Casein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II suppresses the effect of a catalytic topo II inhibitor, ICRF-193, in fission yeast.
ABSTRACT: DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) regulates the topological state of DNA and is necessary for DNA replication, transcription, and chromosome segregation. Topo II has essential functions in cell proliferation and therefore is a critical target of anticancer drugs. In this study, using Phos-tag SDS-PAGE analysis in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), we identified casein kinase II (Cka1/CKII)-dependent phosphorylation at the C-terminal residues Ser1363 and Ser1364 in topo II. We found that this phosphorylation decreases the inhibitory effect of an anticancer catalytic inhibitor of topo II, ICRF-193, on mitosis. Consistent with the constitutive activity of Cka1/CKII, Ser1363 and Ser1364 phosphorylation of topo II was stably maintained throughout the cell cycle. We demonstrate that ICRF-193-induced chromosomal mis-segregation is further exacerbated in two temperature-sensitive mutants, cka1-372 and cka1/orb5-19, of the catalytic subunit of CKII or in the topo II nonphosphorylatable alanine double mutant top2-S1363A,S1364A but not in cells of the phosphomimetic glutamate double mutant top2-S1363E,S1364E Our results suggest that Ser1363 and Ser1364 in topo II are targeted by Cka1/CKII kinase and that their phosphorylation facilitates topo II ATPase activity in the N-terminal region, which regulates protein turnover on chromosome DNA. Because CKII-mediated phosphorylation of the topo II C-terminal domain appears to be evolutionarily conserved, including in humans, we propose that attenuation of CKII-controlled topo II phosphorylation along with catalytic topo II inhibition may promote anticancer effects.
Project description:Sperm chromatin incubated in Xenopus egg extracts undergoes origin licensing and nuclear assembly before DNA replication. We found that depletion of DNA topoisomerase II? (topo II?), the sole topo II isozyme of eggs and its inhibition by ICRF-193, which clamps topo II? around DNA have opposite effects on these processes. ICRF-193 slowed down replication origin cluster activation and fork progression in a checkpoint-independent manner, without altering replicon size. In contrast, topo II? depletion accelerated origin cluster activation, and topo II? add-back negated overinitiation. Therefore, topo II? is not required for DNA replication, but topo II? clamps slow replication, probably by forming roadblocks. ICRF-193 had no effect on DNA synthesis when added after nuclear assembly, confirming that topo II? activity is dispensable for replication and revealing that topo II? clamps formed on replicating DNA do not block replication, presumably because topo II? acts behind and not in front of forks. Topo II? depletion increased, and topo II? addition reduced, chromatin loading of MCM2-7 replicative helicase, whereas ICRF-193 did not affect MCM2-7 loading. Therefore, topo II? restrains MCM2-7 loading in an ICRF-193-resistant manner during origin licensing, suggesting a model for establishing the sequential firing of origin clusters.
Project description:PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural abnormalities, and hypersensitivity to an inhibitor of Topoisomerase II (Topo II), ICRF-193. ICRF-193-treated PICH(-/-) cells undergo sister chromatid non-disjunction in anaphase, and frequently abort cytokinesis. PICH co-localizes with Topo II? on UFBs and at the ribosomal DNA locus, and the timely resolution of both structures depends on the ATPase activity of PICH. Purified PICH protein strongly stimulates the catalytic activity of Topo II in vitro. Consistent with this, a human PICH(-/-) cell line exhibits chromosome instability and chromosome condensation and decatenation defects similar to those of ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis.
Project description:DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is involved in unlinking replicating DNA and organizing mitotic chromosomes. Topo II is the target of many antitumour drugs. Topo II inhibition results in extensive catenation of newly replicated DNA and may potentially perturb chromatin assembly. Here, we show that the topo II inhibitor ICRF-193 does not prevent the bulk of nucleosome deposition, but perturbs nucleosome spacing in Xenopus egg extracts. This is due to the trapping of topo II-closed clamps on the DNA rather than increased DNA catenation. Inhibition of replicative DNA decatenation has in itself little or no effect on nucleosome deposition and spacing, suggesting that DNA can easily accommodate the sharp bending constraints imposed by the co-habitation of nucleosomes and catenane nodes. Chromatin perturbation by topo II clamps may explain some dominant cellular effects of ICRF-193. Nucleosome-driven bending of precatenane nodes may facilitate their unlinking by topo II during unperturbed replication.
