaea and 11.38% was unassigned microorganisms. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the predominant microbial phyla in both groups. At the genus level, the relative abundance of fifteen microorganisms were significantly higher (p<0.05) and six microorganisms were extremely significantly higher (p<0.01) in LFD than HFD. Overall, 176 core shared genera were identified in the two groups. The relative abundance of 2 phyla, 5 classes, 10 orders, 13 families and 15 genera had a negative correlation with NDF digestibility, but only the relative abundance of Pyramidobacter had a positive correlation with NDF digestibility. CONCLUSION:There were substantial differences in NDF digestibility among the individual goats, and the NDF digestibility had significant correlation with the relative abundance of some ruminal microorganisms.
Project description:Microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract plays a central role in health and nutrient digestion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between microbiota and apparent digestibility coefficients with respect to age and diet. Pigs from Large-White, Duroc or Pietrain breeds were raised under the same housing conditions and fed alternately a low-fiber (LF) and a high-fiber diet (HF) during 4 successive 3-week periods. Data collection for digestibility measurements was achieved during the last week of each period. At the end of each period, fecal microbiota was collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbiota remained stable across periods whereas digestibility of energy, crude proteins and cell wall components increased. The microbiota was resilient to diet effect and pigs fed the LF diet were discriminated to those fed the HF diet using 31 predicting OTUs with a mean classification error-rate of 3.9%. Clostridiaceae and Turicibacter were negatively correlated whereas Lactobacillus was positively correlated with protein and energy digestibility coefficients in the LF group. In addition, Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella were negatively correlated with cell wall component digestibility. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between microbiota composition and digestibility coefficients when pigs were fed the HF diet. Interestingly, it was also no longer possible to distinguish animals from different breeds once the animals were fed a HF diet, so that the microbiota could only trace the breed origin in the first period and in the LF group. In our experimental conditions, 3 weeks of adaptation to a new diet seems to be sufficient to observe resilience in growing pigs' microbiota. We demonstrated that fecal microbiota can be used to classify pigs according to their dietary treatment. Some bacteria are favorable or unfavorable to digestibility. This suggests that manipulations of bacterial populations can improve digestibility and feed efficiency.
Project description:Microbiota play an important role in total tract nutrient digestion, especially when fibrous diets are fed to pigs. This study aimed to use metagenomics to predict faecal nutrient digestibility in grower-finisher pigs. The study design consisted of 160 three-way crossbreed grower-finisher pigs (80 female and 80 male) which were either fed a diet based on corn/soybean meal or a more fibrous diet based on wheat/barley/by-products. On the day before slaughter, faecal samples were collected and used to determine faecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides. The faecal samples were also sequenced for the 16S hypervariable region of bacteria (V3/V4) to profile the faecal microbiome. With these data, we calculated the between-animal variation in faecal nutrient digestibility associated with variation in the faecal microbiome, that is the "microbiability". The microbiability values were significantly greater than zero for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides, ranging from 0.58 to 0.93, as well as for crude fat with a value of 0.37, but not significantly different from zero for ash. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we estimated the accuracy of predicting digestibility values of individual pigs based on their faecal microbiota composition. The accuracies of prediction for crude fat and ash digestibility were virtually 0, and for the other nutrients, the accuracies ranged from 0.42 to 0.63. In conclusion, the faecal microbiota composition gave high microbiability values for faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides. The accuracies of prediction are relatively low if the interest is in precisely predicting faecal nutrient digestibility of individual pigs, but are promising from the perspective of ranking animals in a genetic selection context.
Project description:The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake. Gut microbiota composition in the top and bottom 10% of dietary fiber intake was evaluated through network analysis. Collinsella abundance correlated positively with circulating insulin (rho = 0.30, p = 0.0006), independent of maternal BMI, but negatively with dietary fiber intake (rho = -0.20, p = 0.025) in this cohort. Low dietary fiber intake was associated with a gut microbiota favoring lactate fermentation while high fiber intake promotes short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. Low dietary fiber may enable overgrowth of Collinsella and alter the overall fermentation pattern in gut microbiota. This suggests that dietary choices during pregnancy can modify the nutritional ecology of the gut microbiota, with potential deleterious effects on the metabolic and inflammatory health of the host. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ANZCTR 12611001208998, registered 23/11/2011.
Project description:Oats have the characteristics of drought tolerance, cold resistance, strong adaptability, high forage yield, and high nutritional value. However, there are few reports on the most appropriate amount of oat hay in ruminant diets, the digestion and metabolism of ruminants, and the rumen microflora. To study the effects of oat hay content in diets on nutrient digestion and metabolism and the rumen microflora in sheep, 9 German Merino and Mongolian crossbred rams of similar body condition and weight with permanent fistulas were selected. The 3 × 3 Latin square design was used to randomly divide the rams into 3 groups, with 3 animals in each group. The three groups were fed different kinds of roughage: whole-plant corn silage only (corn silage group, CSG), oat hay mixed with whole-plant corn silage (1:1) (mixed group, MG), and oat hay only (oat hay group, OHG). The nutrient digestion and metabolism of each group were measured, and the pH and rumen microflora were examined after feeding for different durations. Dynamic changes in microbial communities were detected. The nutrient digestion and metabolism results showed that, with an increase in the content of oat hay in the diet, the intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) showed an increasing trend, and the intake, digestion, and stability of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased in the OHG. The apparent digestibility, dietary nitrogen, deposited nitrogen, and nitrogen retention rate in this group were significantly higher than those in the CSG (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The rumen pH and sequencing results showed that the rumen fluid pH of the CSG was significantly lower than that of the OHG at 1 and 5 h (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The main microbial in the rumen of the three groups of sheep were Bacteroides, Sclerotium, and Proteus. The dominant taxon in the CSG was Prevotella, followed by <i>Vibrio syringae</i>, and the dominant taxon in the MG and OHG was Prevotella, followed by Rikenellaceae. Redundancy analysis showed that ADF and NDF in the feed had an effect on the abundance of Fibrobacteres, Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. Our findings indicate that the use of oat hay roughage in the diet significantly improves the apparent digestibility of NDF and ADF and helps maintain the stable state of the sheep's rumen internal environment and the growth of rumen microorganisms.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on intake, apparent digestibility, and ruminal constituents of sheep in response to the addition of increasing levels of babassu mesocarp flour (BMF) to the diet. Twenty crossbred sheep (29.17 ± 2.23 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were confined for 21 days, with 16 days for diet adaptation and 5 days for data collection, in which they were fed an isonitrogenous diet (16.5 ± 0.2 CP, DM basis) containing 70% of concentrate and 30% (DM basis) of Tifton 85 hay. Increasing levels of BMF were 0, 10, 20, and 30% (DM basis). There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the DM intake, nutrients intake, and digestibility of CP and NFC. The digestibility of DM, OM, TC, and NDF decreased linearly, while EE digestibility increased linearly with increasing levels of BMF. The high NDF content presented in the chemical composition of the babassu mesocarp flour ranked the same as fibrous food, which can limit the inclusion in the diet of high production animals. So, babassu mesocarp flour is an alternative for energy source in lambs feed and can be added at levels up to 10%.
