Structural basis of guanine nucleotide exchange for Rab11 by SH3BP5.
ABSTRACT: The Rab GTPase family is a major regulator of membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells. The Rab11 subfamily plays important roles in specific trafficking events such as exocytosis, endosomal recycling, and cytokinesis. SH3BP5 and SH3BP5-like (SH3BP5L) proteins have recently been found to serve as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for Rab11. Here, we report the crystal structures of the SH3BP5 GEF domain alone and its complex with Rab11a. SH3BP5 exhibits a V-shaped structure comprising two coiled coils. The coiled coil composed of ?1, and ?4 is solely responsible for the Rab11a binding and GEF activity. SH3BP5 pulls out and deforms switch I of Rab11a so as to facilitate the GDP release from Rab11a. SH3BP5 interacts with the N-terminal region, switch I, interswitch, and switch II of Rab11a. SH3BP5 and SH3BP5L localize to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and show GEF activity for all of the Rab11 family but not for Rab14. Fluorescence-based GEF assays combined with site-directed mutagenesis reveal the essential interactions between SH3BP5 and Rab11 family proteins for the GEF reaction on recycling endosomes.
Project description:The GTPase Rab11 plays key roles in receptor recycling, oogenesis, autophagosome formation, and ciliogenesis. However, investigating Rab11 regulation has been hindered by limited molecular detail describing activation by cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Here, we present the structure of Rab11 bound to the GEF SH3BP5, along with detailed characterization of Rab-GEF specificity. The structure of SH3BP5 shows a coiled-coil architecture that mediates exchange through a unique Rab-GEF interaction. Furthermore, it reveals a rearrangement of the switch I region of Rab11 compared with solved Rab-GEF structures, with a constrained conformation when bound to SH3BP5. Mutation of switch I provides insights into the molecular determinants that allow for Rab11 selectivity over evolutionarily similar Rab GTPases present on Rab11-positive organelles. Moreover, we show that GEF-deficient mutants of SH3BP5 show greatly decreased Rab11 activation in cellular assays of active Rab11. Overall, our results give molecular insight into Rab11 regulation, and how Rab-GEF specificity is achieved.
Project description:ß1-adrenergic receptors (ß1-AR) are internalized in response to agonists and then recycle back for another round of signaling. The serine 312 to alanine mutant of the ß1-AR (S312A) is internalized but does not recycle. We determined that WT ß1-AR and S312A were internalized initially to an early sorting compartment because they colocalized by >70% with the early endosomal markers rab5a and early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1). Subsequently, the WT ß1-AR trafficked via rab4a-expressing sorting endosomes to recycling endosomes. In recycling endosomes WT ß1-AR were colocalized by >70% with the rab11 GTPase. S312A did not colocalize with either rab4a or rab11, instead they exited from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes in which they were degraded. Rab11a played a prominent role in recycling of the WT ß1-AR because dominant negative rab11a inhibited, while constitutively active rab11a accelerated the recycling of the ß1-AR. Next, we determined the effect of each of the rab11-interacting proteins on trafficking of the WT ß1-AR. The recycling of the ß1-AR was markedly inhibited when myosin Vb, FIP2, FIP3 and rabphillin were knocked down. These data indicate that rab11a and a select group of its binding partners play a prominent role in recycling of the human ß1-AR.
