Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028S is tolerant to plant defenses triggered by the flagellin receptor FLS2.
ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis outbreaks associated with sprouted legumes have been a food safety concern for over two decades. Despite evidence that Salmonella enterica triggers biotic plant defense pathways, it has remained unclear how plant defenses impact Salmonella growth on sprouted legumes. We used Medicago truncatula mutants in which the gene for the flagellin receptor FLS2 was disrupted to demonstrate that plant defenses triggered by FLS2 elicitation do not impact the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028S. As a control, we tested the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, which has a defect in rpoS that increases its sensitivity to reactive oxygen species. LT2 displayed enhanced growth on M. truncatula FLS2 mutants in comparison to wild-type M. truncatula. We hypothesize that these growth differences are primarily due to differences in 14028S and LT2 reactive oxygen species sensitivity. Results from this study show that FLS2-mediated plant defenses are ineffective in inhibiting growth of Salmonella entrica 14028S.
Project description:Human pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella enterica, are able to colonize crop plants. So far, not much is known about biotic and abiotic factors influencing this colonization in field soil. This understanding, however, is imperative for the provision of safe fresh produce to the consumer. In this study, we investigated the effects of soil type, organic fertilization, plant species and the way of Salmonella entry into the plant production system, on the survival of S. enterica in soil as well as the colonization of plants. The selected S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s, S. Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. Senftenberg were able to persist in soil for several weeks. Salmonella's persistence in soil was prolonged in loamy, if compared to sandy soil, and when applied together with organic fertilizer. The leaves of lettuce and corn salad were colonized by S. enterica providing evidence for internalization from the soil via the root. Colonization rates were affected by soil type, plant species and S. enterica strain. Overall, S. enterica was detected in leaves of 0.5-0.9% of the plants, while lettuce was more frequently colonized than corn salad. Plants grown in sandy soil were more often colonized than plants grown in loamy soil. After spray inoculation, S. enterica could be detected on and in leaves for several weeks by cultivation-depending methods, confirmed by confocal microscopy using GFP-labeled S. Typhimurium 14028s. On the one hand, transcriptome data from S. Typhimurium 14028s assessed in response to lettuce medium or lettuce root exudates showed an upregulation of genes associated with biofilm formation and virulence. On the other hand, lettuce inoculated with S. Typhimurium 14028s showed a strong upregulation of genes associated with plant immune response and genes related to stress response. In summary, these results showed that organic fertilizers can increase the persistence of Salmonella in soil and that soil type and plant species play a crucial role in the interactions between human pathogens and crop plants. This understanding is therefore a starting point for new strategies to provide safe food for the consumer.
Project description:The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. In addition, its persistence can be influenced by preadaptation before the introduction into the environment. In order to study how preadaptation changes the survival of Salmonella in soil and therefore its potential to colonize the phytosphere, we developed a new medium based on lettuce material [lettuce medium (LM)]. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was used as a model for Salmonella in this study. LT2 was inoculated into soil microcosms after pregrowth in Luria Bertani (LB) broth or in LM. Survival of LT2 in soil was monitored over 56 days by plate counts and quantification of the Typhimurium-specific gene STM4497 using qPCR in total community DNA for which primers and TaqMan probe were designed in this study. Significantly enhanced persistence was observed for LT2 pregrown in LM compared to LT2 pregrown in LB, indicating a preadaptation effect. Surprisingly, no improved survival could be observed for S. Typhimurium strain 14028s and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg after pregrowth on LM. This indicates a high strain specificity of preadaptation. Results from previous studies suggested that biofilm formation could enhance the survival of human pathogens in various environments and might contribute to enhanced survival on plants. In vitro biofilm assays with several Salmonella strains revealed a strain-specific effect of LM on the biofilm formation. While LM significantly improved the biofilm formation of S. Senftenberg, the biofilm formation of LT2 was better in LB. This indicates that the better survival of LM-pregrown LT2 in soil was not linked to an improved ability to form biofilms but was likely due to other factors. Most importantly, this study showed that the medium used to pregrow Salmonella can influence its survival in soil and its biofilm formation which might influence the fate of Salmonella in soil.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and a typhoid-like disease in mice and is often used as a model for the disease promoted by the human-adapted S. enterica serovar Typhi. Despite its health importance, the only S. Typhimurium strain for which the complete genomic sequence has been determined is the avirulent LT2 strain, which is extensively used in genetic and physiologic studies. