The protective role of rs56103835 against breast cancer onset in the Iranian population.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women and the highest cause of death due to cancer among women aged 40-45. SNPs can be used to identify disease-related genes such as cancer as they can be genetic markers. Furthermore, SNPs in the molecular-level miRNA structure are also associated with a set of cancers. Studies have shown that miR-323b plays a tumor suppressor role by reducing the tissues and serum of the affected individuals. So far, no study regarding rs56103835 polymorphism in the precursor of miR-323b has been conducted in the breast cancer. In this study, the association of this SNP with the incidence of breast cancer in the Iranian population has been investigated. METHOD:In order to correlate rs56103835 polymorphism with breast cancer, 161 patients and 162 healthy people as the control group were examined. They had been homogenized based on their age and gender. The genotype of individuals for the polymorphism was determined by the PCR-RFLP method. The association of this polymorphism with the risk of breast cancer, the age of the onset of disease, and pathological characteristics of the patients was then analyzed. RESULTS:The findings showed that there is no significant correlation between the frequency of its genotypes among the healthy and patient populations while the TT genotype increased the age of the disease in patients, as compared to other genotypes (p = 0.035, OR = 0.487). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:The C allele is likely to inhibit the expression of BRCA2 by interfering with the processing of this pre-miRNA and increasing the expression of target genes such as BRCA2. Because one of the early onset genes in breast cancer is the BRCA2, the presence of any of C and T alleles can have a significant effect on the incidence of the disease. To further confirm this data, however, more molecular studies are needed.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major contributor to peripheral artery disease (PAD), especially in cases that advance to critical limb ischemia (CLI). Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in the development of PAD and T2DM. Due to the limited value of current diagnostic methods for CLI in T2DM patients, we compared the miRNA expression profiles of Chinese T2DM patients with or without CLI to find out whether distinctive miRNAs could serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers. We statistically identified 7 miRNAs (hsa-miR-200b-3p, hsa-miR-2115-3p, hsa-miR-431-5p, hsa-miR-486-5p, hsa-miR-210-3p, hsa-miR-1264, hsa-miR-323b-5p) which were up-regulated in the CLI group, whereas other 4 miRNAs (hsa-miR-5579-3p, hsa-miR-665, hsa-miR-4285, hsa-miR-500a-3p) were down-regulated. Our validation test suggested a relatively high diagnostic accuracy of serum hsa-miR-323b-5p levels for the detection of CLI in T2DM patients, with a sensitivity of 62.67% and a specificity of 80.65%. The area under the curve (AUC) for miR-323b-5p?+?confounding risk factors was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.884-0.994, P?<?0.001), which was higher than that for miR-323b-5p. Taken together, our results indicate that circulating hsa-miR-323b-5p could be a promising serum biomarker for the diagnosis of critical limb ischemia in type 2 diabetic patients.
Project description:Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of 'BRCAness.' The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2's messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3'UTR of BRCA2's mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2's mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2's 3'UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types.
Project description:Ku80 is a subunit of the Ku heterodimer that binds to DNA double-strand break ends as part of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Ku80 is also involved in homologous recombination (HR) via its interaction with BRCA1. Ku80 is encoded by the XRCC5 gene that contains a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) insertion in its promoter region. Different VNTR genotypes can alter XRCC5 expression and affect Ku80 production, thereby affecting NHEJ and HR pathways. VNTR polymorphism is associated with multiple types of sporadic cancer. In this study, we investigated its potential association with familial breast cancer at the germline level. Using PCR, PAGE, Sanger sequencing, and statistical analyses, we compared VNTR genotypes in the XRCC5 promoter between healthy individuals and three types of familial breast cancer cases: mutated BRCA1 (BRCA1 (+)), mutated BRCA2 (BRCA2 (+)), and wild-type BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCAx). We observed significant differences of VNTR genotypes between control and BRCA1 (+) group (P?<?0.0001) and BRCA2 (+) group (P?=?0.0042) but not BRCAx group (P?=?0.2185), and the differences were significant between control and cancer-affected BRCA1 (+) cases (P?<?0.0001) and BRCA2 (+) cases (P?=?0.0092) but not cancer-affected BRCAx cases (P?=?0.4251). Further analysis indicated that 2R/2R (OR?=?1.94, 95%CI?=?1.26-2.95, P?=?0.0096) and 2R/1R (OR?=?1.58, 95%CI?=?1.11-2.26, P?=?0.0388) were associated with increased risk but 1R/1R (OR?=?0.55, 95%CI?=?0.35-0.84, P?=?0.0196) and 1R/0R (OR?=?0, 95%CI?=?0-0.29, P?=?0.0012) were associated with decreased risk in cancer-affected BRCA1 (+) group; 2R/1R (OR?=?1.94, 95%CI?=?1.14-3.32, P?