Project description:Limit-feeding of a high concentrate diet has been proposed as an effective method for improving feed efficiency and reducing total manure output of dairy heifers; meanwhile the effects of this method on hindgut microbiota are still unclear. This study investigated the effects of a wide range of dietary forage:concentrate ratios (F:C) on the fecal composition of bacteria and archaea in heifers using next-generation sequencing. Four diets with different F:C (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) were limit-fed to 24 Holstein heifers, and the fecal fermentation parameters and bacterial and archaeal communities were investigated. With increasing dietary concentrate levels, the fecal dry matter output, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, and proportion of acetate decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while the fecal starch content and proportions of propionate, butyrate, and total branched-chain volatile fatty acids (TBCVFAs) were increased (P ? 0.05). An increased concentrate level linearly increased (P = 0.02) the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, and linearly decreased (P = 0.02) the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in feces. At the genus level, the relative abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and Paludibacter which may have the potential to degrade forage decreased linearly (q ? 0.02) with increasing dietary concentrate levels, while the relative abundance of Roseburia and Succinivibrio which may be non-fibrous carbohydrate degrading bacteria increased linearly (q ? 0.05). Some core microbiota operational taxonomic units (OTUs) also showed significant association with fecal VFAs, NDF, and/or acid detergent fiber (ADF) content. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of most detected taxa in archaea were similar across different F:C, and only Methanosphaera showed a linear decrease (P = 0.01) in high concentrate diets. Our study provides a better understanding of fecal fermentation parameters and microbiota under a wide range of dietary F:C. These findings support the potential for microbial manipulation by diet, which could enhance feed digestibility and relieve environmental problems associated with heifer rearing.
Project description:The objective of this study was to estimate cow variability that can be used to determine the optimal sample size for digestibility trials using lactating dairy cows. Experimental design was randomized complete block design having three blocks and three dietary treatments. Three similarly managed nearby intensive farms were considered as blocks, and three diets were formulated to have 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 neutral detergent fiber (NDF): starch ratio. In each farm, 18 cows were assigned for each dietary treatment and five sample sizes per each treatment group were simulated by simple random sampling of data from 18, 15, 12, 9 and 6 cows respectively. Intake was not affected by diet or sample size (p > 0.05). Estimated cow variability (as standard deviation) for digestibility of dry matter, NDF and starch were 3.8 g/kg, 5.1 g/kg and 3.3 g/kg, respectively. A major implication of this study is that cow variability is greatest for NDF digestibility and the use of a minimum of 12 cows per dietary treatment is adequate to reliably detect treatment effects on the digestibility of NDF, starch and dry matter using cows fed in groups with randomized block design under these experimental conditions.
Project description:Background:Urea pretreatment is an efficient strategy to improve fiber digestibility of low quality roughages for ruminants. Nitrate and oil are usually used to inhibit enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw and corn oil supplementation to the diet on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbiota in goats. Nine female goats were used in a triple 3?×?3 Latin Square design (27 d periods). The treatments were: control (untreated rice straw, no added corn oil), rice straw pretreated with urea and nitrate (34 and 4.7?g/kg of rice straw on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively, UN), and UN diet supplemented with corn oil (15?g/kg soybean and 15?g/kg corn were replaced by 30?g/kg corn oil, DM basis, UNCO). Results:Compared with control, UN increased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (P?<?0.001) and copies of protozoa (P?<?0.001) and R. albus (P?<?0.05) in the rumen, but decreased N retention (-21.2%, P?<?0.001), dissolved hydrogen concentration (-22.8%, P?<?0.001), molar proportion of butyrate (-18.2%, P?<?0.05), (acetate + butyrate) to propionate ratio (P?<?0.05) and enteric CH4 emissions (-10.2%, P?<?0.05). In comparison with UN, UNCO increased N retention (+34.9%, P?<?0.001) and decreased copies of protozoa (P?<?0.001) and methanogens (P?<?0.001). Compared with control, UNCO increased NDF digestibility (+8.3%, P?<?0.001), reduced ruminal dissolved CH4 concentration (-24.4%, P?<?0.001) and enteric CH4 emissions (-12.6%, P?<?0.05). Conclusions:A combination of rice straw pretreated with urea plus nitrate and corn oil supplementation of the diet improved fiber digestibility and lowered enteric CH4 emissions without negative effects on N retention. These strategies improved the utilization of rice straw by goats.