Link between the unfolded protein response and dysregulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than 47.5 million people worldwide. Metabolic impairments are common hallmarks of AD, and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein-the two foremost histopathological signs of AD-have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Many neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, show excessive amounts of mis-/unfolded proteins leading to an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In the present study, we aimed to characterize the link between ER stress and bioenergetics defects under normal condition (human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: control cells) or under pathological AD condition [SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing either the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) or mutant tau (P301L)]. More specifically, we measured UPR gene expression, cell viability, and bioenergetics parameters, such as ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in basal condition and after an induced ER stress by thapsigargin. We detected highly activated UPR and dysregulated bioenergetics in basal condition in both AD cellular models. Strikingly, acute-induced ER stress increased the activity of the UPR in both AD cellular models, leading to up-regulation of apoptotic pathways, and further dysregulated mitochondrial function.
Project description:Leptin is a circulating hormone that plays a critical role in regulating energy expenditure and food intake. Evidence to suggest the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of obesity is increasing. To adapt against ER stress, cells trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). The 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an ER chaperone that protects cells against ER stress by inducing protein folding. In the present study, we hypothesized that leptin may activate UPR and protect against ER stress associated with obesity. SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line stably transfected with the Ob-Rb leptin receptor (SH-SY5Y-ObRb), was treated with leptin. We demonstrated that leptin induced GRP78 expression. We then validated the mechanism responsible for the leptin-induced expression of GRP78. Interestingly, leptin-induced GRP78 expression was not dependent on IRE1-XBP1 pathway. On the other hand, the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited the leptin-induced expression of GRP78. These results suggested that the leptin-induced expression of GRP78 may be dependent on the PI3K-mTOR pathway. Leptin specifically induced GRP78 because the induction of the ER-apoptotic marker, CHOP, was not detected in leptin-treated cells. Therefore, leptin may upregulate the expression of GRP78, thereby protecting against ER stress associated with obesity.
Project description:Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by intracellular tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein distributed throughout the neocortex, basal ganglia, and brainstem. A genome-wide association study identified EIF2AK3 as a risk factor for PSP. EIF2AK3 encodes PERK, part of the endoplasmic reticulum's (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). PERK is an ER membrane protein that senses unfolded protein accumulation within the ER lumen. Recently, several groups noted UPR activation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy, and in the hippocampus and substantia nigra of PSP subjects. Here, we evaluate UPR PERK activation in the pons, medulla, midbrain, hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum in subjects with PSP, AD, and in normal controls.We found UPR activation primarily in disease-affected brain regions in both disorders. In PSP, the UPR was primarily activated in the pons and medulla and to a much lesser extent in the hippocampus. In AD, the UPR was extensively activated in the hippocampus. We also observed UPR activation in the hippocampus of some elderly normal controls, severity of which positively correlated with both age and tau pathology but not with Aβ plaque burden. Finally, we evaluated EIF2AK3 coding variants that influence PERK activation. We show that a haplotype associated with increased PERK activation is genetically associated with increased PSP risk.The UPR is activated in disease affected regions in PSP and the genetic evidence shows that this activation increases risk for PSP and is not a protective response.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies are characterized by misfolding and aggregation of tau protein. Although several studies have suggested the potential of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, the role of TCM in treating AD and tauopathies have not been well explored.Tau protein was coupled to the DsRed fluorophore by fusing a pro-aggregation mutant of repeat domain of tau (?K280 tauRD) with DsRed. The ?K280 tauRD-DsRed fusion gene was then used to generate Tet-On 293 and SH-SY5Y cell clones as platforms to test the efficacy of 39 aqueous extracts of TCM in reducing tau misfolding and in neuroprotection.Seven TCM extracts demonstrated a significant reduction in tau misfolding and reactive oxidative species with low cytotoxicity in the ?K280 tauRD-DsRed 293 cell model. Glycyrrhiza inflata and Panax ginseng also demonstrated the potential to improve neurite outgrowth in the ?K280 tauRD-DsRed SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model. G. inflata further rescued the upregulation of ERN2 (pro-apoptotic) and downregulation of unfolded-protein-response-mediated chaperones ERP44, DNAJC3, and SERP1 in ?K280 tauRD-DsRed 293 cells.This in vitro study provides evidence that G. inflata may be a novel therapeutic for AD and tauopathies. Future applications of G. inflata on animal models of AD and tauopathies are warranted to corroborate its effect of reducing misfolding and potential disease modification.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by disruption of protein folding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which while generally pro-survival in effect can also induce cell death under severe ER stress. 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), which is enzymatically produced in the ER of neurons, plays an important role in maintaining brain cholesterol homeostasis but also shows neurotoxicity when subjected to esterification by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) in the ER. In this study, we demonstrated that the accumulation of 24S-OHC esters in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells evoked the UPR with substantially no pro-survival adaptive response but with significant activation of pro-death UPR signaling via regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). We further found that accumulation of 24S-OHC esters caused disruption of ER membrane integrity and release of ER luminal proteins into cytosol. We also found that de novo synthesis of global proteins was robustly suppressed in 24S-OHC-treated cells. Collectively, these results show that ER dysfunction and the accompanying RIDD-mediated pro-death UPR signaling and global protein synthesis inhibition are responsible for 24S-OHC ester-induced unconventional cell death.