Relationship with children and the psychological well-being of the elderly in Indonesia.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Many older adults in Indonesia live with their children. This study examined the relationship between the quality of the relationship that elderly parents may have with their children living with them and any effects on psychological well-being. Methods:Relationship quality encompasses positive and negative aspects. This study employed convenience sampling and to reach 102 elderly participants. A measure of positive and negative social exchanges was used to measure the relationship between elderly parents and their children. Ryff's Scale of Psychological Well-Being was utilized to measure the psychological well-being of the subjects. We used descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, an independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the statistics produced. Results:The primary results showed no correlation between the positive qualities of the relationship and psychological well-being (r?=?0.092, p?>?0.01). However, the negative qualities of the relationship were negatively correlated with psychological well-being (r?=?-0.335, p?
Project description:Middle-aged adults often have relationships with multiple family members (e.g., children and parents). The constellation of parent-child relationships within families may have implications for individuals' psychological well-being. This study created typologies of parent-child ties by combining multiple dimensions of relationships and examined the extent to which middle-aged adults showed variability across typologies of parent-child ties within multigenerational families. Using 2,252 parent-child ties across three generations from 633 middle-aged adults, this study identified typologies of parent-child ties based on 5 indicators (i.e., contact, downward and upward support, and positive and negative relationship qualities), and examined the associations of specific typologies of parent-child ties as well as within-family variability in typologies with middle-aged adults' psychological well-being. This study found 7 types of parent-child ties as distinct combinations of contact, support exchanges, and relationship quality. Within-family variability in these types was associated with more depressive symptoms, and having types characterized by conflicted ties was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction. Middle-aged adults seem to be happiest when they are able to maintain homogeneous, harmonious patterns of relationships with their parents and grown children. Findings were discussed with regard to factors that also may predict greater variability in family relationship patterns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Middle-aged parents' well-being may be tied to successes and failures of grown children. Moreover, most parents have more than one child, but studies have not considered how different children's successes and failures may be associated with parental well-being.<h4>Methods</h4>Middle-aged adults (aged 40-60; N = 633) reported on each of their grown children (n = 1,384) and rated their own well-being. Participants indicated problems each child had experienced in the past two years, rated their children's successes, as well as positive and negative relationship qualities.<h4>Results</h4>Analyses compared an exposure model (i.e., having one grown child with a problem or deemed successful) and a cumulative model (i.e., total problems or successes in the family). Consistent with the exposure and cumulative models, having one child with problems predicted poorer parental well-being and the more problems in the family, the worse parental well-being. Having one successful child did not predict well-being, but multiple grown children with higher total success in the family predicted enhanced parental well-being. Relationship qualities partially explained associations between children's successes and parental well-being.<h4>Discussion</h4>Discussion focuses on benefits and detriments parents derive from how grown progeny turn out and particularly the implications of grown children's problems.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although a number of studies have examined the effect of the out-migration of children on the mental health of 'left behind' elderly parents, research on the consequences of children's migration on the mental health and well-being of elderly parents left behind is inconclusive and a systematic review is warranted.<h4>Objectives</h4>To identify the association between the left behind or empty nest status and the mental health of older parents, and to identify common risk factors for poor mental health among those left behind.<h4>Methods</h4>Online databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and ProQuest were searched for research (2000-September 2017) that focused on the relationship between the migration of adult children and the mental health of the older parents (?50 years) left behind. The JBI Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the articles.<h4>Results</h4>25 articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies identified that left behind older parents had higher levels of mental health problems compared to non-left behind. Left behind parents had higher depressive symptoms, higher levels of loneliness, lower life satisfaction, lower cognitive ability and poorer psychological health. A number of risk factors were identified for mental health disorders among the left behind parents, which included living arrangements, gender, education, income, physical health status, physical activity, family and social support, age, rural residence and frequency of children's visit.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This review synthesised the various studies related to the mental health of left behind parents, advancing the theoretical and empirical understanding of the implications of out-migration of adult children on the psychological health and well-being of older parents. More responsive preventive measures and effective management approaches are required for this vulnerable cohort.