Associations Between Marijuana Use Trajectories and Educational and Occupational Success in Young Adulthood.
ABSTRACT: Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical stage when the economic foundations for life-long health are established. To date, there is little consensus as to whether marijuana use is associated with poor educational and occupational success in adulthood. We investigated associations between trajectories of marijuana use from ages 15 to 28 and multiple indicators of economic well-being in young adulthood including achievement levels (i.e., educational attainment and occupational prestige), work characteristics (i.e., full vs part-time employment, hours worked, annual income), financial strain (i.e., debt, trouble paying for necessities, delaying medical attention), and perceived workplace stress. Data were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a 10-year prospective study of a randomly recruited community sample of 662 youth (48% male; Mage?=?15.5), followed biennially for six assessments. Models adjusted for baseline age, sex, SES, high school grades, heavy drinking, smoking, and internalizing and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Chronic users (our highest risk class) reported lower levels of educational attainment, lower occupational prestige, lower income, greater debt, and more difficulty paying for medical necessities in young adulthood compared to abstainers. Similarly, increasers also reported lower educational attainment, occupational prestige, and income. Decreasers, who had high early use but quit over time, showed resilience in economic well-being, performing similar to abstainers. Groups did not differ on employment status or perceived workplace stress. The findings indicate that early onset and persistent high or increasingly frequent use of marijuana in the transition from adolescent to young adulthood is associated with risks for achieving educational and occupational success, and subsequently health, in young adulthood.
Project description:Family experiences have been linked to youth's achievements in childhood and adolescence, but we know less about their long term implications for educational and occupational achievements in young adulthood. Grounded in social capital theory and ecological frameworks, this study tested whether mothers' and fathers' education and occupation attainments, as well as the mean level and cross-time consistency of parental warmth during childhood and adolescence, predicted educational and occupational achievements in young adulthood. We also tested interactions between parental achievement and warmth in predicting these young adult outcomes. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and firstborn and secondborn siblings in 164 families at up to 11 time points. Predictors came from the first nine annual points (youth age M = 10.52 at Time 1) and outcomes from when young adults averaged 26 years old (firstborns at Time 10, secondborns at Time 11). Results from multilevel models revealed that both mothers' and fathers' educational attainment and warmth consistency from childhood through adolescence predicted young adults' educational attainment. Fathers' occupational prestige predicted sons', but not daughters', prestige. An interaction between mothers' warmth consistency, occupational prestige, and youth gender revealed that, for sons whose mothers' prestige was low, warmth consistency positively predicted their prestige, but this association was nonsignificant when mothers' prestige was high. Conversely, for daughters with mothers high in prestige, warmth consistency was a trend level, positive predictor of daughters' prestige, but was nonsignificant when mothers' prestige was low. Thus, maternal resources appeared to have a cumulative impact on daughters, but the process for sons was compensatory. Discussion focuses on the role of family resources in the gender gap in young adult achievement.
Project description:We examine how trajectories of marijuana use in Canadian youth (ages 15 to 28) are related to physical health indicators in adolescence and young adulthood. Youth were initially recruited in 2003 (N = 662; 48% male; ages 12 to 18) and followed for six waves. Five trajectories of marijuana use (Abstainers-29%, Occasional users-27%, Decreasers-14%, Increasers-20% and Chronic users-11%) were identified. Chronic users reported more physical symptoms, poorer physical self-concept, less physical activity, poorer eating practices, less sleep, and higher number of sexual partners during adolescence than other classes. Decreasers also reported poorer physical self-concept and poorer eating practices than abstainers. Other trajectory classes showed few significant health problems. Chronic users also reported more acute health problems (i.e. serious injuries, early sexual debut, higher number of sexual partners, greater likelihood of having a STI) in young adulthood than all other classes contributing to costs of healthcare. Youth who engage in early, frequent and continued use of marijuana from adolescence to young adulthood are at-risk of physical health problems in adolescence and young adulthood.
