FDG-PET hypometabolism is more sensitive than MRI atrophy in Parkinson's disease: A whole-brain multimodal imaging meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Recently, revised diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD) were introduced (Postuma et al., 2015). Yet, except for well-established dopaminergic imaging, validated imaging biomarkers for PD are still missing, though they could improve diagnostic accuracy. We conducted systematic meta-analyses to identify PD-specific markers in whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. Overall, 74 studies were identified including 2323 patients and 1767 healthy controls. Studies were first grouped according to imaging modalities (MRI 50; PET 14; DTI 10) and then into subcohorts based on clinical phenotypes. To ensure reliable results, we combined established meta-analytical algorithms - anatomical likelihood estimation and seed-based D mapping - and cross-validated them in a conjunction analysis. Glucose hypometabolism was found using FDG-PET extensively in bilateral inferior parietal cortex and left caudate nucleus with both meta-analytic methods. This hypometabolism pattern was confirmed in subcohort analyses and related to cognitive deficits (inferior parietal cortex) and motor symptoms (caudate nucleus). Structural MRI showed only small focal gray matter atrophy in the middle occipital gyrus that was not confirmed in subcohort analyses. DTI revealed fractional anisotropy reductions in the cingulate bundle near the orbital and anterior cingulate gyri in PD. Our results suggest that FDG-PET reliably identifies consistent functional brain abnormalities in PD, whereas structural MRI and DTI show only focal alterations and rather inconsistent results. In conclusion, FDG-PET hypometabolism outperforms structural MRI in PD, although both imaging methods do not offer disease-specific imaging biomarkers for PD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [18 F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. We aimed to examine multimodal neuroimaging relationships in individuals with atypical AD, using univariate and multivariate techniques at region- and voxel-level. Forty atypical AD patients underwent MRI, FDG-PET, tau-PET, beta-amyloid PET, and DTI. Patients were all beta-amyloid positive. Partial Pearson's correlations were performed between tau and FDG standardized uptake value ratios, gray matter MRI-volumes and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Sparse canonical correlation analysis was applied to identify multivariate relationships between the same quantities. Voxel-level associations across modalities were also assessed. Tau showed strong local negative correlations with FDG metabolism in the occipital and frontal lobes. Tau in frontal and parietal regions was negatively associated with temporoparietal gray matter MRI-volume. Fractional anisotropy in a set of posterior white matter tracts, including the splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulum, and posterior thalamic radiation, was negatively correlated with parietal and occipital tau, atrophy and, predominantly, with hypometabolism. These results support the view that tau is the driving force behind neurodegeneration in atypical AD, and that a breakdown in structural connectivity is related to cortical neurodegeneration, particularly hypometabolism.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Several studies using <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (<sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have found both temporal and extratemporal abnormalities in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), but data are lacking about the findings of both techniques in the same patients. We aimed to determine whether the extent of <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET hypometabolism is related to DTI abnormalities.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-one patients with MTLE-HS underwent comprehensive preoperative evaluation; 18 (86%) of these underwent epilepsy surgery. We analyzed and compared the pattern of white matter (WM) alterations on DTI and cortical hypometabolism on <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET.<h4>Results</h4>We found widespread temporal and extratemporal <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET and DTI abnormalities. Patterns of WM abnormalities and cortical glucose hypometabolism involved similar brain regions, being more extensive in the left than the right MTLE-HS. We classified patients into three groups according to temporal <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET patterns: hypometabolism restricted to the anterior third (n = 7), hypometabolism extending to the middle third (n = 7), and hypometabolism extending to the posterior third (n = 7). Patients with anterior temporal hypometabolism showed DTI abnormalities in anterior association and commissural tracts while patients with posterior hypometabolism showed WM alterations in anterior and posterior tracts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with MTLE-HS have widespread metabolic and microstructural abnormalities that involve similar regions. The distribution patterns of these gray and white matter abnormalities differ between patients with left or right MTLE, but also with the extent of the <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET hypometabolism along the epileptogenic temporal lobe. These findings suggest a variable network involvement among patients with MTLE-HS.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly heterogeneous clinical entity. Patients with young-onset PD (YOPD) show some characteristic manifestations to late-onset PD (LOPD). The current study aimed to investigate the cerebral dopaminergic and metabolic characteristics in YOPD with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In our study, 103 subjects (42 YOPD and 61 LOPD patients) accepted both <sup>11</sup>C-N-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane (<sup>11</sup>C-CFT) and <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (<sup>18</sup>F-FDG) cerebral PET imaging. Sixty-two patients out of 103 patients in our study completed the cognition tests. In this limited subsection, YOPD patients performed better in cognitive functioning than LOPD patients of similar disease duration. In <sup>11</sup>C-CFT imaging, dopamine transporter binding in caudate was relatively spared in YOPD compared with lesions in putamen. In <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET, YOPD patients showed increased metabolism in basal ganglia relative to the healthy controls. When compared with LOPD patients, YOPD patients exhibited hypermetabolism in caudate and hypometabolism in putamen. Furthermore, the regional metabolic values in caudate correlated positively and moderately with the dopaminergic binding deficiency in caudate. The findings of this imaging study might offer new perspectives in understanding the characteristic manifestations in YOPD in light of better-preserved cognition function.