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a rare, congenital disease characterized by a distinctive facial phenotype, seizures, intellectual disability and developmental delay, and pre and postnatal growth requiring lifelong care. The psychosocial status of the family caregivers of children diagnosed with WHS is unknown. This study aims to characterize the sociodemographic and psychosocial profile of WHS caregivers and analyze how these variables impact their quality of life (QoL) and well-being. RESULTS:The sociodemographic and clinical profile of 22 Spanish caregivers of children with WHS and the characteristics of those affected have been described. Significant relationships were found between sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics among caregivers. The impact on the parents' QoL and negative relationship with the symptomatology were assessed. The use of engagement strategies such as problem focused coping was associated with improved psychological QoL and social support. CONCLUSIONS:WHS caregivers share similarities in their profile and needs with caregivers of children with other rare diseases. Pychosocial support groups involving parents caring for children with the same disease could improve caregivers' well-being and QoL by strengthening their social support network and using positive coping styles.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is the most common form of exotropia in children. In addition to cosmetic effects and loss of stereoscopic function, IXT may negatively impact the psychological well-being of children and their parents. The purpose of this study was to assess the patient-reported outcomes of Chinese children with IXT before and after strabismus surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>The records of children with IXT who underwent strabismus surgery at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University, China over the period from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018 were prospectively recruited. All children underwent ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, including the prism and alternate cover test, fusion function by synoptophore, stereoacuity and Newcastle control score. Two patient-reported outcome measures were used: the intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) to measure disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression. Patient-reported outcome measurements were made before and after surgery with responses from children and their parents.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 389 children were eligible for inclusion (47.8% male, 52.2% female, mean + SD age = 8.17 ± 2.81). Preoperative IXTQ scores in both children (48.21 ± 26.2) and their parents (44.6 ± 25.68) were significantly correlated with near stereoacuity (P = 0.029 and P = 0.015, respectively). The angle of deviation at near vision showed a negative linear relationship with visual function (P = 0.026) and psychological (P = 0.019) scores as well as opinions regarding surgery (P = 0.024). HADS scores (anxiety scale score: 11 ± 2.92, depression scale score: 10.44 ± 2.9) were also related to near stereoacuity (P < 0.05). After surgery, both children's (74.83 ± 16.59) and parents' (68.57 ± 17.06) IXTQ scores significantly improved (p<0.01). Children's IXTQ scores were related to the angle of deviation at distance, and their psychological and visual function scores showed a negative relationship with the angle of deviation at near vision (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Children and parents' HRQOL and HADS were associated with near stereoacuity. Parents usually attend more readily to the angle of deviation at near in their IXT children. HRQOL improved significantly after surgery and can be used as one of the indices for preoperative evaluation but is not recommended as a criterion for surgical intervention.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Since March 2020, millions of children have been confined to their homes and restricted from in-person activities, radically changing the dynamics of parent-child relationships. This study examines the association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact and the mental health of parents and school-aged children; specifically, whether qualities of the parent-child relationship moderated the relationship between parents' emotional health (EH) and children's emotional and behavioral health (EBH).<h4>Methods</h4>Data from this Internet-based study of a community sample were collected in March-May 2020. Parents (N = 158, 92.4% White, 96.2% female) reported on COVID-19 impacts, their own EH, perceptions of their relationship with their eldest child between 6 and 12 years-old, and the EBH of that child.<h4>Results</h4>Responses to questions about COVID-19 impact were assigned weighted values and used to create a COVID-19 impact scale. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that greater COVID-19 impact was associated with greater parents' EH issues only, and parents' EH was a significant positive predictor of children's EBH. Positive qualities and conflict in the parent-child relationship moderated the link between parents' and children's EH. At higher levels of relationship conflict and lower levels of positivity, there were stronger positive associations between parents' and children's EH. Parent-child relationship quality did not moderate the association between parents' EH and children's behavioral health (BH).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These cross-sectional study results suggest that beyond focusing on symptom management, families may benefit from supports targeting the parent-child relationship. Insights and implications for practitioners are discussed.
