Among older adults, age-related changes in the stool microbiome differ by HIV-1 serostatus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:HIV-1 infection and physiological aging are independently linked to elevated systemic inflammation and changes in enteric microbial communities (dysbiosis). However, knowledge of the direct effect of HIV infection on the aging microbiome and potential links to systemic inflammation is lacking. METHODS:In a cross-sectional study of older people living with HIV (PLWH) (median age 61.5?years, N?=?14) and uninfected controls (median 58?years, n?=?22) we compared stool microbiota, levels of microbial metabolites (short-chain fatty acid levels, SCFA) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers by HIV serostatus and age. FINDINGS:HIV and age were independently associated with distinct changes in the stool microbiome. For example, abundances of Enterobacter and Paraprevotella were higher and Eggerthella and Roseburia lower among PLWH compared to uninfected controls. Age-related microbiome changes also differed by HIV serostatus. Some bacteria with inflammatory potential (e.g. Escherichia) increased with age among PLWH, but not controls. Stool SCFA levels were similar between the two groups yet patterns of associations between individual microbial taxa and SCFA levels differed. Abundance of various genera including Escherichia and Bifidobacterium positively associated with inflammatory biomarkers (e.g. soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors) among PLWH, but not among controls. INTERPRETATION:The age effect on the gut microbiome and associations between microbiota and microbial metabolites or systemic inflammation differed based on HIV serostatus, raising important implications for the impact of therapeutic interventions, dependent on HIV serostatus or age.
Project description:Impairments in physical function and increased systemic levels of inflammation have been observed in middle-aged and older persons with HIV (PWH). We previously demonstrated that in older persons, associations between gut microbiota and inflammation differed by HIV serostatus. To determine whether relationships between the gut microbiome and physical function measurements would also be distinct between older persons with and without HIV, we reanalyzed existing gut microbiome and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) data in conjunction with previously collected measurements of physical function and body composition from the same cohorts of older (51-74 years), nonfrail PWH receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (<i>N</i> = 14) and age-balanced uninfected controls (<i>N</i> = 22). Associations between relative abundance (RA) of the most abundant bacterial taxa or stool SCFA levels with physical function and body composition were tested using HIV-adjusted linear regression models. In older PWH, but not in controls, greater RA of <i>Alistipes</i>, <i>Escherichia</i>, <i>Prevotella</i>, <i>Megasphaera</i>, and <i>Subdoligranulum</i> were associated with reduced lower extremity muscle function, decreased lean mass, or lower Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores. Conversely, greater RA of <i>Dorea</i>, <i>Coprococcus,</i> and <i>Phascolarctobacterium</i> in older PWH were associated with better muscle function, lean mass, and SPPB scores. Higher levels of the SCFA butyrate associated with increased grip strength in both PWH and controls. Our findings indicate that in older PWH, both negative and positive associations exist between stool microbiota abundance and physical function. Different relationships were observed in older uninfected persons, suggesting features of a unique gut-physical function axis in PWH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although both chronic lung disease and HIV are inflammatory diseases common in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between systemic inflammation and lung function among people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa is not well described. METHODS:We measured lung function (using spirometry) and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), and soluble CD163 (sCD163) in 125 PLWH on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 109 age- and sex-similar HIV-uninfected control subjects in rural Uganda. We modeled the relationship between lung function and systemic inflammation using linear regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, controlled for age, sex, height, tobacco, and biomass exposure. RESULTS:Half of subjects [46% (107/234)] were women, and the median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 48-55). Most PLWH [92% (115/125)] were virologically suppressed on first-line ART. Median CD4 count was 472 cells/mm. In multivariable linear regression models stratified by HIV serostatus, an interquartile range increase in IL-6 and sCD163 were each inversely associated with lung function (mL, 95% confidence interval) among PLWH [IL-6: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) -18.1 (-29.1 to -7.1), forced vital capacity (FVC) -17.1 (-28.2 to -5.9); sCD163: FVC -14.3 (-26.9 to -1.7)]. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3 vs. <1 mg/L) was inversely associated with lung function among both PLWH and HIV-uninfected control subjects [PLWH: FEV1 -39.3 (-61.7 to -16.9), FVC -44.0 (-48.4 to -6.4); HIV-uninfected: FEV1 -37.9 (-63.2 to -12.6), FVC -58.0 (-88.4 to -27.5)]. sCD14 was not associated with lung function, and all interaction terms were insignificant. CONCLUSIONS:Macrophage activation and systemic inflammation are associated with lower lung function among PLWH on stable ART in rural Uganda. Future work should focus on underlying mechanisms and public health implications.
