Signal peptide replacement resulted in recombinant homologous expression of laccase Lcc8 in Coprinopsis cinerea.
ABSTRACT: Although the model agaricomycete Coprinopsis cinerea possess 17 different laccase genes, up to now only four C. cinerea laccases have been purified and characterized to some degree. By exchanging the nucleotide sequence of the deduced signal peptide of Lcc8 it was possible to homologously express lcc8 in C. cinerea under control of the Agaricus bisporus gdpII promoter and the C. cinerea lcc1 terminator. The purified Lcc8 showed two bands in the SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 64 kDa and 77 kDa, respectively. The IEF determined pI values of 3.3 and 3.4 for both bands. The optimal pH for oxidation of the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol and syringaldazine was pH 4.0, pH 5.0, pH 4.5 and pH 5.0, respectively. Best pH for enzyme storage was pH 8.0. The optimal temperature for oxidation of ABTS was 63 °C, while Lcc8 showed activity of at least 50% over 300 min at 50 °C. The comparable high stability of Lcc8 at alkaline pH and higher temperatures can be of interest for biotechnical applications.
Project description:The litter-degrading dung fungus Coprinopsis cinerea has the high number of seventeen different laccase genes. In this work, ten different monokaryons were compared in their ability to produce laccases in two different complete media at different temperatures. Few strains showed laccase activity at the optimal growth temperature of 37 °C. Nine of the strains gave laccase activities between 0.2 and 5.9 U mL(-1) at the suboptimal temperature of 25 °C in mKjalke medium. Laccase activities in YMG/T medium were detected for only three strains (0.5-4.5 U mL(-1)). Zymograms of supernatants from mKjalke medium resulted in total in 10 different laccase bands but strains differed in distribution. LC-MS/MS analysis with Mascot searches of the annotated C. cinerea genome identified isoenzymes from five different genes (Lcc1, Lcc2, Lcc5, Lcc9 and Lcc10) and of Lcc1 three and of Lcc5 two distinct electrophoretical forms. Lcc1 and Lcc5 were expressed in all laccase positive strains, but not all forms were found in all of the strains. Lcc2, Lcc9 and Lcc10 occurred only in three strains as minor laccases, indicating that Lcc1 and Lcc5 are the main laccases of C. cinerea secreted in liquid mKjalke medium.
Project description:Two laccases have been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity from the extracellular medium of a 2,5-xylidine-induced culture of the white rot basidiomycete Trametes villosa (Polyporus pinsitus or Coriolus pinsitus). These proteins are dimeric, consisting of two subunits of 63 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and have typical blue laccase spectral properties. Under nondenaturing conditions, the two purified laccases have different pIs; purified laccase forms 1 and 3 have pIs of 3.5 and 6 to 6.5, respectively. A third purified laccase form 2 has the same N terminus as that of laccase form 3, but its pI is in the range of 5 to 6. The laccases have optimal activity at pH 5 to 5.5 and pH < or = 2.7 with syringaldazine and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] as substrates, respectively. The genes lcc1 and lcc2 coding for the two purified laccases (forms 1 and 3) have been cloned, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The genes for lcc1 and lcc2 have 8 and 10 introns, respectively. The predicted proteins are 79% identical at the amino acid level. From Northern (RNA) blots containing total RNA from both induced and uninduced cultures, expression of lcc1 is highly induced, while the expression of lcc2 appears to be constitutive. Lcc1 has been expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the purified recombinant protein has the same pI, spectral properties, stability, and pH profiles as the purified native protein.
Project description:The gene (CcLcc2) encoding laccase from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Okayama-7 #130 was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction-based two-step DNA synthesis, and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and nickel nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography. The molecular mass of CcLcc2 was estimated to be 54 kDa by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase catalysis for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) were 2.6 and 45 °C, respectively. The Km values of the enzyme towards the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and guaiacol were 0.93, 1.02 and 28.07 mmol·L(-1), respectively. The decolourization of methyl orange, crystal violet and malachite green, commonly used in the textile industry, was assessed. The decolourization percentage of crystal violet and malachite green was 80% after 4 h of reaction, and that of methyl orange was 50% at 4 h. These results show that the CcLcc2 has enormous potential for the decolourization of highly stable triphenylmethane dyes.