Project description:The Rab11 family of small GTPases, along with the Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs), are critical regulators of intracellular vesicle trafficking and recycling. We have identified a point mutation of Threonine-197 site to an Alanine in Rab11-FIP1A, which causes a dramatic dominant negative phenotype when expressed in HeLa cells. The normally perinuclear distribution of GFP-Rab11-FIP1A was condensed into a membranous cisternum with almost no GFP-Rab11-FIP1A(T197A) remaining outside of this central locus. Also, this condensed GFP-FIP1A(T197A) altered the distribution of proteins in the Rab11a recycling pathway including endogenous Rab11a, Rab11-FIP1C, and transferrin receptor (CD71). Furthermore, this condensed GFP-FIP1A(T197A)-containing structure exhibited little movement in live HeLa cells. Expression of GFP-FIP1A(T197A) caused a strong blockade of transferrin recycling. Treatment of cells expressing GFP-FIP1A(T197A) with nocodazole did not disperse the Rab11a-containing recycling system. We also found that Rab5 and EEA1 were accumulated in membranes by GFP-Rab11-FIP1A but Rab4 was unaffected, suggesting that a direct pathway may exist from early endosomes into the Rab11a-containing recycling system. Our study of a potent inhibitory trafficking mutation in Rab11-FIP1A shows that Rab11-FIP1A associates with and regulates trafficking at an early step in the process of membrane recycling.
Project description:The effects of polarized membrane trafficking in mature epithelial tissue on cell growth and cancer progression have not been fully explored in vivo. A majority of colorectal cancers have reduced and mislocalized Rab11, a small GTPase dedicated to trafficking of recycling endosomes. Patients with low Rab11 protein expression have poor survival rates. Using genetic models across species, we show that intact recycling endosome function restrains aberrant epithelial growth elicited by APC or RAS mutations. Loss of Rab11 protein led to epithelial dysplasia in early animal development and synergized with oncogenic pathways to accelerate tumor progression initiated by carcinogen, genetic mutation, or aging. Transcriptomic analysis uncovered an immediate expansion of the intestinal stem cell pool along with cell-autonomous Yki/Yap activation following disruption of Rab11a-mediated recycling endosomes. Intestinal tumors lacking Rab11a traffic exhibited marked elevation of nuclear Yap, upd3/IL6-Stat3, and amphiregulin-MAPK signaling, whereas suppression of Yki/Yap or upd3/IL6 reduced gut epithelial dysplasia and hyperplasia. Examination of Rab11a function in enteroids or cultured cell lines suggested that this endosome unit is required for suppression of the Yap pathway by Hippo kinases. Thus, recycling endosomes in mature epithelia constitute key tumor suppressors, loss of which accelerates carcinogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: Recycling endosome traffic in mature epithelia constitutes a novel tumor suppressing mechanism.
Project description:Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is the predominant component of endothelial adherens junctions essential for cell-cell adhesion and formation of the vascular barrier. Endocytic recycling is an important mechanism for maintaining the expression of cell surface membrane proteins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of VE-cadherin recycling and its role in maintenance of vascular integrity.Using calcium-switch assay, confocal imaging, cell surface biotinylation, and flow cytometry, we showed that VE-cadherin recycling required Ras-related proteins in brain (Rab)11a and Rab11 family-interacting protein 2. Yeast 2-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that direct interaction of VE-cadherin with family-interacting protein 2 (at aa 453-484) formed a ternary complex with Rab11a in human endothelial cells. Silencing of Rab11a or Rab11 family-interacting protein 2 in endothelial cells prevented VE-cadherin recycling and VE-cadherin expression at endothelial plasma membrane. Furthermore, inactivation of Rab11a signaling blocked junctional reannealing after vascular inflammation. Selective knockdown of Rab11a in pulmonary microvessels markedly increased vascular leakage in mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide or polymicrobial sepsis.Rab11a/Rab11 family-interacting protein 2-mediated VE-cadherin recycling is required for formation of adherens junctions and restoration of VE barrier integrity and hence a potential target for clinical intervention in inflammatory disease.
