Impact of obesity on breast cancer recurrence and minimal residual disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and cancer death. Recurrent cancers arise from the pool of residual tumor cells, or minimal residual disease (MRD), that survives primary treatment and persists in the host. Whether the association of obesity with recurrence risk is causal is unknown, and the impact of obesity on MRD and breast cancer recurrence has not been reported in humans or in animal models. METHODS:Doxycycline-inducible primary mammary tumors were generated in intact MMTV-rtTA;TetO-HER2/neu (MTB/TAN) mice or orthotopic recipients fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from fat) or a control low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat). Following oncogene downregulation and tumor regression, mice were followed for clinical recurrence. Body weight was measured twice weekly and used to segregate HFD mice into obese (i.e., responders) and lean (i.e., nonresponders) study arms, and obesity was correlated with body fat percentage, glucose tolerance (measured using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests), serum biomarkers (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and tissue transcriptomics (assessed by RNA sequencing). MRD was quantified by droplet digital PCR. RESULTS:HFD-Obese mice weighed significantly more than HFD-Lean and LFD control mice (p < 0.001) and had increased body fat percentage (p < 0.001). Obese mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as decreased serum levels of adiponectin and increased levels of leptin, resistin, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Tumor recurrence was accelerated in HFD-Obese mice compared with HFD-Lean and LFD control mice (median relapse-free survival 53.0 days vs. 87.0 days vs. 80.0 days, log-rank p < 0.001; HFD-Obese compared with HFD-Lean HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.52-4.16; HFD-Obese compared with LFD HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.63). HFD-Obese mice harbored a significantly greater number of residual tumor cells than HFD-Lean and LFD mice (12,550 ± 991 vs. 7339 ± 2182 vs. 4793 ± 1618 cells, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:These studies provide a genetically engineered mouse model for study of the association of diet-induced obesity with breast cancer recurrence. They demonstrate that this model recapitulates physiological changes characteristic of obese patients, establish that the association between obesity and recurrence risk is causal in nature, and suggest that obesity is associated with the increased survival and persistence of residual tumor cells.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Adipose tissue (AT) expansion requires AT remodeling, which depends on AT angiogenesis. Modulation of AT angiogenesis could have therapeutic promise for the treatment of obesity. However, it is unclear how the capacity of angiogenesis in each adipose depot is affected by over-nutrition. Therefore, we investigated the angiogenic capacity (AC) of subcutaneous and visceral fats in lean and obese mice.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared the AC of epididymal fat (EF) and inguinal fat (IF) using an angiogenesis assay in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and diet-resistant (DR) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, we compared the expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation using RT-qPCR in the EF and IF of lean mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), DIO mice, and DR mice fed a HFD.<h4>Results</h4>DIO mice showed a significant increase in the AC of EF only at 22 weeks of age compared to DR mice. The expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation were significantly higher in the EF of DIO mice than in those of LFD mice and DR mice, while expression levels of genes related to macrophages and their recruitment were higher in the IF of DIO mice than in those of LFD and DR mice. Expression of genes related to angiogenesis (including <i>Hif1a</i>, <i>Vegfa</i>, <i>Fgf1</i>, <i>Kdr</i>, and <i>Pecam1</i>), macrophage recruitment, and inflammation (including <i>Emr1</i>, <i>Ccr2</i>, <i>Itgax</i>, <i>Ccl2</i>, <i>Tnf</i>, and <i>Il1b</i>) correlated more strongly with body weight in the EF of HFD-fed obese mice compared to that of IF.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest depot-specific differences in AT angiogenesis and a potential role in the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.
