Could a chimeric condition be responsible for unexpected genetic syndromes? The role of the single nucleotide polymorphism-array analysis.
ABSTRACT: In this paper, is reported the identification of two chimeric patients, a rare finding if sexual abnormalities are absent. However, their chimeric condition is responsible at least for the Silver-Russell phenotype observed in one of the two patients. By single nucleotide polymorphism-array analyses, it was possible to clearly define the mechanism responsible for this unusual finding, underlining the importance of this technique in bringing out the perhaps submerged world of chimeras.
Project description:Individuals with a ring 15 chromosome [r(15)] and those with Russell-Silver syndrome have short stature, developmental delay, triangular face, and clinodactyly. To assess whether the apparent phenotypic overlap of these conditions reflects a common genetic cause, the extent of deletions in chromosome 15q was determined in 5 patients with r(15), 1 patient with del 15q26.1-qter, and 5 patients with Russell-Silver syndrome. All patients with Russell-Silver syndrome were diploid for genetic markers in distal 15q, indicating that Russell-Silver syndrome in these individuals was unlikely to be related to the expression of single alleles at these or linked genetic loci. At least 3 distinct sites of chromosome breakage close to the telomere were found in the r(15) and del 15q25.1-qter patients, with 1 r(15) patient having both a terminal and an interstitial deletion. Although the patient with del 15q25.1-qter exhibited the largest deletion and the most profound growth retardation, the degree of growth impairment among the r(15) patients was not correlated with the size of the deleted interval. Rather, the parental origin of the ring chromosome in several patients was associated with phenotypes that are also seen in patients with either Prader-Willi (PWS) or Angelman (AS) syndromes, conditions that result from uniparental expression of genes on chromosome 15. In fact, unequal representation of chromosome 15 alleles in 1 patient with r(15) suggests the possibility that a mosaic karyotype composed of the constitutional cell line and cell line(s) possibly deficient in the ring chromosome might be present. The PWS-like or AS-like phenotypes could be explained by postzygotic loss of the ring chromosome, leading to uniparental inheritance of the intact chromosome in some tissues of r(15) patients.
Project description:Overgrowth syndromes comprise a diverse group of conditions with unique clinical, behavioral and molecular genetic features. While considerable overlap in presentation sometimes exists, advances in identification of the precise etiology of specific overgrowth disorders continue to improve clinicians' ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Among them, this paper introduces two classic genetic overgrowth syndromes: Sotos syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Historically, the diagnosis was based entirely on clinical findings. However, it is now understood that Sotos syndrome is caused by a variety of molecular genetic alterations resulting in haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35 and that Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by heterogeneous abnormalities in the imprinting of a number of growth regulatory genes within chromosome 11p15 in the majority of cases. Interestingly, the 11p15 imprinting region is also associated with Russell-Silver syndrome which is a typical growth retardation syndrome. Opposite epigenetic alterations in 11p15 result in opposite clinical features shown in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell-Silver syndrome. Although the exact functions of the causing genes have not yet been completely understood, these overgrowth syndromes can be good models to clarify the complex basis of human growth and help to develop better-directed therapies in the future.
Project description:This study describes the discovery of the gene responsible for differentiation of stem cells into ligament tissue. This important finding may lead to the development of treatments for gonarthrosis, rupture of the cruciate ligament and periodontal ligament, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. This study describes the discovery of the gene (A) responsible for differentiation of stem cells into ligament tissue. The transfection of this gene into mouse mesenchymal stem cells resulted in the formation of ligament-like connective tissue composed of parallel fibres. We performed microarray analysis of four samples: stem cells (sample1), ligament-like tissue from stem cells transfected with A (sample 4), ligament tissue from A-transgenic mice (sample 2) , and ligament tissue from wild type mice (sample 3).
Project description:Cellulases from Bacillus and Geobacillus bacteria are potentially useful in the biofuel and animal feed industries. One of the unique characteristics of these enzymes is that they are usually quite thermostable. We previously identified a cellulase, GsCelA, from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. 70PC53, which is much more thermostable than its Bacillus homolog, BsCel5A. Thus, these two cellulases provide a pair of structures ideal for investigating the mechanism regarding how these cellulases can retain activity at high temperature. In the present study, we applied the SCHEMA non-contiguous recombination algorithm as a novel tool, which assigns protein sequences into blocks for domain swapping in a way that lessens structural disruption, to generate a set of chimeric proteins derived from the recombination of GsCelA and BsCel5A. Analyzing the activity and thermostability of this designed library set, which requires only a limited number of chimeras by SCHEMA calculations, revealed that one of the blocks may contribute to the higher thermostability of GsCelA. When tested against swollen Avicel, the highly thermostable chimeric cellulase C10 containing this block showed significantly higher activity (22%-43%) and higher thermostability compared to the parental enzymes. With further structural determinations and mutagenesis analyses, a 310 helix was identified as being responsible for the improved thermostability of this block. Furthermore, in the presence of ionic calcium and crown ether (CR), the chimeric C10 was found to retain 40% residual activity even after heat treatment at 90°C. Combining crystal structure determinations and structure-guided SCHEMA recombination, we have determined the mechanism responsible for the high thermostability of GsCelA, and generated a novel recombinant enzyme with significantly higher activity.