Project description:Research on stratification and mobility has consistently shown that in the UK there is a direct impact of social origin on occupational destination net of educational attainment even for degree-holders. However, only a few studies applied a longitudinal and dynamic perspective on how intergenerational mobility shapes graduates' working careers. Using multilevel growth curve modelling and data from the 1970 British cohort study (BCS70), we contribute to this research by looking at the emergence of social inequalities during the first ten years since labour market entry. We further distinguish between graduates of different fields of study as we expect social disparities to develop differently due to differences in initial occupational placement and upward mobility processes. We find that parental class does not affect occupational prestige over and above prior achievement. Separate analyses by the field of study show that initial differences in occupational prestige and career progression do not differ between graduates from different classes of origin in STEM fields, and arts and humanities. It is only in the social sciences that working-class graduates start with lower occupational prestige but soon catch up with their peers from higher classes. Overall, our results indicate no direct effect of social origin on occupational attainment for degree-holders once we broaden our focus to a dynamic life course perspective.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Little is known of the factors that influence the course of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives were to identify early features predictive of the adult outcome of children with ADHD. In the longest prospective follow-up to date of children with ADHD, predictors of multiple functional domains were examined: social, occupational, and overall adjustment and educational and occupational attainment. METHOD:White boys (6-12 years, mean age 8 years) with ADHD (N = 135), selected to be free of conduct disorder, were assessed longitudinally through adulthood (mean age 41) by clinicians blinded to all previous characteristics. Predictors had been recorded in childhood and adolescence (mean age 18). RESULTS:Childhood IQ was positively associated with several outcomes: educational attainment, occupational rank, and social and occupational adjustment. Despite their low severity, conduct problems in childhood were negatively related to overall function, educational attainment, and occupational functioning. Two other childhood features that had positive associations with adult adjustment were socioeconomic status and reading ability, which predicted educational attainment. Of multiple adolescent characteristics, 4 were significant predictors: antisocial behaviors predicted poorer educational attainment; educational goals were related to better overall function; early job functioning had a positive relation with social functioning; and early social functioning was positively related to occupational functioning. CONCLUSION:Other than childhood IQ, which predicted better outcomes in several domains, there were no consistent prognosticators of adult function among children with ADHD. Providing additional supports to children with relatively lower IQ might improve the adult functional outcome of children with ADHD. However, predicting the course of children with ADHD remains a challenge.
Project description:Educational disparities in health and mortality are well-documented and evidence suggests that they may be widening. Yet, there is much unknown about when educational disparities begin to emerge and for whom. This paper investigates the association between educational attainment and cardiometabolic health in young adults with critical attention paid to differences across racial/ethnic and sex subgroups. We focus on cardiometabolic health in young adulthood as it is particularly relevant for understanding current population health trends. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) when participants were aged 12-19 years (Wave I) and aged 24-32 years (Wave IV). Using a series of logistic regression models, we first estimated the association between education and five markers of cardiometabolic health (high-risk blood pressure, high-risk waist circumference, diabetes/pre-diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and high-risk inflammation). We then examined the extent to which this association was explained by adolescent health and both adolescent and young adult socioeconomic status (SES) (including parental education, participant educational attainment, household income, and employment status). Finally, we investigated whether the association between educational attainment and cardiometabolic health differed by race/ethnicity and sex. We found evidence of an association between educational attainment and cardiometabolic health that persisted net of adolescent health, adolescent SES, and young adult SES. We also found some evidence of modest differences in this association by race/ethnicity and sex. Our findings suggest that even as early as young adulthood there are disparities in cardiometabolic health by educational attainment, which may lead to even larger disparities in late life health.
Project description:We examined developmental trajectories of marijuana use among a cohort of urban African Americans followed from first grade to mid adulthood. We compared risk factors in childhood and adolescence and consequences in mid adulthood across trajectory groups.Using semiparametric group-based mixture modeling, five marijuana trajectories for men (n=455) and four trajectories for women (n=495) were identified extending from adolescence to young adulthood (age 32). We labeled the four trajectory groups similar for men and women "abstainers," "adolescent only users," "early adulthood decliners," and "persistent users." We named the unique fifth group for men "late starters."Multivariate multinomial logistic regressions show that childhood problem behaviors, adolescent family involvement, and dropping out of high school differentiated trajectory membership. Analyses comparing the trajectory groups on behavioral, social, and health outcomes at age 42 revealed that for both men and women, those in the persistent trajectory had the most problems, and those in the early adult decliner group also had specific problems. Male late starters also had poor outcomes.The findings point to the value of identifying specific patterns of substance use over the life course and understanding the differences in their correlates and consequences. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort, we examine how cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with heterogeneous pathways of marijuana use from age sixteen through young adulthood. We also examine whether this relationship can be explained by the role of cognitive aptitude in the social organization of peer group deviance. METHODS:Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we identified 5 latent trajectories of frequency of marijuana use between ages 16 and 26: abstainers, dabblers, early heavy quitters, consistent users, and persistent heavy users. Multinomial regression assessed the relationship of cognitive aptitude in early adolescence with these latent trajectories, including the role of peer group substance use in this relationship. RESULTS:A one decile increase in cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with greater relative risk of the dabbler trajectory (RR = 1.048; p < .001) and consistent user trajectory (RR = 1.126; p < .001), but lower relative risk of the early heavy quitter trajectory (RR = 0.917; p < .05) in comparison with the abstainer trajectory. There was no effect for the persistent heavy user trajectory. The inclusion of peer group substance use-either via illegal drugs or smoking-had no effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescents who rate higher in cognitive aptitude during early adolescence may be more likely to enter into consistent but not extreme trajectories of marijuana use as they age into young adulthood. Cognition may not influence patterns of marijuana use over time via the organization of peer groups.