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Transcriptome Profiling and Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal GSTs and Other Defense Genes Involved in Multiple Signaling Pathways Induced by Herbicide Safener in Grain Sorghum.

ABSTRACT: Herbicide safeners protect cereal crops from herbicide injury by inducing genes and proteins involved in detoxification reactions, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s (P450s). Only a few studies have characterized gene or protein expression profiles for investigating plant responses to safener treatment in cereal crops, and most transcriptome analyses in response to safener treatments have been conducted in dicot model species that are not protected by safener from herbicide injury. In this study, three different approaches were utilized in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to investigate mechanisms involved in safener-regulated signaling pathways. An initial transcriptome analysis was performed to examine global gene expression in etiolated shoot tissues of hybrid grain sorghum following treatment with the sorghum safener, fluxofenim. Most upregulated transcripts encoded detoxification enzymes, including P450s, GSTs, and UDP-dependent glucosyltransferases (UGTs). Interestingly, several of these upregulated transcripts are similar to genes involved with the biosynthesis and recycling/catabolism of dhurrin, an important chemical defense compound, in these seedling tissues. Secondly, 761 diverse sorghum inbred lines were evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to determine key molecular-genetic factors governing safener-mediated signaling mechanisms and/or herbicide detoxification. GWAS revealed a significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with safener-induced response on chromosome 9, located within a phi-class SbGST gene and about 15-kb from a different phi-class SbGST. Lastly, the expression of these two candidate SbGSTs was quantified in etiolated shoot tissues of sorghum inbred BTx623 in response to fluxofenim treatment. SbGSTF1 and SbGSTF2 transcripts increased within 12-hr after fluxofenim treatment but the level of safener-induced expression differed between the two genes. In addition to identifying specific GSTs potentially involved in the safener-mediated detoxification pathway, this research elucidates a new direction for studying both constitutive and inducible mechanisms for chemical defense in cereal crop seedlings.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6418823 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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