Project description:This study was an investigation of 79 patients referred to the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory with suspected Russell-Silver Syndrome or unexplained short stature/intra uterine growth restriction, warranting genetic investigation. Methylation status was analysed at target sequences within eleven imprinted loci (PLAGL1, IGF2R, PEG10, MEST1, GRB10, KCNQ1OT1, H19, IGF2P0, DLK1, PEG3, NESPAS). Thirty seven percent (37%) (29 of 79) of samples were shown to have a methylation abnormality. The commonest finding was a loss of methylation at H19 (23 of 29), as previously reported in Russell-Silver Syndrome. In addition, four of these patients had methylation anomalies at other loci, of whom two showed hypomethylation of multiple imprinted loci, and two showed a complete gain of methylation at IGF2R. This latter finding was also present in five other patients who did not have demonstrable changes at H19. In total, 7 of 79 patients showed a gain of methylation at IGF2R and this was significantly different from a normal control population of 267 individuals (P=0.002). This study in patients with growth restriction shows the importance of widening the epigenetic investigation to include multiple imprinted loci and highlights potential involvement of the IGF2R locus.
Project description:Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 opposite growth-affecting disorders. The common molecular cause for both syndromes is an abnormal regulation of genes in chromosomal region 11p15, where 2 imprinting control regions (ICR) control fetal and postnatal growth. Also, many submicroscopic chromosomal disturbances like duplications in 11p15 have been described among SRS and BWS patients. Duplications involving both ICRs cause SRS or BWS, depending on which parent the aberration is inherited from. We describe to our knowledge the smallest familial pure 1.3-Mb duplication in chromosomal region 11p15.5p15.4 that involves both ICRs and is present in 3 generations causing an SRS or BWS phenotype.
Project description:Pendred syndrome (PS) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the SLC26A4 gene (chr7q22. 3) and characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and variable thyroid phenotype. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a heterogeneous imprinting disorder including severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, and dysmorphic features. Maternal uniparental disomy of either the whole chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) or 7q (upd(7q)mat) is one of the multiple mechanisms impacting the expression of imprinted genes in SRS, and is associated with milder clinical features. Here, we report genetic and clinical characterization of a female child with PS, postnatal growth retardation, and minor dysmorphic features. A gross homozygous deletion of SLC26A4 exons 17-20 was suspected by Sanger sequencing and then confirmed by array-CGH. Moreover, an insertion of about 1 kb of the CCDC126 gene (7p15.3), which does not appear to be clinically relevant, was detected. The possible occurrence of a balanced rearrangement between 7p and 7q was excluded. The absence of the deletion in the father led to the investigation of upd, and microsatellite segregation analysis revealed a segmental 7q (upd(7q)mat), leading to SLC26A4 homozygosity and responsible for both PS and SRS-like traits. The proband matched 3 out of 6 major SRS criteria. In conclusion, this is the first report of uniparental isodisomy encompassing almost the whole long arm of chromosome 7 resulting in PS and SRS-like features. Whereas, the inner ear phenotype of PS is typical, the clinical features suggestive of SRS might have been overlooked.
Project description:The placenta is a highly vascular structure composed of both maternal and fetal elements. We have determined that damaging variants in genes responsible for the positive regulation of angiogenesis (PRA) (GO:0045766) that are inherited by the fetus impair fetal growth and placental function in pregnancies involving critical congenital cardiac defects (Russell et al., 2019). In this dataset, we present the specific genetic variants identified, describe the parental origin of each variant where possible and present the analyses regarding the potential effects of parental origin of the variant on placental function and fetal growth. The data presented are related to the research article "Damaging variants in pro-angiogenic genes impair growth in fetuses with cardiac defects" (Russell et al., 2019).
Project description:Hereditary ataxias with similar phenotypes were reported in the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier, the Jack Russell Terrier and the Parson Russell Terrier. However, segregation analyses showed differing inheritance modes in these breeds. Recently, molecular genetic studies on the Russell group of terriers found independent mutations in KCNJ10 and CAPN1, each associated with a specific clinical subtype of inherited ataxia. The aim of this study was to clarify whether or not Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and dogs of other related breeds harbor either of the same mutations. A sub goal was to update the results of KCNJ10 genotyping in Russell group terriers.Three Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and two Toy Fox Terriers with a similar phenotype were all homozygous for the KCNJ10 mutation. The same mutation was also found in a heterozygous state in clinically unaffected Tenterfield Terriers (n = 5) and, in agreement with previous studies, in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers.A KCNJ10 mutation, previously associated with an autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers segregates in at least three more breeds descended from British hunting terriers. Ataxic members of two of these breeds, the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier and the Toy Fox Terrier, were homozygous for the mutation, strengthening the likelihood that this genetic defect is indeed the causative mutation for the disease known as "hereditary ataxia" in Fox Terriers and "spinocerebellar ataxia with myokymia, seizures or both" in the Russell group of terriers.