Project description:Family of Rab11-interacting protein (FIP)3/Arfophlin-1 and FIP4/Arfophilin-2 are dual effectors for Rab11 and ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)5/ARF6, which are involved in membrane delivery from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane during cytokinesis. Here, we define the distinct C-terminal binding regions of FIP3 and FIP4 for Rab11 and ARF5/ARF6. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of Rab11 in complex with the Rab11-binding domain (RBD) of FIP3. The long amphiphilic alpha-helix of FIP3-RBD forms a parallel coiled-coil homodimer, with two symmetric interfaces with two Rab11 molecules. The hydrophobic side of the RBD helix is involved in homodimerization and mediates the interaction with the Rab11 switch 1 region, whereas the opposite hydrophilic side interacts with the Rab11 switch 2 and is the major factor contributing to the binding specificity. The bivalent interaction of FIP3 with Rab11 at the C terminus allows FIP3 to coordinately function with other binding partners, including ARFs.
Project description:Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles carrying diverse molecular cargos, which can modulate recipient cell behaviour. They are thought to derive from intraluminal vesicles formed in late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). An alternate exosome formation mechanism, which is conserved from fly to human, is described here, with exosomes carrying unique cargos, including the GTPase Rab11, generated in Rab11-positive recycling endosomal MVBs. Release of Rab11-positive exosomes from cancer cells is increased relative to late endosomal exosomes by reducing growth regulatory Akt/mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling or depleting the key metabolic substrate glutamine, which diverts membrane flux through recycling endosomes. Vesicles produced under these conditions promote tumour cell proliferation and turnover, and modulate blood vessel networks in xenograft mouse models in vivo. Their growth-promoting activity, which is also observed in vitro, is Rab11a-dependent, involves ERK-MAPK-signalling and is inhibited by antibodies against amphiregulin, an EGFR ligand concentrated on these vesicles. Therefore, glutamine depletion or mTORC1 inhibition stimulates release from Rab11a-compartments of exosomes with pro-tumorigenic functions, which we propose promote stress-induced tumour adaptation.
Project description:The TRAnsport Protein Particle (TRAPP) complexes act as Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rab GTPases, which are master regulators of membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells. In metazoans, there are two large multi-protein TRAPP complexes: TRAPPII and TRAPPIII, with the TRAPPII complex able to activate both Rab1 and Rab11. Here we present detailed biochemical characterisation of Rab-GEF specificity of the human TRAPPII complex, and molecular insight into Rab binding. GEF assays of the TRAPPII complex against a panel of 20 different Rab GTPases revealed GEF activity on Rab43 and Rab19. Electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking revealed the architecture of mammalian TRAPPII. Hydrogen deuterium exchange MS showed that Rab1, Rab11 and Rab43 share a conserved binding interface. Clinical mutations in Rab11, and phosphomimics of Rab43, showed decreased TRAPPII GEF mediated exchange. Finally, we designed a Rab11 mutation that maintained TRAPPII-mediated GEF activity while decreasing activity of the Rab11-GEF SH3BP5, providing a tool to dissect Rab11 signalling. Overall, our results provide insight into the GTPase specificity of TRAPPII, and how clinical mutations disrupt this regulation.
Project description:Serum starvation stimulates cilia growth in cultured cells, yet serum factors associated with ciliogenesis are unknown. Previously, we showed that starvation induces rapid Rab11-dependent vesicular trafficking of Rabin8, a Rab8 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), to the mother centriole, leading to Rab8 activation and cilium growth. Here, we demonstrate that through the LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1), serum lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) inhibits Rab11a-Rabin8 interaction and ciliogenesis. LPA/LPAR1 regulates ciliogenesis initiation via downstream PI3K/Akt activation, independent of effects on cell cycle. Akt stabilizes Rab11a binding to its effector, WDR44, and a WDR44-pAkt-phosphomimetic mutant blocks ciliogenesis. WDR44 depletion promotes Rabin8 preciliary trafficking and ciliogenesis-initiating events at the mother centriole. Our work suggests disruption of Akt signaling causes a switch from Rab11-WDR44 to the ciliogenic Rab11-FIP3-Rabin8 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that Akt regulates downstream ciliogenesis processes associated with Rab8-dependent cilia growth. Together, this study uncovers a mechanism whereby serum mitogen signaling regulates Rabin8 preciliary trafficking and ciliogenesis initiation.