Project description:The intestinal microbiome is an essential so-called human "organ", vital for the induction of innate immunity, for metabolizing nutrients, and for maintenance of the structural integrity of the intestinal barrier. HIV infection adversely influences the richness and diversity of the intestinal microbiome, resulting in structural and functional impairment of the intestinal barrier and an increased intestinal permeability. Pathogens and metabolites may thus cross the "leaky" intestinal barrier and enter the systemic circulation, which is a significant factor accounting for the persistent underlying chronic inflammatory state present in people living with HIV (PLWH). Additionally, alcohol use and abuse has been found to be prevalent in PLWH and has been strongly associated with the incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS. Recently, converging evidence has indicated that the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is related to intestinal microbiome and barrier function through numerous pathways. Alcohol acts as a "partner" with HIV in disrupting microbiome ecology, and thus impairing of the intestinal barrier. Optimizing the microbiome and restoring the integrity of the intestinal barrier is likely to be an effective adjunctive therapeutic strategy for PLWH. We herein critically review the interplay among HIV, alcohol, and the gut barrier, thus setting the scene with regards to development of effective strategies to counteract the dysregulated gut microbiome and the reduction of microbial translocation and inflammation in PLWH.
Project description:Poor metabolic health, characterized by insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is higher in people living with HIV and has been linked with inflammation, antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs, and ART-associated lipodystrophy (LD). Metabolic disease is associated with gut microbiome composition outside the context of HIV but has not been deeply explored in HIV infection or in high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM), who have a highly altered gut microbiome composition. Furthermore, the contribution of increased bacterial translocation and associated systemic inflammation that has been described in HIV-positive and HR-MSM individuals has not been explored. We used a multiomic approach to explore relationships between impaired metabolic health, defined using fasting blood markers, gut microbes, immune phenotypes, and diet. Our cohort included ART-treated HIV-positive MSM with or without LD, untreated HIV-positive MSM, and HR-MSM. For HIV-positive MSM on ART, we further explored associations with the plasma metabolome. We found that elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) was the most important predictor of impaired metabolic health and network analysis showed that LBP formed a hub joining correlated microbial and immune predictors of metabolic disease. Taken together, our results suggest the role of inflammatory processes linked with bacterial translocation and interaction with the gut microbiome in metabolic disease among HIV-positive and -negative MSM.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> The gut microbiome in people living with HIV (PLWH) is of interest since chronic infection often results in long-term comorbidities. Metabolic disease is prevalent in PLWH even in well-controlled infection and has been linked with the gut microbiome in previous studies, but little attention has been given to PLWH. Furthermore, integrated analyses that consider gut microbiome, together with diet, systemic immune activation, metabolites, and demographics, have been lacking. In a systems-level analysis of predictors of metabolic disease in PLWH and men who are at high risk of acquiring HIV, we found that increased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker indicative of compromised intestinal barrier function, was associated with worse metabolic health. We also found impaired metabolic health associated with specific dietary components, gut microbes, and host and microbial metabolites. This study lays the framework for mechanistic studies aimed at targeting the microbiome to prevent or treat metabolic endotoxemia in HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:The biological mechanisms underlying emotional distress in HIV infection are likely to be complex but remain understudied. We investigated whether dysbiotic signatures in the gut microbiome of persons living with HIV (PLWH) are associated with their emotional status. We retrospectively examined the gut microbiome and clinical evaluation of 129 adults (94 PLWH and 35 HIV-) enrolled at UC San Diego's HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. A subset of participants (32 PLWH vs. 13 HIV-) underwent an emotional assessment using the NIH Toolbox Emotion Battery summarized by three composite scores (negative affect, social satisfaction, and psychological well-being). We then sequenced the 16S rDNA V3-V4 regions from stool and performed taxonomic assignment using CLC Microbial Genomics Module. The gut microbiota profiles were evaluated in relation to participants' emotional assessment. All analyses were done in R statistical software. We found that the relative abundance of aerotolerant bacteria was significantly higher in PLWH (p < 0.01) and was associated with a lifetime major depression diagnosis independently of HIV status (p = 0.05). Moreover, PLWH experienced significantly worse psychological well-being (p = 0.02), less social satisfaction (p = 0.03), and more negative affect (p = 0.02). Higher levels of aerotolerant bacteria were associated with worse psychological well-being (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02), less social satisfaction (r = - 0.42, p < 0.01), and more negative affect (rho = 0.46, p < 0.01). The association of aerotolerant bacteria with social satisfaction and negative affect was independent of HIV status (p < 0.05, for both). The over-representation of aerotolerant bacteria in the gut may reflect worse oxidative stress and barrier defects and may contribute to emotional distress during HIV infection.
