Urinary Proteomics Profiles Are Useful for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers and Changes Induced by Therapeutic Procedures.
ABSTRACT: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment modality where two different agents (10B and thermal neutrons) have to be present to produce an effect. A dedicated trial design is necessary for early clinical trials. The concentration of 10B in tissues is an accepted surrogate to predict BNCT effects on tissues. Tissue, blood, and urines were sampled after infusion of two different boron carriers, namely BSH and BPA in the frame of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 11001. In this study, urine samples were used to identify protein profiles prior and after drug infusion during surgery. Here, an approach that is based on the mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis of urine samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and thyroid cancer patients is presented. This method allowed the identification of several inflammation- and cancer-related proteins, which could serve as tumor biomarkers. In addition, changes in the urinary proteome during and after therapeutic interventions were detected. In particular, a reduction of three proteins that were involved in inflammation has been observed: Galectin-3 Binding Protein, CD44, and osteopontin. The present work represents a proof of principle to follow proteasome changes during complex treatments based on urine samples.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic modality based on the nuclear capture of slow neutrons by stable 10B atoms followed by charged particle emission that inducing extensive damage on a very localized level (<10 ?m). To be efficient, a sufficient amount of 10B should accumulate in the tumor area while being almost cleared from the normal surroundings. A water-soluble aza-boron-dipyrromethene dyes (BODIPY) fluorophore was reported to strongly accumulate in the tumor area with high and BNCT compatible Tumor/Healthy Tissue ratios. The clinically used 10B-BSH (sodium borocaptate) was coupled to the water-soluble aza-BODIPY platform for enhanced 10B-BSH tumor vectorization. We demonstrated a strong uptake of the compound in tumor cells and determined its biodistribution in mice-bearing tumors. A model of chorioallantoic membrane-bearing glioblastoma xenograft was developed to evidence the BNCT potential of such compound, by subjecting it to slow neutrons. We demonstrated the tumor accumulation of the compound in real-time using optical imaging and ex vivo using elemental imaging based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The tumor growth was significantly reduced as compared to BNCT with 10B-BSH. Altogether, the fluorescent aza-BODIPY/10B-BSH compound is able to vectorize and image the 10B-BSH in the tumor area, increasing its theranostic potential for efficient approach of BNCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues.Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration.In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. METHODS: We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. RESULTS: CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p < 0.05). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH containing a 35-fold higher 10B dose. Furthermore, CG-HVJ-E-BSH significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing mice compared to BSH at a comparable dosage of 10B. CONCLUSION: CG-HVJ-E-BSH is a promising strategy for the BNCT treatment of visceral tumors without severe adverse events to surrounding normal tissues.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiation method used for cancer therapy. Cellular uptake of boron-10 (10B) atoms induces cancer cell death by the generation of alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 (7Li) nuclei when the cells are irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons. Current BNCT technology shows effective therapeutic benefits in refractory cancers such as brain tumors and head and neck cancers. However, improvements to cancer targeting and the cellular uptake efficacy of the boron compounds and the expansion of the diseases treatable by BNCT are highly desirable. In this research, we aimed to develop an antibody-based drug delivery method for BNCT through the use of the Z33 peptide, which shows specific recognition of and interaction with the Fc domain of human IgG, for on-demand receptor targeting. In addition, we determined with an in vitro assay that macropinocytosis induction during antibody-based drug delivery is crucial for the biological activity of BNCT.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a unique anticancer technology that has demonstrated its efficacy in numerous phase I/II clinical trials with boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) used as 10B delivery agents. However, continuous drug administration at high concentrations is needed to maintain sufficient 10B concentration within tumors. To address the issue of 10B accumulation and retention in tumor tissue, we developed MMT1242, a novel boron-containing ?-d-mannopyranoside. We evaluated the uptake, intracellular distribution, and retention of MMT1242 in cultured cells and analyzed biodistribution, tumor-to-normal tissue ratio and toxicity in vivo. Fluorescence imaging using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-labeled MMT1242 and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed. The effectiveness of BNCT using MMT1242 was assessed in animal irradiation studies at the Kyoto University Research Reactor. MMT1242 showed a high uptake and broad intracellular distribution in vitro, longer tumor retention compared to BSH and BPA, and adequate tumor-to-normal tissue accumulation ratio and low toxicity in vivo. A neutron irradiation study with MMT1242 in a subcutaneous murine tumor model revealed a significant tumor inhibiting effect if injected 24 h before irradiation. We therefore report that 10B-MMT1242 is a candidate for further clinical BNCT studies.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) provides highly targeted delivery of radiation through the limited spatial distribution of its effects. This translational research/phase I clinical trial investigates whether BNCT might be developed as a treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) relying upon preferential uptake of the two compounds, sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) or L-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the tumour. Before planned tumour resection, three patients received BSH and three patients received BPA. The (10)B-concentration in tissues and blood was measured with prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. Adverse effects from compounds did not occur. After BPA infusion the (10)B-concentration ratio of tumour/blood was 4.0 +/- 1.7. (10)B-concentration ratios of tumour/normal tissue were 1.3 +/- 0.5 for skin, 2.1 +/- 1.2 for muscle and 1.4 +/- 0.01 for mucosa. After BSH infusion the (10)B-concentration ratio of tumour/blood was 1.2 +/- 0.4. (10)B-concentration ratios of tumour/normal tissue were 3.6 +/- 0.6 for muscle, 2.5 +/- 1.0 for lymph nodes, 1.4 +/- 0.5 for skin and 1.0 +/- 0.3 for mucosa. BPA and BSH deliver (10)B to SCCHN to an extent that might allow effective BNCT treatment. Mucosa and skin are the most relevant organs at risk.
