Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. METHOD:HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4 T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiation. Flow cytometry was used to assess T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and functions. RESULTS:Proportions of IL-7R+ CD4 or CD8 T cells correlated positively with CD4 T-cell counts and proportions of central memory and naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell pre-ART (all r > 0.50 and P < 0.05); however, the former negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts fold-increase on ART in non-C-IRIS but not C-IRIS patients. Higher frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14CD86 or CD14+HLA-DR+; P ? 0.038) were also observed in C-IRIS compared with non-C-IRIS patients, and those who failed to clear cryptococci from cerebrospinal fluid before ART had higher levels of activated monocytes (CD14+HLA-DR+, P = 0.017) compared with those who cleared. In multivariate regression, CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes were independently associated with C-IRIS [hazard ratio = 1.055 (1.013-1.098); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION:In contrast to non-C-IRIS patients, C-IRIS patients displayed a lack of association between proportions of IL-7R+ T cells and several markers of T-cell homeostasis. They also exhibited higher monocyte activation linked to cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal culture positivity before ART. These data suggest a role for IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway dysregulation in the pathogenesis of C-IRIS, possibly linked to monocyte activation and residual pathogen burden before ART.
Project description:Background: Disease progression monitoring through CD4 counts alone can be inadequate in HIV infection as ongoing immune activation may result in Serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs). SNAEs involve monocyte activation driven chronic inflammation with significant sequelae observed even during HAART. Here, we attempted to delineate functional monocyte based signatures across stages of HIV disease progression. Methods: Participants spanning four cohorts were recruited-pre-ART (PA; <7 years of infection; n = 20), long-term non-progressors (LTNP; >7 years of infection, CD4 > 350 cells/?L, n = 20), individuals on therapy (ART; n = 18) and seronegative controls (SN; n = 15). Immunophenotyping of monocyte subsets and evaluation of expression of HIV-binding receptors-CD4 and CCR5, marker of immune activation- HLA-DR and M2 phenotype-mannose receptor (CD206) was followed by association of monocyte-specific parameters with conventional markers of disease progression such as absolute CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, viral load, and T cell activation. Results: A significant expansion of intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+) with a concomitant decline in classical subset (CD14++CD16-) was observed in all infected cohorts compared to seronegative controls. In addition, an expansion of the non-classical subset (CD14+CD16++) was observed in long-term non-progressors. Dysregulation in monocyte subsets associated with CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio in PAs but not in LTNPs. We report for the first time that expression of CD206 is most prominent on intermediate monocytes which also have the highest expression of CD4, CCR5, and HLA-DR. Despite preserved CD4 counts, LTNPs had similar immune activation profiles to PAs, as evidenced by elevated HLA-DR expression across monocyte subsets. HLA-DR expression, similar to that in SNs, observed in the ART group indicated partial immune restoration within the monocyte compartment. Increased CD206 expression on monocytes together with frequency of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (HLA-DR+CD38+) showed significant and positive association with viral load in LTNPs, but not PAs. Conclusion: Our results describe for the first time the presence of monocyte dysregulation involving increased activation in LTNPs, who, in spite of preserved CD4 counts, may remain susceptible to prolonged effects of systemic inflammation and highlight CD206, as a unique non-T correlate of viremia, in viremic non-progression.