Project description:The CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis is an abundant component of the spore outer coat and has been characterized as a typical laccase. The crystal structure of CotA complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in a hole motif has been solved. The novel binding site was about 26?Å away from the T1 binding pocket. Comparison with known structures of other laccases revealed that the hole is a specific feature of CotA. The key residues Arg476 and Ser360 were directly bound to ABTS. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the residues Arg146, Arg429 and Arg476, which are located at the bottom of the novel binding site, are essential for the oxidation of ABTS and syringaldazine. Specially, a Thr480Phe variant was identified to be almost 3.5 times more specific for ABTS than for syringaldazine compared with the wild type. These results suggest this novel binding site for ABTS could be a potential target for protein engineering of CotA laccases.
Project description:In this work we have identified, using mass spectrometry, two laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. One of them, Lac1Lg, was isolated, purified and characterized. Lac1Lg, a monomeric enzyme, was studied using ABTS and syringaldazine substrates. Lac1Lg presented kcat/Km almost threefold higher for syringaldazine than for ABTS, showing a higher catalytic efficiency of Lac1Lg for syringaldazine. The interference of several metal ions and substances in the laccase activity were evaluated. Lac1Lg did not absorb at 600 nm, which is a characteristic of so-called yellow laccases. Lac1Lg also was able to oxidize non-phenolic substrate (anthracene) in the absence of an exogenous mediator, showing that the enzyme has potential to explore in biotechnological processes. Our Lac1Lg three-dimensional molecular model, constructed using homology modeling, showed that the Lac1Lg catalytic site is very closed to blue laccases.
Project description:Laccases couple the oxidation of phenolic compounds to the reduction of molecular oxygen and thus span a wide variety of applications. While laccases of eukaryotes and bacteria are well characterized, these enzymes have not been described in archaea. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a laccase (LccA) from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. LccA was secreted at high levels into the culture supernatant of a recombinant H. volcanii strain, with peak activity (170 +/- 10 mU.ml(-)(1)) at stationary phase (72 to 80 h). LccA was purified 13-fold to an overall yield of 72% and a specific activity of 29.4 U.mg(-)(1) with an absorbance spectrum typical of blue multicopper oxidases. The mature LccA was processed to expose an N-terminal Ala after the removal of 31 amino acid residues and was glycosylated to 6.9% carbohydrate content. Purified LccA oxidized a variety of organic substrates, including bilirubin, syringaldazine (SGZ), 2,2,-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and dimethoxyphenol (DMP), with DMP oxidation requiring the addition of CuSO(4). Optimal oxidation of ABTS and SGZ was at 45 degrees C and pH 6 and pH 8.4, respectively. The apparent K(m) values for SGZ, bilirubin, and ABTS were 35, 236, and 670 muM, with corresponding k(cat) values of 22, 29, and 10 s(-)(1), respectively. The purified LccA was tolerant of high salt, mixed organosolvents, and high temperatures, with a half-life of inactivation at 50 degrees C of 31.5 h.
Project description:The elongation growth of the mushroom stipe is a characteristic but not well-understood morphogenetic event of basidiomycetes. We found that extending native stipe cell walls of Coprinopsis cinerea were associated with the release of N-acetylglucosamine and chitinbiose and with chitinase activity. Two chitinases among all detected chitinases from C. cinerea, ChiE1 and ChiIII, reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe wall extension and released N-acetylglucosamine and chitinbiose. Interestingly, both ChiE1 and ChiIII hydrolyze insoluble crystalline chitin powder, while other C. cinerea chitinases do not, suggesting that crystalline chitin components of the stipe cell wall are the target of action for ChiE1 and ChiIII. ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe walls showed maximal extension activity at pH 4.5, consistent with the optimal pH for native stipe wall extension in vitro; ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe wall extension activities were associated with stipe elongation growth regions; and the combination of ChiE1 and ChiIII showed a synergism to reconstitute heat-inactivated stipe wall extension at a low action concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the inner surface of acid-induced extended native stipe cell walls and ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted extended heat-inactivated stipe cell walls exhibited a partially broken parallel microfibril architecture; however, these broken transversely arranged microfibrils were not observed in the unextended stipe cell walls that were induced by neutral pH buffer or heat inactivation. Double knockdown of ChiE1 and ChiIII resulted in the reduction of stipe elongation, mycelium growth, and heat-sensitive cell wall extension of native stipes. These results indicate a chitinase-hydrolyzing mechanism for stipe cell wall extension.IMPORTANCE A remarkable feature in the development of basidiomycete fruiting bodies is stipe elongation growth that results primarily from manifold cell elongation. Some scientists have suggested that stipe elongation is the result of enzymatic hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides, while other scientists have proposed the possibility that stipe elongation results from nonhydrolytic disruption of the hydrogen bonds between cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we show direct evidence for a chitinase-hydrolyzing mechanism of stipe cell wall elongation in the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea that is different from the expansin nonhydrolysis mechanism of plant cell wall extension. We presumed that in the growing stipe cell walls, parallel chitin microfibrils are tethered by ?