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of the S. Typhimurium strain 14028s, as well as those of its progenitor and two additional derivatives. Comparison of these S. Typhimurium genomes revealed differences in the patterns of sequence evolution and the complete inventory of genetic alterations incurred in virulent and avirulent strains, as well as the sequence changes accumulated during laboratory passage of pathogenic organisms.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 harbors four temperate prophages. The lytic cycle of these phages was induced with hydrogen peroxide or mitomycin C. Microarray analysis was used to monitor the increase in phage genome copy number and the changes in RNA expression. Phage gene transcription was classified temporally, and host genes that responded to hydrogen peroxide, mitomycin C, or phage induction were also identified. A region of the serovar Typhimurium LT2 host genome encompassing hundreds of genes, flanking the Fels-1 lambdoid prophage, was amplified manyfold during lytic induction, presumably due to Fels-1 runoff replication prior to excision, a phenomenon termed escape replication. An excisionase (xis) mutant of Fels-1 also induced escape replication but did not get packaged. Gifsy-1, a lambdoid prophage that does not normally produce escape replication, did so after deletion of either its integrase or excisionase genes. Escape replication is probably widespread; large regions of host genome amplification were also observed after phage induction in serovar Typhimurium strains SL1344 and 14028s at the suspected integration site of prophage genomes.
Project description:We performed an epidemiological study on Salmonella isolated from raw plant-based feed in Spanish mills. Overall, 32 different Salmonella serovars were detected. Despite its rare occurrence in humans and animals, Salmonella enterica serovar California was found to be the predominant serovar in Spanish feed mills. Different typing techniques showed that isolates of this serovar were genetically closely related, and comparative genomic hybridization using microarray technology revealed 23 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 gene clusters that are absent from serovar California.
Project description:The presence of homologues of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium LT2 genes was assessed in 22 other Salmonella including members of all seven subspecies and Salmonella bongori. Genomes were hybridized to a microarray of over 97% of the 4,596 annotated ORFs in the LT2 genome. A phylogenetic tree based on homologue content, relative to LT2, was largely concordant with previous studies using sequence information from several loci. Based on the topology of this tree, homologues of genes in LT2 acquired by various clades were predicted including 513 homologues acquired by the ancestor of all Salmonella, 111 acquired by S. enterica, 105 by diphasic Salmonella, and 216 by subspecies 1, most of which are of unknown function. Because this subspecies is responsible for almost all Salmonella infections of mammals and birds, these genes will be of particular interest for further mechanistic studies. Overall, a high level of gene gain, loss, or rapid divergence was predicted along all lineages. For example, at least 425 close homologues of LT2 genes may have been laterally transferred into Salmonella and then between Salmonella lineages.
Project description:Disease outbreaks due to the consumption of legume seedlings contaminated with human enteric bacterial pathogens like Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are reported every year. Besides contaminations occurring during food processing, pathogens present on the surface or interior of plant tissues are also responsible for such outbreaks. In the present study, surface and internal colonization of Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, by Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were observed even with inoculum levels as low as two bacteria per plant. Furthermore, expression analyses revealed that approximately 30% of Medicago truncatula genes were commonly regulated in response to both of these enteric pathogens. This study highlights that very low inoculum doses trigger responses from the host plant and that both of these human enteric pathogens may in part use similar mechanisms to colonize legume seedlings.
Project description:A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak.
Project description:In enteric bacteria, DNA supercoiling is highly responsive to environmental conditions. Host specific features of environment serve as cues for the expression of genes required for colonization of host niches via changing supercoiling . It has been shown that substitution at position 87 of GyrA of Salmonella enterica str. SL1344 influences global supercoiling and results in an altered transcriptome with increased expression of stress response pathways . Aminocoumarin antibiotics, such as novobiocin, can be used to relax supercoiling and alter the expression of supercoiling-sensitive genes. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica demonstrates a significant resistance to this antibiotic and relatively small variability of supercoiling in response to the growth phase, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin treatment. Here we present for the first time transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in the presence of novobiocin. These data will help identify genes involved in novobiocin resistance and adaptation processes associated with torsion perturbations in S. enterica. Cleaned FASTQ files for the RNA-seq libraries are deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, Identifier: SRP239815) and have been assigned BioProject accession PRJNA599397.