Project description:Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) are still at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that are mediated by chronic inflammation. Identification of novel inflammatory mediators with the inherent potential to be used as CVD biomarkers and also as therapeutic targets is critically needed for better risk stratification and disease management in PLWH. Here, we investigated the expression and potential role of the multi-isoform proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 in subclinical atherosclerosis in PLWH (n=49 with subclinical atherosclerosis and n=30 without) and HIV- controls (n=25 with subclinical atherosclerosis and n=24 without). While expression of all tested IL-32 isoforms (α, β, γ, D, ϵ, and θ) was significantly higher in peripheral blood from PLWH compared to HIV- controls, IL-32D and IL-32θ isoforms were further upregulated in HIV+ individuals with coronary artery atherosclerosis compared to their counterparts without. Upregulation of these two isoforms was associated with increased plasma levels of IL-18 and IL-1β and downregulation of the atheroprotective protein TRAIL, which together composed a unique atherosclerotic inflammatory signature specific for PLWH compared to HIV- controls. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that modulation of these inflammatory variables was independent of age, smoking, and statin treatment. Furthermore, our <i>in vitro</i> functional data linked IL-32 to macrophage activation and production of IL-18 and downregulation of TRAIL, a mechanism previously shown to be associated with impaired cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. Finally, increased expression of IL-32 isoforms in PLWH with subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with altered gut microbiome (increased pathogenic bacteria; <i>Rothia</i> and <i>Eggerthella</i> species) and lower abundance of the gut metabolite short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) caproic acid, measured in fecal samples from the study participants. Importantly, caproic acid diminished the production of IL-32, IL-18, and IL-1β in human PBMCs in response to bacterial LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our studies identified an HIV-specific atherosclerotic inflammatory signature including specific IL-32 isoforms, which is regulated by the SCFA caproic acid and that may lead to new potential therapies to prevent CVD in ART-treated PLWH.