Project description:Using affinity purification MS approaches, we have identified a novel role for casein kinase II (CKII) in the modification of the polymerase associated factor complex (PAF-C). Our data indicate that the facilitates chromatin transcription complex (FACT) interacts with CKII and may facilitate PAF complex phosphorylation. Posttranslational modification analysis of affinity-isolated PAF-C shows extensive CKII phosphorylation of all five subunits of PAF-C, although CKII subunits were not detected as interacting partners. Consistent with this, recombinant CKII or FACT-associated CKII isolated from cells can phosphorylate PAF-C in vitro, whereas no intrinsic kinase activity was detected in PAF-C samples. Significantly, PAF-C purifications combined with stable isotope labeling in cells (SILAC) quantitation for PAF-C phosphorylation from wild-type and CKII temperature-sensitive strains (cka1? cka2-8) showed that PAF-C phosphorylation at consensus CKII sites is significantly reduced in cka1? cka2-8 strains. Consistent with a role of CKII in FACT and PAF-C function, we show that decreased CKII function in vivo results in decreased levels of histone H2B lysine 123 monoubiquitylation, a modification dependent on FACT and PAF-C. Taken together, our results define a coordinated role of CKII and FACT in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription through chromatin via phosphorylation of PAF-C.
Project description:Cohesin maintains sister chromatid cohesion until its Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 is cleaved by separase during anaphase. DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) maintains the proper topology of chromatid DNAs and is essential for chromosome segregation. Here we report direct observations of mitotic progression in individual HeLa cells after functional disruptions of hRad21, NIPBL, a loading factor for hRad21, and topo II alpha,beta by RNAi and a topo II inhibitor, ICRF-193. Mitosis is delayed in a Mad2-dependent manner after disruption of either or both cohesin and topo II. In hRad21 depletion, interphase pericentric architecture becomes aberrant, and anaphase is virtually permanently delayed as preseparated chromosomes are misaligned on the metaphase spindle. Topo II disruption perturbs centromere organization leading to intense Bub1, but no Mad2, on kinetochores and sustains a Mad2-dependent delay in anaphase onset with persisting securin. Thus topo II impinges upon centromere/kinetochore function. Disruption of topo II by RNAi or ICRF-193 overrides the mitotic delay induced by cohesin depletion: sister centromeres are aligned and anaphase spindle movements occur. The ensuing accumulation of catenations in preseparated sister chromatids may overcome the reduced tension arising from cohesin depletion, causing the override. Cohesin and topo II have distinct, yet coordinated functions in metaphase alignment.
Project description:DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is crucial for resolving topological problems of DNA and plays important roles in various cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome segregation. Although DNA topology problems may also occur during DNA repair, the possible involvement of Topo II in this process remains to be fully investigated. Here, we show the dynamic behavior of human Topo II? in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which is the most harmful form of DNA damage. Live cell imaging coupled with site-directed DSB induction by laser microirradiation demonstrated rapid recruitment of EGFP-tagged Topo II? to the DSB site. Detergent extraction followed by immunofluorescence showed the tight association of endogenous Topo II? with DSB sites. Photobleaching analysis revealed that Topo II? is highly mobile in the nucleus. The Topo II catalytic inhibitors ICRF-187 and ICRF-193 reduced the Topo II? mobility and thereby prevented Topo II? recruitment to DSBs. Furthermore, Topo II? knockout cells exhibited increased sensitivity to bleomycin and decreased DSB repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR), implicating the role of Topo II? in HR-mediated DSB repair. Taken together, these results highlight a novel aspect of Topo II? functions in the cellular response to DSBs.