=?0.0242) was associated with increased risk in cancer-affected BRCA2 (+) group. No correlation was observed for the altered risk between cancer-affected or -unaffected carriers and between different age of cancer diagnosis in cancer-affected carriers. The frequently observed VNTR association with in BRCA1 (+) and BRCA2 (+) breast cancer group indicates that VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC5 promoter is associated with altered risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 (+) and BRCA2 (+) carriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We have previously shown that the zinc finger transcription repressor SNAI2 (SLUG) represses tumor suppressor BRCA2-expression in non-dividing cells by binding to the E2-box upstream of the transcription start site. However, it is unclear how proliferating breast cancer (BC) cells that has higher oxidation state, overcome this repression. In this study, we provide insight into the mechanism of de-silencing of BRCA2 gene expression by PRDX5A, which is the longest member of the peroxiredoxin5 family, in proliferating breast cancer cells. METHODS:We used cell synchronization and DNA affinity pulldown to analyze PRDX5A binding to the BRCA2 silencer. We used oxidative stress and microRNA (miRNA) treatments to study nuclear localization of PRDX5A and its impact on BRCA2-expression. We validated our findings using mutational, reporter assay, and immunofluorescence analyses. RESULTS:Under oxidative stress, proliferating BC cells express PRDX5 isoform A (PRDX5A). In the nucleus, PRDX5A binds to the BRCA2 silencer near the E2-box, displacing SLUG and enhancing BRCA2-expression. Nuclear PRDX5A is translated from the second AUG codon in frame to the first AUG codon in the PRDX5A transcript that retains all exons. Mutation of the first AUG increases nuclear localization of PRDX5A in MDA-MB-231 cells, but mutation of the second AUG decreases it. Increased mitronic hsa-miRNA-6855-3p levels under oxidative stress renders translation from the second AUG preferable. Mutational analysis using reporter assay uncovered a miR-6855-3p binding site between the first and second AUG codon in the PRDX5A transcript. miR-6855-3p mimic increases accumulation of nuclear PRDX5A and inhibits reporter gene translation. CONCLUSION:Oxidative stress increases miR-6855-3p expression and binding to the inter-AUG sequence of the PRDX5A transcript, promoting translation of nuclear PRDX5A. Nuclear PRDX5A relieves SLUG-mediated BRCA2 silencing, resulting in increased BRCA2-expression.
Project description:To determine the influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4245739 on the binding and expression of microRNAs and subsequent MDM4 expression and the correlation of these factors with clinical determinants of ER-negative breast cancers.FindTar and miRanda were used to detect the manner in which potential microRNAs are affected by the SNP rs4245739-flanking sequence. RNA sequencing data for ER-negative breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to compare the expression of miR-184, miR-191, miR-193a, miR-378, and MDM4 in different rs4245739 genotypes.Comparison of ER-negative cancer patients with and without the expression of miR-191 as well as profile microRNAs (miR-184, miR-191, miR-193a and miR-378 altogether) can differentiate the expression of MDM4 among different rs4245739 genotypes. Although simple genotyping alone did not reveal significant clinical relationships, the combination of genotyping and microRNA profiles was able to significantly differentiate individuals with larger tumor size and lower number of involved lymph nodes (P < 0.05) in the risk group (A allele).We present two novel methods to analyze SNPs within 3'UTRs that use: (i) a single miRNA marker expression and (ii) an expression profile of miRNAs predicted to bind to the SNP region. We demonstrate that the application of these two methods, in particular the miRNA profile approach, permits detection of new molecular and clinical features related to the rs4245739 variant in ER-negative breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short regulatory RNAs, function as negative regulators able to modulate gene expression. Just as other genetic variant, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes, may have an impact on their expression and/or maturation and hence leading to different consequences in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the frequency of miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) polymorphism and its association with susceptibility to breast cancer in Iranian women. METHODS:We conducted a case-control study using Tetra ARMS polymerase chain reaction (Tetra ARMS PCR) method in 100 Iranian female participants (50 breast cancer patients and 50 controls). Besides, a number of sequenced samples were chosen to confirm the accuracy of genotyping by Tetra ARMA PCR. SPSS software was utilized for all statistical analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were applied to analyze the association between the SNP frequency and breast cancer. RESULTS:The frequency of genotypes for G/G, G/C, and C/C were 23 (46%), 26 (52%), and 1 (2%) among cases and 15 (30%), 33 (66%), and 2(4%) among controls, respectively. The results generated by the groups did not show any significant correlation between miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) polymorphism and breast cancer, either at genotype or allele levels (P>0.05). F-SNP-based in silico analysis indicated possible modifications in transcriptional regulations induced by miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) variations. CONCLUSION:Overall, our results indicated no correlation between miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in Iranian female populations. However, these findings need to be further confirmed by analyses of a larger number of cases.