Project description:The indigestible mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from the outer cell wall of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown potential to reduce inflammation. Since inflammation is one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with MOS on inflammation and metabolic homeostasis in lean and diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a low fat diet (LFD) or a high fat diet (HFD) with, respectively, 10% or 45% energy derived from lard fat, with or without 1% MOS for 17 weeks. Body weight and composition were measured throughout the study. After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body glucose tolerance was assessed and in week 17 immune cell composition was determined in mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT) and liver by flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. In LFD-fed mice, MOS supplementation induced a significant increase in the abundance of macrophages and eosinophils in mWAT. A similar trend was observed in hepatic macrophages. Although HFD feeding induced a classical shift from the anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages towards the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in both mWAT and liver from control mice, MOS supplementation had no effect on this obesity-driven immune response. Finally, MOS supplementation did not improve whole-body glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice.Altogether, our data showed that MOS had extra-intestinal immune modulatory properties in mWAT and liver. However these effects were not substantial enough to significantly ameliorate HFD-induced glucose intolerance or inflammation.
Project description:Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (?13%) and IMF-LFD (?18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (?40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (?12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (?50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (?22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (?55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (?19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (?65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Project description:Drug pharmacokinetics can be altered in obese and diabetic subjects. In consideration of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, characterization of transporter expression in mouse models of diabetes and obesity may be a useful tool to aid in prediction of altered drug pharmacokinetics or adverse drug reactions. It has been reported that ob/ob mice, which display a severe obesity and diabetes phenotype, exhibit multiple changes in drug transporter expression in liver and kidney. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression of major drug transporters was determined in livers and kidneys of diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (60% fat) from 6 weeks of age and display obesity, fatty liver, and mild hyperglycemia. The HFD diet increased expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins Abcc3 and 4 mRNA and protein in liver by 3.4- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared with that detected in control mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). In contrast, Abcc1 mRNA and protein decreased by 50% in livers of DIO mice compared with those in livers to lean mice. The HFD did not alter transporter expression in kidney compared with the LFD. In summary, unlike ob/ob and db/db mice, DIO mice exhibited a selective induction of efflux transporter expression in liver (i.e., Abcc3 and 4). In addition, diet-induced obesity affects transporter expression in liver but not kidney in the C57BL/6J mouse model. These data indicate that hepatic transporter expression is only slightly altered in a model of mild diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity.
Project description:There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk, and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin-deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures, and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin-deficient mice. We evaluated the impact of a 6-week high-fat (HFD) rich in medium chain fatty acids or low-fat diet (LFD) on bone mass and MAT in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model using male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age. Dietary intervention was initiated after diabetes confirmation. At the endpoint, lower non-fasting glucose levels were observed in diabetic mice fed with high fat diet compared to diabetic mice fed the low fat diet (STZ-LFD). Compared to euglycemic controls, the STZ-LFD had marked polydipsia and polyphagia, as well as reduced lean mass, fat mass, and bone parameters. Interestingly, STZ-HFD mice had higher bone mass, namely less cortical bone loss and more trabecular bone than STZ-LFD. Thus, we found that a HFD, rich in medium chain fatty acids, protects against bone loss in a T1DM mouse model. Whether this may also translate to T1DM patients who are overweight or obese in respect to maintenance of bone mass remains to be determined through longitudinal studies.
Project description:Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation, as well as insulin resistance, but the link between obesity and adaptive immunity remains to be fully studied.To elucidate the role of adaptive immunity on body composition, glucose homeostasis and inflammation, recombination-activating gene 1 knockout (Rag1-/-) mice, without mature T-lymphocytes or B-lymphocytes, were maintained on a low- or high-fat diet (LFD and HFD, respectively) for 11 weeks.Rag1-/- mice fed HFD gained significantly more weight and had increased body fat compared with wild type. Downregulation of energy expenditure as well as brown fat uncoupling protein UCP-1 and UCP-3 gene expression were noticed in HFD-fed Rag1-/- mice compared with LFD. HFD mice had significantly decreased energy intake compared with LFD mice, consistent with decreased agouti-related protein and increased pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression levels in the hypothalamus. Moreover, compared with wild type, Rag1-/- mice had lower interleukin (IL)-4 levels, a cytokine recently found to induce browning in white adipocytes, and higher IL-12 levels in HFD-fed Rag1-/- mice. Despite that HFD Rag1-/- mice were more obese, they had similar glucose, insulin and adiponectin levels, while leptin was marginally increased.Mice with deficiency in adaptive immunity are obese, partly owing to decreased energy expenditure, but are metabolically normal, suggesting that mature lymphocytes have necessary roles in the development of obesity-related metabolic dysregulation.