Project description:DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is an essential enzyme that regulates DNA topology by DNA cleavage and re-ligation. In vertebrates, there are two isozymes, ? and ?. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the isozymes, which shows a low degree of sequence homology between ? and ?, is involved in each isozyme-specific intracellular behavior. The CTD of topo II? is supposedly involved in topo II regulation. Topo II? is maintained in an inactive state in the nucleoli by the binding of RNA to the 50-residue region termed C-terminal regulatory domain (CRD) present in the CTD. Although in vitro biochemical analysis indicates that the CTD of topo II? has DNA binding activity, it is unclear whether CTD influences catalytic reaction in the nucleoplasm. Here, we show that the proximal CTD (hereafter referred to as pCTD) of rat topo II?, including the CRD, is involved in the catalytic reaction in the nucleoplasm. We identified the pCTD as a domain with DNA binding activity by in vitro catenation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) analysis of pCTD-lacking mutant (?pCTD) showed higher mobility in nucleoplasm than that of the wild-type enzyme, indicating that the pCTD also affected the nuclear dynamics of topo II?. ICRF-193, one of the topo II catalytic inhibitors, induces the formation of closed-clamp intermediates of topo II. Treatment of ?pCTD with ICRF-193 significantly decreased the efficiency of closed-clamp formation. Altogether, our data indicate that the binding of topo II? to DNA through the pCTD is required for the catalytic reaction in the nucleoplasm.
Project description:Type IIA topoisomerases both manage the topological state of chromosomal DNA and are the targets of a variety of clinical agents. Bisdioxopiperazines are anticancer agents that associate with ATP-bound eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II) and convert the enzyme into an inactive, salt-stable clamp around DNA. To better understand both topo II and bisdioxopiperazine function, we determined the structures of the adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imino]-triphosphate-bound yeast topo II ATPase region (ScT2-ATPase) alone and complexed with the bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-187. The drug-free form of the protein is similar in overall fold to the equivalent region of bacterial gyrase but unexpectedly displays significant conformational differences. The ternary drug-bound complex reveals that ICRF-187 acts by an unusual mechanism of inhibition in which the drug does not compete for the ATP-binding pocket, but bridges and stabilizes a transient dimer interface between two ATPase protomers. Our data explain why bisdioxopiperazines target ATP-bound topo II, provide a structural rationale for the effects of certain drug-resistance mutations, and point to regions of bisdioxopiperazines that might be modified to improve or alter drug specificity.
Project description:Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in various plant sources, has gained attention as a possible agent responsible for the purported health benefits of certain foods, such as red wine. Despite annual multi-million dollar market sales as a nutriceutical, there is little consensus about the physiological roles of resveratrol. One suggested molecular target of resveratrol is eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II), an enzyme essential for chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling homeostasis. Interestingly, resveratrol is chemically similar to ICRF-187, a clinically approved chemotherapeutic that stabilizes an ATP-dependent dimerization interface in topo II to block enzyme activity. Based on this similarity, we hypothesized that resveratrol may antagonize topo II by a similar mechanism. Using a variety of biochemical assays, we find that resveratrol indeed acts through the ICRF-187 binding locus, but that it inhibits topo II by preventing ATPase domain dimerization rather than stabilizing it. This work presents the first comprehensive analysis of the biochemical effects of both ICRF-187 and resveratrol on the human isoforms of topo II, and reveals a new mode for the allosteric regulation of topo II through modulation of ATPase status. Natural polyphenols related to resveratrol that have been shown to impact topo II function may operate in a similar manner.
Project description:We used microarrays to determine the global programme of gene expression regulated by topo IIbeta. Overall design: We categorized the genes expressed in differentiating cerebellar neurons by analyzing the expression data on the basis of combination of two factors: induction during differentiation in vitro and susceptibility to a topo II-specific inhibitor, ICRF-193. The inhibitor not only inhibits the activity but also depletes the enzyme by selective degradation, practically knocking it down at the protein level. In addition, topo ΙΙbeta is the only target of topo II-specific inhibitors since these cells do not express topo IIalpha. raw data is missing