Project description:Transgenic mice line M83 that express the A53T mutant α-synuclein protein at six times the level of endogenous mice α-synuclein are a model of α-synucleinopathy found in Parkinson's disease (PD). This Hualpha-Syn (A53T) PD model is useful in assessing non-motor deficits at earlier stages of onset of PD. We report findings on metabolic changes using [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG PET/CT in the Hualpha-Syn (A53T) PD mouse model in comparison to non-carrier mice. Whole-body PET/CT imaging of male and female mice were carried out 2 h after [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG ip administration under 3% isoflurane anesthesia. Brain images were analyzed with PET images coregistered to a mouse brain MRI template. Hualpha-Syn (A53T) mice had significantly lower [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG uptake in several brain regions compared to the no-carrier mice. Significant hind limb muscle and lower spinal cord [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG hypometabolism at 9 months of age in A53T PD mice was also indicative of neurodegenerative disease, with a progressive motoric dysfunction leading to death. Significant decrease (up to 30%) in [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG uptake were observed in 9-month old male and female Hualpha-Syn (A53) mice. This is consistent with the cortical hypometabolism in PD patients. Hualpha-Syn (A53) mice may thus be a suitable model for studies related to PD α-synucleinopathy for the discovery of new biomarkers.
Project description:Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atrophy is a hallmark of Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). Here, we aim to investigate voxel-wise gray matter (GM) atrophy in RE, and its associations with glucose hypometabolism and neurotransmitter distribution utilizing MRI and PET data. In this study, fifteen RE patients and fourteen MRI normal subjects were included in this study. Voxel-wise GM volume and glucose metabolic uptake were evaluated using structural MRI and FDG-PET images, respectively. Spatial Spearman's correlation was performed between GM atrophy of RE with FDG uptake alterations, and neurotransmitter distributions provided in the JuSpace toolbox. Compared with the control group, RE patients displayed extensive GM volume loss not only in the ipsilateral hemisphere, but also in the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and cerebellum in the contralateral hemisphere. Within the RE group, the insular and temporal cortices exhibited significantly more GM atrophy on the ipsilesional than the contralesional side. FDG-PET data revealed significant hypometabolism in areas surrounding the insular cortices in the ipsilesional hemisphere. RE-related GM volumetric atrophy was spatially correlated with hypomebolism in FDG uptake, and with spatial distribution of the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems. The spatial concordance of morphological changes with metabolic abnormalities suggest FDG-PET offers potential value for RE diagnosis. The GM alterations associated with neurotransmitter distribution map could provide novel insight in understanding the neuropathological mechanisms and clinical feature of RE.
Project description:Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is an important and treatable cause of neurologic impairment. Diagnosis is complicated due to symptoms overlapping with other age related disorders. The pathophysiology underlying iNPH is not well understood. We explored FDG-PET abnormalities in iNPH patients in order to determine if FDG-PET may serve as a biomarker to differentiate iNPH from common neurodegenerative disorders.We retrospectively compared 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging patterns from seven iNPH patients (mean age 74?±?6?years) to age and sex matched controls, as well as patients diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD), and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Partial volume corrected and uncorrected images were reviewed separately.Patients with iNPH, when compared to controls, AD, DLB/PDD, and bvFTD, had significant regional hypometabolism in the dorsal striatum, involving the caudate and putamen bilaterally. These results remained highly significant after partial volume correction.In this study, we report a FDG-PET pattern of hypometabolism in iNPH involving the caudate and putamen with preserved cortical metabolism. This pattern may differentiate iNPH from degenerative diseases and has the potential to serve as a biomarker for iNPH in future studies. These findings also further our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the iNPH clinical presentation.