Project description:Monocytes have been recently subdivided into three subsets: classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and non-classical (CD14+CD16++) subsets, but phenotypic and functional abnormalities of the three monocyte subsets in HIV-1 infection have not been fully characterized, especially in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). In the study, we explored the dynamic changes of monocyte subsets and their surface markers, and the association between monocyte subsets and the IFN-?, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17, and TNF-? producing CD4+ T cells in acute and chronic HIV-1-infected patients. We found that, in the acute HIV-1-infected individuals, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets, the CD163 density and HLA-DR density on intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes, and plasma soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) were significantly higher than that in healthy controls. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets and their HLA-DR expression levels were inversely correlated with the CD4+ T cell counts, and the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes were positively correlated with plasma sCD163. In contrast to the non-classical CD14+CD16++ and classical CD14++CD16- monocyte subsets, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes was positively associated with the frequency of IFN-? and IL-4 producing CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected patients. Taken together, our observations provide new insight into the roles of the monocyte subsets in HIV pathogenesis, particularly during AHI, and our findings may be helpful for the treatment of HIV-related immune activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monocytes play a central role in HIV neuropathogenesis, but there are limited data on monocyte subsets and markers of monocyte activation in perinatally HIV-infected children. OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationship between monocyte subsets, the sCD163 monocyte activation marker, and neuropsychological performance among perinatally HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS:ART-naïve children from the PREDICT study were categorised into two groups: those on ART for ?24 weeks (ART group, n =201) and those untreated (no ART group, n =79). This analysis used data from the baseline and week 144 including sCD163 and frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+), perivascular monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+), and neuropsychological testing scores: Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotient (VIQ and PIQ), Beery Visuomotor Integration (VMI) and Children's Color Trails 2 (CT2). RESULTS:Baseline demographic and HIV disease parameters were similar between groups. The median age was 6 years, CD4 was 20% (620 cells/mm3), and HIV RNA was 4.8 log10. By week 144, the ART vs the no ART group had significantly higher CD4 (938 vs 552 cells/mm3) and lower HIV RNA (1.6 vs 4.38 log10 copies/mL, P <0.05). sCD163 declined in the ART vs no ART group (median changes -2533 vs -159 ng/mL, P <0.0001). Frequencies of all monocyte subsets declined in the treated but not the untreated group (P <0.05). Higher CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+ percentage was associated with higher VIQ, Beery VMI and CT2 scores. Higher percentages of CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+ were associated with higher CT2 and VIQ, respectively. CONCLUSION:ART significantly reduced sCD163 levels and frequencies of activated and perivascular monocytes. Higher frequencies of these cells correlated with better neuropsychological performance suggesting a protective role of monocyte-macrophage immune activation in perinatal HIV infection in terms of neuropsychological function.
Project description:Massive infection of memory CD4 T cells is a hallmark of early simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, with viral infection peaking at day 10 postinfection (p.i.), when a majority of memory CD4 T cells in mucosal and peripheral tissues are infected. It is not clear if mononuclear cells from the monocyte and macrophage lineages are similarly infected during this early phase of explosive HIV and SIV infections. Here we show that, at day 10 p.i., Lin(-) HLA-DR(+) CD11c/123(-) CD13(+) CD14(-) macrophages in the jejunal mucosa were infected, albeit at lower levels than CD4 memory T cells. Interestingly, Lin(-) HLA-DR(+) CD11c/123(-) CD13(+) CD14(-) macrophages in peripheral blood, like their mucosal counterparts, were preferentially infected compared to Lin(-) HLA-DR(+) CD11c/123(-) CD13(+) CD14(+) monocytes, suggesting that differentiated macrophages were selectively infected by SIV. CD13(+) CD14(-) macrophages expressed low levels of CD4 compared to CD4 T cells but expressed similar levels of CCR5 as lymphocytes. Interestingly, CD13(+) CD14(-) macrophages expressed Apobec3G at lower levels than CD13(+) CD14(+) monocytes, suggesting that intracellular restriction may contribute to the differential infection of mononuclear subsets. Taken together, our results suggest that CD13(+) CD14(-) macrophages in mucosal and peripheral tissues are preferentially infected very early during the course of SIV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monocytes are increasingly implicated in the inflammatory consequences of HIV-1 disease, yet their phenotype following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is incompletely defined. Here, we define more