Project description:Associations between the human gut microbiome and health outcomes continues to be of great interest, although fecal sample collection methods which impact microbiome studies are sometimes neglected. Here, we expand on previous work in sample optimization, to promote high quality microbiome data. To compare fecal sample collection methods, amplicons from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4) and fungal (ITS2) region, as well as short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in fecal material over three timepoints. We demonstrated that spot sampling of stool results in variable detection of some microbial members, and inconsistent levels of SCFA; therefore, sample homogenization prior to subsequent analysis or subsampling is recommended. We also identify a trend in microbial and metabolite composition that shifts over two consecutive stool collections less than 25 h apart. Lastly, we show significant differences in bacterial composition that result from collecting stool samples in OMNIgene·Gut tube (DNA Genotec) or Stool Nucleic Acid Collection and Preservation Tube (NORGEN) compared to immediate freezing. To assist with planning fecal sample collection and storage procedures for microbiome investigations with multiple analyses, we recommend participants to collect the first full bowel movement of the day and freeze the sample immediately after collection.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Mechanisms of HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. The oral microbiome shapes the lung microbiome, and gut dysbiosis can affect lung diseases; however, relationships of the oral and gut microbiome to COPD in HIV have not been explored.<b>Objectives:</b> To examine alterations in the oral and gut microbiome associated with pulmonary disease in persons with HIV (PWH).<b>Methods:</b> Seventy-five PWH and 93 HIV-uninfected men from the MACS (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study) performed pulmonary function testing. Sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in saliva and stool was performed. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling, permutational multivariate ANOVA, and linear discriminant analysis to analyze communities by HIV and lung function.<b>Measurements and Main Results:</b> Oral microbiome composition differed by HIV and smoking status. Alterations of oral microbial communities were observed in PWH with abnormal lung function with increases in relative abundance of <i>Veillonella</i>, <i>Streptococcus</i>, and <i>Lactobacillus</i>. There were no significant associations between the oral microbiome and lung function in HIV-uninfected individuals. No associations with HIV status or lung function were seen with the gut microbiome.<b>Conclusions:</b> Alterations of oral microbiota in PWH were related to impaired pulmonary function and to systemic inflammation. These results suggest that the oral microbiome may serve as a biomarker of lung function in HIV and that its disruption may contribute to COPD pathogenesis.
Project description:In 2019, the National Institutes of Health combined the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) into the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). In this paper, participants who made a study visit during October 2018-September 2019 (targeted for MWCCS enrollment) are described by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus and compared with people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. Participants include 2,115 women and 1,901 men with a median age of 56 years (interquartile range, 48-63); 62% are PLWH. Study sites encompass the South (18%), the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast (45%), the West Coast (22%), and the Midwest (15%). Participant race/ethnicity approximates that of PLWH throughout the United States. Longitudinal data and specimens collected for 35 years (men) and 25 years (women) were combined. Differences in data collection and coding were reviewed, and key risk factor and comorbidity data were harmonized. For example, recent use of alcohol (62%) and tobacco (28%) are common, as are dyslipidemia (64%), hypertension (56%), obesity (42%), mildly or severely impaired daily activities (31%), depressive symptoms (28%), and diabetes (22%). The MWCCS repository includes serum, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cell pellets, urine, cervicovaginal lavage samples, oral samples, B-cell lines, stool, and semen specimens. Demographic differences between the MACS and WIHS can confound analyses by sex. The merged MWCCS is both an ongoing observational cohort study and a valuable resource for harmonized longitudinal data and specimens for HIV-related research.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Gut microbiota respond to host physiological phenomena, yet little is known regarding shifts in the gut microbiome due to menopausal hormonal and metabolic changes in women. HIV infection impacts menopause and may also cause gut dysbiosis. We therefore sought to determine the association between menopausal status and gut microbiome composition in women with and without HIV.<h4>Methods</h4>Gut microbiome composition was assessed in stool from 432 women (99 premenopausal HIV+, 71 premenopausal HIV-, 182 postmenopausal HIV+, 80 postmenopausal HIV-) via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We examined cross-sectional associations of menopause with gut microbiota overall diversity and composition, and taxon and inferred metagenomic pathway abundance. Models were stratified by HIV serostatus and adjusted for age, HIV-related variables, and other potential confounders.<h4>Results</h4>Menopause, ie post- versus premenopausal status, was associated with overall microbial composition only in women with HIV (permutational MANOVA of Jensen Shannon Divergence: P = 0.01). In women with HIV, menopause was associated with enrichment of gram-negative order Enterobacteriales, depletion of highly abundant taxa within Prevotella copri, and alterations in other low-abundance taxa. Additionally, menopause in women with HIV was associated with enrichment of metagenomic pathways related to Enterobacteriales, including degradation of amino acids and phenolic compounds, biosynthesis of enterobactin, and energy metabolism pathways. Menopause-related differences in some low-abundance taxa were also observed in women without HIV.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A changing gut microbiome may be an overlooked phenomenon of reproductive aging in women with HIV. Longitudinal assessments across all reproductive stages are necessary to confirm these findings and identify health implications.