Project description:Excess calorie consumption, particularly of a diet high in fat, is a risk factor for both obesity and reproductive disorders. Animal model studies indicate that elevated dietary fat can influence some reproductive functions independent of obesity. In the current study we sought to determine whether a high-fat diet (HFD) impacts ovarian function, long-term fertility, and local and systemic markers of inflammation independent of obesity. Five-week-old mice were fed either low-fat diet (control group-LF-Ln) or HFD for 10 wk and were divided based on body weight into high-fat obese (HF-Ob: >25 g) and high-fat lean (HF-Ln: <22 g). Ovaries were collected to assess ovarian follicles and to determine the degree of local inflammation. Serum proinflammatory cytokines were also measured. A group of animals was followed for breeding trials for 5 mo while being exposed to LFD or HFD. We found that both 10-wk and 32-wk exposure to HFD resulted in depleted primordial follicles regardless of obesity phenotype. Macrophage counts revealed increased tissue inflammation in the ovary independent of obesity. In addition, serum proinflammatory cytokines were increased in HF-Ln and HF-Ob in comparison to LF-Ln mice. Moreover, HFD had a sustained effect on litter production rate and number of pups per litter regardless of obese phenotype. This study describes for the first time that exposure to HFD causes significant reduction in primordial follicles, compromised fertility, produced higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, and increased ovarian macrophage infiltration, independent of obesity. The negative effects of HFD on primordial follicles may be mediated by increased tissue inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Blueberry is rich in bioactive substances and possesses powerful antioxidant potential, which can protect against oxidant-induced and inflammatory cell damage and cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine how blueberry affects glucose metabolism and pancreatic ?-cell proliferation in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild type male mice at age of 4?weeks received two different kinds of diets: high-fat diet (HFD) containing 60% fat or modified HFD supplemented with 4% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole blueberry powder (HFD?+?B) for 14?weeks. A separate experiment was performed in mice fed with low-fat diet (LFD) containing 10% fat or modified LFD?+?B supplemented with 4% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole blueberry powder. The metabolic parameters including blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin tolerances were measured.<h4>Results</h4>Blueberry-supplemented diet significantly increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in HFD?+?B mice compared to HFD mice. However, no difference was observed in blood glucose and insulin sensitivity between LFD?+?B and LFD mice. In addition, blueberry increased ?-cell survival and prevented HFD-induced ?-cell expansion. The most important finding was the observation of presence of small scattered islets in blueberry treated obese mice, which may reflect a potential role of blueberry in regenerating pancreatic ?-cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Blueberry-supplemented diet can prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity and protecting pancreatic ?-cells. Blueberry supplementation has the potential to protect and improve health conditions for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients.
Project description:Obesity is associated with increased risk and worse outcomes for ovarian cancer. Thus, we examined the effects of obesity on ovarian cancer progression in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer.We utilized a unique serous ovarian cancer mouse model that specifically deletes the tumor suppressor genes, Brca1 and p53, and inactivates the retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins in adult ovarian surface epithelial cells, via injection of an adenoviral vector expressing Cre (AdCre) into the ovarian bursa cavity of adult female mice (KpB mouse model). KpB mice were subjected to a 60% calories-derived from fat in a high fat diet (HFD) versus 10% calories from fat in a low fat diet (LFD) to mimic diet-induced obesity. Tumors were isolated at 6 months after AdCre injection and evaluated histologically. Untargeted metabolomic and gene expression profiling was performed to assess differences in the ovarian tumors from obese versus non-obese KpB mice.At sacrifice, mice on the HFD (obese) were twice the weight of mice on the LFD (non-obese) (51g versus 31g, p=0.0003). Ovarian tumors were significantly larger in the obese versus non-obese mice (3.7cm(2) versus 1.2cm(2), p=0.0065). Gene expression and metabolomic profiling indicated statistically significant differences between the ovarian tumors from the obese versus non-obese mice, including metabolically relevant pathways.