-1,6-branched ?-1,3-glucans, and that the breaking of the tether by chitinases leads to separation of these microfibrils to increase their spacing for insertion of new synthesized chitin and ?-1,3-glucans under turgor pressure in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the one electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds. Laccase substrates include substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols. Such compounds are activated by the enzyme to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range laccases are considered to be versatile biocatalysts which are capable of oxidizing natural and non-natural industrial compounds, with water as sole by-product. RESULTS: A novel CotA-type laccase from Bacillus pumilus was cloned, expressed and purified and its biochemical characteristics are presented here. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 58 kDa and the enzyme was found to be associated with four copper atoms. Its catalytic activity towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and syringaldazine (SGZ) was investigated. The kinetic parameters KM and kcat for ABTS were 80 ± 4 ?M and 291 ± 2.7 s(-1), for 2,6-DMP 680 ± 27 ?M and 11 ± 0.1 s(-1) and for SGZ only kcat could be estimated to be 66 ± 1.5 s(-1). The pH optimum for ABTS was 4, for 2,6-DMP 7 and for SGZ 6.5 and temperature optima for ABTS and 2,6-DMP were found to be around 70°C. The screening of 37 natural and non-natural compounds as substrates for B. pumilus laccase revealed 18 suitable compounds. Three of them served as redox mediators in the laccase-catalyzed decolorization of the dye indigocarmine (IC), thus assessing the new enzyme's biotechnological potential. CONCLUSIONS: The fully copper loaded, thermostable CotA laccase from Bacillus pumilus is a versatile laccase with potential applications as an industrial biocatalyst.
Project description:A laccase from Coprinus cinereus is active at alkaline pH, an essential property for some potential applications. We cloned and sequenced three laccase genes (lcc1, lcc2, and lcc3) from the ink cap basidiomycete C. cinereus. The lcc1 gene contained 7 introns, while both lcc2 and lcc3 contained 13 introns. The predicted mature proteins (Lcc1 to Lcc3) are 58 to 80% identical at the amino acid level. The predicted Lcc1 contains a 23-amino-acid C-terminal extension rich in arginine and lysine, suggesting that C-terminal processing may occur during its biosynthesis. We expressed the Lcc1 protein in Aspergillus oryzae and purified it. The Lcc1 protein as expressed in A. oryzae has an apparent molecular mass of 66 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and absorption maxima at 278 and 614 nm. Based on the N-terminal protein sequence of the laccase, a 4-residue propeptide was processed during the maturation of the enzyme. The dioxygen specificity of the laccase showed an apparent K(m) of 21 +/- 2 microM and a catalytic constant of 200 +/- 10 min(-1) for O(2) with 2, 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as the reducing substrate at pH 5.5. Lcc1 from A. oryzae may be useful in industrial applications. This is the first report of a basidiomycete laccase whose biosynthesis involves both N-terminal and C-terminal processing.
Project description:Three cutinase gene-like genes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) found with a similarity search were cloned and expressed in Trichoderma reesei under the control of an inducible cbh1 promoter. The selected transformants of all three polyesterase constructs showed activity with p-nitrophenylbutyrate, used as a model substrate. The most promising transformant of the cutinase CC1G_09668.1 gene construct was cultivated in a laboratory fermentor, with a production yield of 1.4 g liter(-l) purified protein. The expressed cutinase (CcCUT1) was purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography exploiting a C-terminal His tag. The N terminus of the enzyme was found to be blocked. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be around 18.8 kDa by mass spectrometry. CcCUT1 had higher activity on shorter (C(2) to C(10)) fatty acid esters of p-nitrophenol than on longer ones, and it also exhibited lipase activity. CcCUT1 had optimal activity between pH 7 and 8 but retained activity over a wide pH range. The enzyme retained 80% of its activity after 20 h of incubation at 50 degrees C, but residual activity decreased sharply at 60 degrees C. Microscopic analyses and determination of released hydrolysis products showed that the enzyme was able to depolymerize apple cutin and birch outer bark suberin.