Project description:The joint analysis of brain atrophy measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hypometabolism measured with positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is of primary importance in developing models of pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of the current multimodal analyses in AD assume a local (spatially overlapping) relationship between MR and FDG-PET intensities. However, it is well known that atrophy and hypometabolism are prominent in different anatomical areas. The aim of this work is to describe the relationship between atrophy and hypometabolism by means of a data-driven statistical model of non-overlapping intensity correlations. For this purpose, FDG-PET and MRI signals are jointly analyzed through a computationally tractable formulation of partial least squares regression (PLSR). The PLSR model is estimated and validated on a large clinical cohort of 1049 individuals from the ADNI dataset. Results show that the proposed non-local analysis outperforms classical local approaches in terms of predictive accuracy while providing a plausible description of disease dynamics: early AD is characterised by non-overlapping temporal atrophy and temporo-parietal hypometabolism, while the later disease stages show overlapping brain atrophy and hypometabolism spread in temporal, parietal and cortical areas.
Project description:The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences. FDG-PET and MRI data from AD patients (n = 80), MCI converters (n = 65) and MCI non-converters (n = 64) were compared to data of healthy subjects (n = 79). All patient groups were split into subgroups by age, time to conversion (for MCI), or symptom severity and compared to the control group. AD patients showed a strongly age-dependent pattern, with younger patients showing significantly more extensive reductions in gray matter volume and glucose utilisation. In the MCI converter group, the amount of glucose utilisation reduction was linked to the time to conversion but not to atrophy. Our findings indicate that FDG-PET might be more closely linked to future cognitive decline whilst MRI being more closely related to the current cognitive state reflects potentially irreversible damage.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We aimed to uncover the pattern of network-level changes in neuronal function in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).<h4>Methods</h4>17 genetically-confirmed SCA3 patients and 16 controls underwent structural MRI and static resting-state [<sup>18</sup>F]?Fluoro?deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. A SCA3-related pattern (SCA3-RP) was identified using a multivariate method (scaled subprofile model and principal component analysis (SSM PCA)). Participants were evaluated with the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and with neuropsychological examination including tests for language, executive dysfunction, memory, and information processing speed. The relationships between SCA3-RP expression and clinical scores were explored. Voxel based morphology (VBM) was applied on MRI-T1 images to assess possible correlations between FDG reduction and grey matter atrophy.<h4>Results</h4>The SCA3-RP disclosed relative hypometabolism of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus and posterior parietal cortex, and relatively increased metabolism in somatosensory areas and the limbic system. This topography, which was not explained by regional atrophy, correlated significantly with ataxia (SARA) scores (??=?0.72; <i>P</i>?=?0.001). SCA3 patients showed significant deficits in executive function and information processing speed, but only letter fluency correlated with SCA3-RP expression (??=?0.51; <i>P</i>?=?0.04, uncorrected for multiple comparisons).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The SCA3 metabolic profile reflects network-level alterations which are primarily associated with the motor features of the disease. Striatum decreases additional to cerebellar hypometabolism underscores an intrinsic extrapyramidal involvement in SCA3. Cerebellar-posterior parietal hypometabolism together with anterior parietal (sensory) cortex hypermetabolism may reflect a shift from impaired feedforward to compensatory feedback processing in higher-order motor control. The demonstrated SCA3-RP provides basic insight in cerebral network changes in this disease.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the sensitivity of structural MRI and <sup>18</sup>F-fludeoxyglucose PET (<sup>18</sup>FDG-PET) to detect longitudinal changes in frontotemporal dementia (FTD).<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 7 with nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), 16 with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and 43 cognitively normal controls underwent 2-4 MRI and <sup>18</sup>FDG-PET scans (total scans/visit = 270) as part of the Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Neuroimaging Initiative study. Linear mixed-effects models were carried out voxel-wise and in regions of interest to identify areas showing decreased volume or metabolism over time in patients as compared to controls.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, patients with bvFTD showed bilateral temporal, dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal atrophy/hypometabolism that extended with time into adjacent structures and parietal lobe. In nfvPPA, baseline atrophy/hypometabolism in supplementary motor cortex extended with time into left greater than right precentral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. In svPPA, baseline atrophy/hypometabolism encompassed the anterior temporal and medial prefrontal cortex and longitudinal changes were found in temporal, orbitofrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. Across syndromes, there was substantial overlap in the brain regions showing volume and metabolism loss. Even though the pattern of metabolic decline was more extensive, metabolic changes were also more variable and sample size estimates were similar or higher for <sup>18</sup>FDG-PET compared to MRI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings demonstrated the sensitivity of <sup>18</sup>FDG-PET and structural MRI for tracking disease progression in FTD. Both modalities showed highly overlapping patterns of longitudinal change and comparable sample size estimates to detect longitudinal changes in future clinical trials.