completely monocyte phenotype both prior to ART initiation and during 48 weeks of ART. METHODS:Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (prior to ART initiation) and at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment from 29 patients participating in ACTG clinical trial A5248, an open label study of raltegravir/emtricitibine/tenofovir administration. For comparison, cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from 15 HIV-1 uninfected donors, each of whom had at least two cardiovascular risk factors. Thawed samples were stained for monocyte subset markers (CD14 and CD16), HLA-DR, CCR2, CX3CR1, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD38, CD36, CD13, and CD163 and examined using flow cytometry. RESULTS:In untreated HIV-1 infection there were perturbations in monocyte subset phenotypes, chiefly a higher frequency and density (mean fluorescence intensity-MFI) of HLA-DR (%-p = 0.004, MFI-p = .0005) and CD86 (%-p = 0.012, MFI-p = 0.005) expression and lower frequency of CCR2 (p = 0.0002) expression on all monocytes, lower CCR2 density on inflammatory monocytes (p = 0.045) when compared to the expression and density of these markers in controls' monocytes. We also report lower expression of CX3CR1 (p = 0.014) on patrolling monocytes at baseline, compared to levels seen in controls. After ART, these perturbations tended to improve, with decreasing expression and density of HLA-DR and CD86, increasing CCR2 density on inflammatory monocytes, and increasing expression and density of CX3CR1 on patrolling monocytes. CONCLUSIONS:In HIV-1 infected patients, ART appears to attenuate the high levels of activation (HLA-DR, CD86) and to increase expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 on monocyte populations. Circulating monocyte phenotypes are altered in untreated infection and tend to normalize with ART; the role of these cells in the inflammatory environment of HIV-1 infection warrants further study.
Project description:We have previously reported a novel phenotype of myeloid suppressors in lymphoma patients characterized by a loss of HLA-DR expression on monocytes, CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/neg). These cells were directly immunosuppressive and were associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we found that lymphoma tumors could have more than 30% of their tumor occupied by CD14(+) cells. This intimate spatial connection suggested substantial cell-cell communication. We examined cross talk between monocytes from healthy volunteers (normal) and lymphoma cells in co-culture to identify the mechanisms and consequences of these interactions. Normal CD14(+)HLA-DR(+) monocytes lost their HLA-DR expression after co-culture with lymphoma cells. Lymphoma-converted CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/neg) cells exhibited similar immunosuppressive functions as CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/neg) monocytes from lymphoma patients. Unexpectedly monocyte additions to lymphoma cell cultures protected lymphoma from cytotoxic killing by chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX). Monocyte mediated resistance to DOX killing was associated with decreased Caspase-3 activity and increased anti-apoptotic heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) expression. Soluble Hsp27 was detected in supernatant and patient plasma. Increased Hsp27 in plasma correlated with increased proportion of CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/neg) monocytes in patient blood and was associated with lack of clinical response to DOX. This is the first report to describe a non-immune function of CD14(+)HLA-DR(low/neg) monocytes: enhanced lymphoma resistance to chemotherapy. It is also the first report in lymphoma of Hsp27 as a potential mediator of lymphoma and monocyte crosstalk and chemotherapy resistance. Together with previous reports of the prevalence of these myeloid suppressors in other cancers, our findings identify this pathway and these interactions as a potential novel therapeutic target.
Project description:Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response occurring in a subset of TB-HIV co-infected patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here, we examined monocyte activation by prospectively quantitating pro-inflammatory plasma markers and monocyte subsets in TB-HIV co-infected patients from a South Indian cohort at baseline and following ART initiation at the time of IRIS, or at equivalent time points in non-IRIS controls. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers of innate and myeloid cell activation were increased in plasma of IRIS patients pre-ART and at the time of IRIS; this association was confirmed in a second cohort in South Africa. Increased expression of these markers correlated with elevated antigen load as measured by higher sputum culture grade and shorter duration of anti-TB therapy. Phenotypic analysis revealed the frequency of CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes was an independent predictor of TB-IRIS, and was closely associated with plasma levels of CRP, TNF, IL-6 and tissue factor during IRIS. In addition, production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was higher in IRIS patients compared to controls pre-ART. These data point to a major role of mycobacterial antigen load and myeloid cell hyperactivation in the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS, and implicate monocytes and monocyte-derived cytokines as potential targets for TB-IRIS prevention or treatment.