Project description:Boron compounds now have many applications in a number of fields, including Medicinal Chemistry. Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. The boron-containing compounds epitomize a new class for medicinal chemists to use in their drug designs. Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, other boron-based compounds are of great interest, such as dodecaborate anions, metallacarboranes and metallaboranes. The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. However, the improvement in the already existing (BPA and/or BSH) localized delivery agents or new tumor-targeted compounds are required before realizing the full clinical potential of BNCT. The work outlined in this short review addresses the advancements in boron containing compounds. Here, we have focused on the possible clinical implications of the new and improved boron-based biologically active compounds for BNCT that are reported to have in vivo and/or in vitro efficacy.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an emerging treatment modality aimed at improving the therapeutic ratio for traditionally difficult to treat tumors. BNCT utilizes boronated agents to preferentially deliver boron-10 to tumors, which, after undergoing irradiation with neutrons, yields litihium-7 and an alpha particle. The alpha particle has a short range, therefore preferentially affecting tumor tissues while sparing more distal normal tissues. To date, BNCT has been studied clinically in a variety of disease sites, including glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, head and neck cancers, lung cancers, breast cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcomas, cutaneous malignancies, extramammary Paget's disease, recurrent cancers, pediatric cancers, and metastatic disease. We aim to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the studies of each of these disease sites, as well as a review on the challenges facing adoption of BNCT.
Project description:The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2'-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h--with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)--following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 10(12) neutrons per cm(2) (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a noninvasive radiation therapy method for cancer treatment. In BNCT, 4-borono-2-[18F]-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-FBPA) PET has been employed to estimate 10B accumulation in target tumors and normal tissues if 10B borono-L-phenylalanine (10B-BPA) is used as a boron carrier. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the total distribution volume (Vt) of 18F-FBPA in normal organs of healthy volunteers by kinetic analysis and to estimate boron concentration in normal organs for the therapeutic dose of 10B-BPA using obtained Vt values. METHODS:Six healthy volunteers were injected with 18F-FBPA (3-5 MBq/kg), and 7 PET-CT scans were performed subsequently. 18F-FBPA radioactivity in whole blood and plasma was measured before, and eight times after the injection. PET images were analyzed by PMOD software. Twelve volumetric regions of interest including the brain, heart, right lung, spleen, liver, parotid salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and bone marrow were drawn manually for each subject and analyzed with the Logan plot and two Ichise multilinear analyses (MA1 and MA2). The better model was defined by several goodness-of-fit parameters and residual distribution. After Vt values had been derived, boron concentration was estimated in ppm for the 10B-BPA-fructose (10B-BPA-fr) dose 30 g 1 and 2 h post-injection using Vt and interpolated plasma activity data. RESULTS:The Ichise MA2 model showed the best fit among all models. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was the lowest for the Ichise's MA2 in all regions (mean AIC value - 14.0) comparing to the other models (Logan plot mean AIC 31.4; Ichise MA1 model mean AIC - 4.2). Mean Vt values of the Ichise MA2 model ranged from 0.94?±?0.14 ml/ml in the pancreas to 0.16?±?0.02 ml/ml in the right lung. Estimated boron concentration for 10B-BPA-fr had the highest value in the pancreas (14.0?±?1.9 ppm 1 h after, and 5.7?±?1.7 ppm 2 h after the 18F-FBPA administration) and the lowest value in the right lung (2.4?±?0.3 ppm 1 h, and 1.0?±?0.3 ppm 2 h post-injection). CONCLUSION:The 10B concentration in normal tissues was best estimated using Vt values of 18F-FBPA with the Ichise multilinear analysis 2 (MA2). TRAIL REGISTRY:The UMIN clinical trial number: UMIN000022850.