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Research is needed to examine trajectories of tobacco use beyond cigarette smoking, particularly during emerging middle young adulthood, and to identify distinct multilevel influences of use trajectories.<h4>Aims and methods</h4>We examined (1) tobacco use trajectories over a 2-year period among 2592 young adult college students in a longitudinal cohort study and (2) predictors of these trajectories using variables from a socioecological framework, including intrapersonal-level factors (eg, sociodemographics, psychosocial factors [eg, adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms], early-onset substance use), interpersonal factors (eg, social support, parental substance use), and community-level factors (eg, college type, rural vs. urban).<h4>Results</h4>About 64.5% were female and 65.0% were white. From age 18 to 26, 27%-31% of participants reported past 30-day use of any tobacco product. We identified four trajectory classes: Abstainers/Dabblers who never or infrequently used (89.2%); Adult users who began using frequently around age 20 and continued thereafter (5.9%); College Smokers who began using before 19 but ceased use around 25 (2.5%); and Teenage users who used during their teenage years but ceased use by 22 (1.9%). Multinomial regression showed that, compared to Abstainers/Dabblers, significant predictors (p < .05) of being (1) Adult users included being male, earlier onset marijuana use, attending public universities or technical colleges (vs. private universities), and living in urban areas; (2) College users included being male, earlier onset marijuana use, and parental alcohol or marijuana use; and (3) Teenage users included only earlier onset marijuana use.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Distinct prevention and intervention efforts may be needed to address the trajectories identified.<h4>Implications</h4>Among young adult college students, the largest proportion of tobacco users demonstrate the risk of continued and/or progression of tobacco use beyond college. In addition, specific factors, particularly sex, earlier onset marijuana use, parental use of alcohol and marijuana, and contextual factors such as college setting (type of school, rural vs. urban) may influence tobacco use outcomes. As such, prevention and cessation intervention strategies are needed to address multilevel influences.
Project description:The current study investigated mediators between childhood/adolescent adversities (e.g., dating violence, maltreatment, homelessness, and parental death), low socioeconomic status (SES) during adolescence, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in young adulthood. The purpose of these analyses was to understand whether SES during adolescence and childhood/adolescent adversities affect CVD risk through similar pathways, including maternal relationship quality, health behaviors, financial stress, medical/dental care, educational attainment, sleep problems, and depressive symptoms.Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 14,493), which has followed US adolescents (Wave 1; M = 15.9 years) through early adulthood (Wave 4; M = 28.9 years), associations were examined between childhood/adolescent adversity and SES to 30-year CVD risk in young adulthood. The outcome was a Framingham-based prediction model of CVD risk that included age, sex, body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and antihypertensive medication use at Wave 4. Path analysis was used to examine paths through the adolescent maternal relationship to young adult mediators of CVD risk.Childhood/adolescent adversity significantly predicted greater adult CVD risk through the following pathways: maternal relationship, health behaviors, financial stress, lack of medical/dental care, and educational attainment; but not through depressive symptoms or sleep problems. Lower SES during adolescence significantly predicted greater adult CVD risk through the following pathways: health behaviors, financial stress, lack of medical/dental care, and educational attainment, but not maternal relationship, depressive symptoms, or sleep problems.Childhood/adolescent adversities and SES affected CVD risk in young adulthood through both similar and unique pathways that may inform interventions.
Project description:Background:Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES), such as high maternal educational attainment, show weaker protective effects on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes for Black than White families. As a result of these MDRs, families and individuals with high educational attainment still report high levels of depression, smoking, obesity, and chronic disease. Limited knowledge exists on MDRs of maternal education on indicators of wealth such as home ownership and home value. Aims:Built on the MDRs framework, we tested the hypothesis of whether the effects of maternal educational attainment at birth on home ownership and home value, as proxies of wealth, vary between Black and White families. We hypothesized that: 1) high maternal education would be associated with more wealth 15 years later, and 2) compared to Whites, Blacks would be less likely to accumulate wealth (own a house) across all educational levels, given a weaker boosting effect of maternal educational attainment on wealth for Black than White families. Methods:The Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, is a 15-year follow up study of a random sample of births in cities larger than 200,000 population in the US. A total number of 2004 White or Black youth were included and were followed from birth to the age of 15. The predictor of interest was maternal educational attainment at birth, treated as a categorical variable (college graduation). The outcomes were home ownership and home value (worth - owed) 15 years later, as proxies of wealth. Logistic and linear regression were used for data analysis. Results:High maternal education at birth was associated with home ownership and higher value of owned home at age 15. We also found that maternal educational attainment at birth and race interact with each other, suggesting that the effects of high maternal educational attainment at birth on home ownership/value at age 15 were weaker for Black than White families. Conclusions:Diminished returns of maternal educational attainment at birth on wealth accumulation in Black families may be a mechanism that contributes to racial health disparities in high socioeconomic status and also poor outcomes of high SES Black families. That is, a smaller effect of maternal educational attainment on changing the real lives of Black than White youth may be one of the mechanisms by which health remains worse than expected in high SES Black families. Not all of the health, behavioral, and developmental disparities are due to the racial gap in SES but also diminishing returns of socioeconomic status indicators such as maternal educational attainment for racial minorities. Research should study how social stratification, discriminatory mortgage and banking, residential segregation, family formation, employment, and occupational prestige reduce Black families' ability to mobilize their human capital and secure tangible economic and non-economic outcomes.