Project description:The Covid-19 pandemic has been recognised to affect families' socio-emotional well-being. Collecting the views of families in diverse socio-economic contexts can contribute to understanding their specific needs and resources in relation to the Covid-19 pandemic. The overarching objective of the current research was to explore the views and experiences of families in relation to the Covid-19 pandemic, who were living in the Republic of Ireland, including in areas designated as disadvantaged. In Study 1, the objective was to explore changes, difficulties, and concerns experienced by parents of children up to six years old during the pandemic, and related associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Data were collected from 168 parents/carers via an online questionnaire, and examined using conceptual content analysis. The most frequently identified experiences related to restrictions, social isolation, negative impacts on parents' emotional and psychological well-being, negative impacts on children's emotional well-being and development, concerns with physical health, uncertainty about the future, and positive changes regarding family time and activities. Associations were found with parents' age and work situation, and family's income and composition. In Study 2, the objective was to explore the views of children, parents, and service providers about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on families' life, and relevant supports. Data were collected from 50 children aged between eight and 17 years old, 17 parents, and 20 service providers through focus group discussions, and examined using thematic analysis. The participants reported experiences related to challenges with online education, uncertainty regarding children's education, food poverty, and children's socio-emotional health. The findings of both studies reinforced the importance of implementing measures to promote parents' and children's socio-emotional well-being, combat educational inequalities, and ensure economic and employment security.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Parents often provide advice to their adult children during their everyday interactions. This study investigated young adult children's daily experiences with parental advice in U.S. families. Specifically, the study examined how receiving advice and evaluations of parental advice were associated with children's life problems, parent-child relationship quality, and daily mood.<h4>Method</h4>Young adult children (aged 18-30; participant N = 152) reported whether they received any advice and perceived any unwanted advice from each parent (parent N = 235) for seven days using a daily diary design (participant-day N = 948). Adult children also reported their positive and negative mood on each interview day.<h4>Results</h4>Results from multilevel models revealed that adult children who reported a more positive relationship with their parents were more likely to receive advice from the parent, whereas adult children who had a more strained relationship with their parents were more likely to perceive advice from the parent as unwanted. Receiving advice from mother was associated with increased positive mood, whereas unwanted advice from any parent was associated with increased negative mood. Further, the link between unwanted advice and negative mood varied by children's life problems and parent-child relationship quality.<h4>Discussion</h4>Indeed, parental advice is not "the more the better," especially when the advice is unsolicited. This study highlights the importance of perceptions of family support for emerging adults' well-being.
Project description:There has been little investment in exploring the impact of the child-dog relationship on the dog. Since child-dog interactions can pose potentially serious threats to a dog's physical and psychological health, as well as the wider satisfaction of the owner with their dog, we describe the development and validation of an owner-completed pet dog quality of life scale (Lincoln P-QOL), to enable professionals and families to monitor dog well-being and employ suitable interventions as required. Four-hundred and two dog-owners (194 lived with a neuro-typically developing child; 208 lived with a child with a neuro-developmental disorder) responded to an online survey. Respondents recorded whether they had observed their dog displaying any of the 22 behavioral responses which have been identified as being common in 11 child-dog interactions. These behavioral responses appeared to group into three categories of behaviors (i.e., behavioral constructs), representing Excitability, Calmness, and Fearfulness in the dog. To assess convergent validity of the quality of life scale respondents completed additional measures including, dog body condition score, health issues (incorporating psychological factors such as anxiety and physical proxies of well-being, such as skin irritations) and dog-owner relationship satisfaction. Excitability and Fearfulness constructs were associated with a negative impact on dog health and the owner-dog relationship. Calmness was associated with a positive impact on the dog-owner relationship. A range of interactions, including carefully expressed child-dog physical affection and spending quiet time together appear to had a beneficial impact on dog quality of life, whereas rough contact, child meltdowns, and grooming/bathing had a negative effect. We found little evidence to support a difference in the overall quality of life of dogs living with neuro-typically developing children compared to those with a neuro-developmental disorder. However, parents and practitioners need to be aware of the potential increased risk to dog well-being when meltdowns, grooming/bathing, and quiet time involve a child with a neuro-developmental disorder. This is the first validated scale for the assessment of dog well-being around children, additionally, the behavioral constructs identified may form the rational basis of a more general dog behavior/stress assessment tool in social situations.
Project description:The aims of the current study were to examine the long-term effects of childhood maltreatment on current relationships with parents and whether the quality of current relationships with parents mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and psychological health in late adulthood. Using 2 decades of longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to examine the associations between reports of childhood maltreatment, aspects of current relationships with parents (i.e., perceived closeness, contact frequency, and exchange of social support), and psychological well-being/distress of adult children. Key results indicated that reports of maternal childhood abuse and neglect predicted lower levels of perceived closeness with aging mothers, which were subsequently associated with reduced psychological well-being of adult children. We did not find evidence of mediation between reports of paternal childhood abuse/neglect, current relationships with fathers, and psychological outcomes. Our findings suggest a significant linkage between childhood and later-life intergenerational relationships. Adults who were maltreated by their mother as children may continue to experience challenges in this relationship. Further research is needed to examine how these past and current relational dynamics affect caregiving experiences and outcomes. In addition, when intervening with adults with a history of childhood maltreatment, practitioners should evaluate contemporary relationship quality with the abusive mother and help address any unresolved emotional issues with the parent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).