Project description:Genetic variants in human microRNA (miRNA) genes may alter mature miRNA processing and/or target selection, and likely contribute to cancer susceptibility and disease progression. Previous studies have suggested that miR-101 may play important roles in the development of cancer by regulating key tumor-associated genes. However, the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of miR-101 in breast cancer susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we genotyped 11 SNPs of the miR-101 genes (including miR-101-1 and miR-101-2) in a case-control study of 1064 breast cancer cases and 1073 cancer-free controls. The results revealed that rs462480 and rs1053872 in the flank regions of pre-miR-101-2 were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer (rs462480 AC/CC vs AA: adjusted OR = 1.182, 95% CI: 1.030-1.357, P = 0.017; rs1053872 CG/GG vs CC: adjusted OR = 1.179, 95% CI: 1.040-1.337, P = 0.010). However, the remaining 9 SNPs were not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. Additionally, combined analysis of the two high-risk SNPs revealed that subjects carrying the variant genotypes of rs462480 and rs1053872 had increased risk of breast cancer in a dose-response manner (P(trend) = 0.002). Compared with individuals with "0-1" risk allele, those carrying "2-4" risk alleles had 1.29-fold risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, these findings suggested that the SNPs rs462480 and rs1053872 residing in miR-101-2 gene may have a solid impact on genetic susceptibility to breast cancer, which may improve our understanding of the potential contribution of miRNA SNPs to cancer pathogenesis.
Project description:Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is mainly caused by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The 3'UTR region allows for the binding of microRNAs, which are involved in genetic tune regulation. We aimed to identify allelic variants on 3'UTR miRNA-binding sites in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in HBOC patients. Blood samples were obtained from 50 patients with HBOC and from 50 controls. The 3'UTR regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify genetic variants using bioinformatics tools. We detected nine polymorphisms in 3'UTR, namely: four in BRCA1 (rs3092995 (C/G), rs8176318 (C/T), rs111791349 (G/A), and rs12516 (C/T)) and five in BRCA2 (rs15869 (A/C), rs7334543 (A/G), rs1157836 (A/G), and rs75353978 (TT/del TT)). A new variant in position c.*457 (A/C) on 3'UTR of BRCA2 was also identified. The following three variants increased the risk of HBOC in the study population: rs111791349-A, rs15869-C, and c.*457-C (odds ratio (OR) range 3.7-15.4; p < 0.05). Genetic variants into the 3'UTR of BRCA1 and BRCA2 increased the risk of HBOC between 3.7-15.4 times in the study population. The presence/absence of these polymorphisms may influence the loss/creation of miRNA binding sites, such as hsa-miR-1248 in BRCA1 3'UTR or the hsa-miR-548 family binding site in BRCA2. Our results add new evidence of miRNA participation in the pathogenesis of HBOC.
Project description:The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or indirectly in maintaining genomic integrity.To evaluate the potential role of genetic variants within PHB and MTHFR in breast and ovarian cancer risk, 4102 BRCA1 and 2093 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 6211 BRCA1 and 2902 BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) were genotyped for the PHB 1630 C>T (rs6917) polymorphism and the MTHFR 677 C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism, respectively.There was no evidence of association between the PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with either disease for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers when breast and ovarian cancer associations were evaluated separately. Analysis that evaluated associations for breast and ovarian cancer simultaneously showed some evidence that BRCA1 mutation carriers who had the rare homozygote genotype (TT) of the PHB 1630 C>T polymorphism were at increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer (HR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10-2.04 and HR 2.16, 95%CI 1.24-3.76, respectively). However, there was no evidence of association under a multiplicative model for the effect of each minor allele.The PHB 1630TT genotype may modify breast and ovarian cancer risks in BRCA1 mutation carriers. This association need to be evaluated in larger series of BRCA1 mutation carriers.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The absence of mutation or promoter hypermethylation in the BRCA2 gene in the majority of breast cancer cases has indicated alternative ways of its involvement, deregulated expression being one possibility. We show how a polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of BRCA2 can serve as one such factor. Based on the hypothesis that variants of genes involved in the same pathway can influence the risk provided for breast cancer, the status of p53 codon 72 polymorphism was also investigated and a possible interaction between the polymorphisms was examined. METHODS: The luciferase reporter assay followed by RNA secondary structure analysis was used for the functional characterization of -26 5' UTR G>A polymorphism in BRCA2. The genotype and the allele frequency for the polymorphisms were determined and relative risk adjusted for age was calculated in a case-control study of 576 individuals (243 patients and 333 controls) from north India. RESULTS: -26 G>A polymorphism in the 5' UTR of BRCA2 was found to be functional whereby the A allele increased the reporter gene expression by twice that of the G allele in MCF-7 (P = 0.003) and HeLa (P = 0.013) cells. RNA secondary structure analysis by two different programs predicted the A allele to alter the stability of a loop in the vicinity of the translation start site. Its direct implication in breast cancer became evident by a case-control study in which the heterozygous genotype was found to be protective in nature (P heterozygote advantage model = 0.0005, odds ratio [OR] = 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4 to 0.8), which was further supported by trends observed in a genomic instability study. The p53 codon 72 Arg homozygous genotype was found to be over-represented in patients (P = 0.0005, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 3.6). The interaction study indicated an increased protection under simultaneous presence of protector genotypes of both the polymorphic loci (P = 0.0001, OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1 to 0.4). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that -26 5' UTR polymorphism in BRCA2 can modulate the fine-tuned regulation of the multifunctional gene BRCA2 and renders risk or protection according to the genotype status in the sporadic form of breast cancer, which is further influenced by the germline genetic backgrounds of codon 72 polymorphism of p53.