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cytoplasmic heat stress response are two major stress response systems necessary for maintaining proteostasis for cellular health. Failure of either of these systems, such as in sustained UPR activation or in insufficient heat shock response activation, can lead to the development of neurodegeneration. Alleviation of ER stress and enhancement of heat shock response through heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation have previously been considered as attractive potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD)-a prevalent and devastating tauopathy. Understanding the interplay of the two aforementioned systems and their cooperative role in AD remain elusive. Here we report studies in human brain and tau pathogenic mouse models (rTg4510, PS19, and rTg21221), identifying HSF1 degradation and UPR activation as precursors of aberrant tau pathogenesis. We demonstrate that chemical ER stress inducers caused autophagy-lysosomal HSF1 degradation, resulting in tau hyperphosphorylation in rat primary neurons. In addition, permanent HSF1 loss reversely causes chronic UPR activation, leading to aberrant tau phosphorylation and aggregation in the hippocampus of aged HSF1 heterozygous knock-out mice. The deleterious interplay of UPR activation and HSF1 loss is exacerbated in N2a cells stably overexpressing a pro-aggregation mutant TauRD ?K280 (N2a-TauRD ?K280). We provide evidence of how these two stress response systems are intrinsically interweaved by showing that the gene encoding C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) activation in the UPR apoptotic pathway facilitates HSF1 degradation, which likely further contributes to prolonged UPR via ER chaperone HSP70 a5 (BiP/GRP78) suppression. Upregulating HSF1 relieves the tau toxicity in N2a-TauRD ?K280 by reducing CHOP and increasing HSP70 a5 (BiP/GRP78). Our work reveals how the bidirectional crosstalk between the two stress response systems promotes early tau pathology and identifies HSF1 being one likely key player in both systems.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity still remain unknown. Here, we show that treatment of Abeta triggers the UPR in the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Abeta mediated UPR pathway accompanies the activation of protective pathways such as Grp78/Bip and PERK-eIF2alpha pathway, as well as the apoptotic pathways of the UPR such as CHOP and caspase-4. Knockdown of PERK enhances Abeta neurotoxicity through reducing the activation of eIF2alpha and Grp8/Bip in neurons. Salubrinal, an activator of the eIF2alpha pathway, significantly increased the Grp78/Bip ER chaperone resulted in attenuating caspase-4 dependent apoptosis in Abeta treated neurons. These results indicate that PERK-eIF2alpha pathway is a potential target for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases including AD.
Project description:PURPOSE:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, with a rising prevalence worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play important roles in the development and treatment of AD. However, the exact role of lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in neuronal damage in AD is largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The AD model was established in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells via treatment with amyloid β1-42 (Aβ). The expression of NEAT1 and microRNA-107 (miR-107) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. The expression of phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) was measured by Western blot. The interaction between NEAT1 and miR-107 was explored by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase activity, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS:NEAT1 expression was enhanced in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, and its knockdown attenuated Aβ-induced inhibition of viability and promotion of apoptosis and p-Tau levels. NEAT1 was indicated as a decoy of miR-107. miR-107 abundance was reduced in Aβ-treated cells, and its overexpression reversed Aβ-induced injury. Moreover, interference of miR-107 abated silencing of NEAT1-mediated inhibition of neuronal damage in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells. CONCLUSION:LncRNA NEAT1 aggravated Aβ-induced neuronal damage by sponging miR-107, indicating a novel avenue for treatment of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in cognitive impairment. The calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha-1 C CACNA1C gene encodes an alpha-1 C subunit of L-type calcium channel (LTCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of micro-RNA-137 (miR-137) and the CACNA1C gene in APPswe/PS1?E9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic AD mice and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Six-month-old APP/PS1 double-transgenic AD mice (N=6) and age-matched normal C57BL/6 mice (N=6) underwent a Morris water maze (MWM) test, expression levels of amyloid-? (A?), LTCC, the CACNA1C gene, and miR-137 were measured in the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex in both groups of mice. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate the effect of miR-137 on the expression of CACNA1C in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Western blotting was used to detect the CACNA1C, phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), and A? proteins. RESULTS In APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice, spatial learning and memory was significantly reduced, levels of A?1-40 and A?1-42 were increased in the serum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex, expression levels of miR-137 were reduced, expression of CACNA1C protein was increased in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, compared with normal control mice. miR-137 regulated the expression of the CACNA1C gene. Increased expression levels of p-tau (Ser202, Ser396, and Ser404) induced by A?1-42 were inhibited by miR-137 mimics in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS In a transgenic mouse model of AD, miR-137 and expression of the CACNA1C gene inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein.
Project description:Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca²? uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca²? transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca²? transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response.
Project description:Protein folding stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may lead to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), aimed to restore cellular homeostasis via transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. ER stress is also reported to activate the ER overload response (EOR), which activates transcription via NF-?B. We previously demonstrated that UPR activation is an early event in pre-tangle neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Misfolded and unfolded proteins are degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) or autophagy. UPR activation is found in AD neurons displaying both early UPS pathology and autophagic pathology. Here we investigate whether activation of the UPR and/or EOR is employed to enhance the proteolytic capacity of neuronal cells. Expression of the immunoproteasome subunits ?2i and ?5i is increased in AD brain. However, expression of the proteasome subunits is not increased by the UPR or EOR. UPR activation does not relocalize the proteasome or increase overall proteasome activity. Therefore proteasomal degradation is not increased by ER stress. In contrast, UPR activation enhances autophagy and LC3 levels are increased in neurons displaying UPR activation in AD brain. Our data suggest that autophagy is the major degradational pathway following UPR activation in neuronal cells and indicate a connection between UPR activation and autophagic pathology in AD brain.