Project description:Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured. For TLR4+896A/G variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, high plasma endotoxin/IL-10 inhibits HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis were noted in their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset, enhanced LPS-stimulated TLR4 expression and TNF?/nitrite production, and systemic inflammation [high plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14) and total nitric oxide (NOx) levels] were noted. For CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, persist endotoxemia inhibited mCD14/HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis of their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset up-regulated TLR4-NF?B-iNOS and p38MAPK pathway, stimulated TNF?/nitrite production and elicited systemic inflammation. In febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients, TLR4+896A/G and CD14-159C/T polymorphisms-related non-classical and classical monocytes dysfunction resulted in increased severe sepsis risk. Malnutrition, high plasma endotoxin and sCD14 levels, single TLR4+896A/G or CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers and double variant allele carriers are significant predictive factors for the development of severe sepsis among them.
Project description:Monocytes are classified according to their CD14 and CD16 expression into classical (reparative), intermediate (inflammatory), and non-classical. This study assessed the frequency of monocyte and the relationship between monocyte subset percentages and the levels of blood cytokines in Colombian chagasic patients with different clinical forms. This study included chagasic patients in different clinical stages: indeterminate (IND) n = 14, chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) n = 14, and heart transplant chagasic (HTCC) n = 9; controls with non-chagasic cardiopathy (NCC) n = 15, and healthy individuals (HI) n = 15. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, labeled for CD14, CD16, and HLA-DR, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were measured with a bead-based immunoassay. Percentages of total CD14+ CD16+ and CD14+ HLA-DR+ monocytes were higher in patients with heart involvement (CCC, HTCC, and NCC) than controls. Percentages of intermediate monocytes increased in symptomatic chagasic patients (CCC and HTCC) compared to asymptomatic chagasic patients (IND) and controls (HI). Asymptomatic chagasic patients (IND) had higher percentages of classical monocytes, an increased production of CCL17 chemokine compared to chagasic symptomatic patients (CCC), and their levels of CCL17 was positively correlated with the percentage of classical monocyte subset. In CCC, the percentages of intermediate and classical monocytes were positively correlated with IL-6 levels, which were higher in this group compared to HI, and negatively with IL-12p40 concentration, respectively. Remarkably, there also was an important increased of classical monocytes frequency in three chronic chagasic patients who underwent cardiac transplant, of which one received anti-parasitic treatment. Our findings suggest that cardiac chagasic patients have an increased percentage of inflammatory monocytes and produce more IL-6, a biomarker of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, whereas asymptomatic chagasic individuals present a higher percentage of reparative monocytes and CCL17.
Project description:Little is known about the time-dependent immune responses in severe COVID-19. Data of 15 consecutive patients were sequentially recorded from intensive care unit admission. Lymphocyte subsets and total monocyte and subsets counts were monitored as well as the expression of HLA-DR. For 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell polyfunctionality was assessed against Spike and Nucleoprotein SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Non-specific inflammation markers were increased in all patients. Median monocyte HLA-DR expression was below the 8,000 AB/C threshold defining acquired immunodepression. A "V" trend curve for lymphopenia, monocyte numbers, and HLA-DR expression was observed with a nadir between days 11 and 14 after symptoms' onset. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes increased early with a reduction in classic CD14++CD16- monocytes. Polyfunctional SARS-Cov-2-specific CD4 T-cells were present and functional, whereas virus-specific CD8 T-cells were less frequent and not efficient. We report a temporal variation of both innate and adaptive immunity in severe COVID-19 patients, helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions (e.g. anti-inflammatory vs. immunostimulatory ones). We describe a defect in virus-specific CD8 T-cells, a potential biomarker of clinical severity. These combined data also provide helpful knowledge for vaccine design. Clinical Trial Registration:https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT04386395.