Recognizing two new Hippolyte species (Decapoda, Caridea, Hippolytidae) from the South China Sea based on integrative taxonomy.
ABSTRACT: Hippolyte shrimps exhibit abundant biological diversity and display great ecological significance in seaweed bed ecosystems. Dozens of Hippolyte specimens were collected from Hainan Island and the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. Detailed examination indicates that some of these specimens represent new Hippolyte species. Based on morphological, genetic, and ecological data, Hippolyte chacei sp. nov. and H. nanhaiensis sp. nov. are described. H. chacei sp. nov. was collected from the Sargassum sp. biotope in Hainan Island and is distinguished from congeners by its unique mandible and the dactylus of the third to fifth pereiopods; this species has a basal position in the Indo-West Pacific species clade in the phylogenetic tree which is reconstructed based on 16S rRNA gene. H. nanhaiensis sp. nov. was collected from the biotopes of Galaxaura sp. or Halimeda sp. in the Xisha Islands, and it differs from congeners in a series of characters associated with rostrum, scaphocerite, antennular peduncle, and spines on the dactylus of the third to fifth pereiopods. Additionally, it is sister to H. australiensis in the phylogenetic tree. A key to identifying mature female Hippolyte species of the Indo-West Pacific and neighboring seas is provided.
Project description:A new species and the first confirmed record of a true pygmy seahorse from Africa, Hippocampus nalu sp. nov., is herein described on the basis of two specimens, 18.9-22 mm SL, collected from flat sandy coral reef at 14-17 meters depth from Sodwana Bay, South Africa. The new taxon shares morphological synapomorphies with the previously described central Indo-Pacific pygmy seahorses, H. colemani, H. japapigu, H. pontohi, and H. satomiae, and H. waleananus, including diminutive size, twelve trunk rings, prominent cleithral ring and supracleithrum, spines on the fifth and twelfth superior and lateral trunk ridges, respectively, and prominent wing-like protrusions present on the first and/or second superior trunk rings posterior to the head. Hippocampus nalu sp. nov. is primarily distinguished from its pygmy seahorse congeners by highly distinct spine morphology along the anterior segments of the superior trunk ridge. Comparative molecular analysis reveals that the new species demonstrates significant genetic divergence in the mitochondrial COI gene from the morphologically similar H. japapigu and H. pontohi (estimated uncorrected p-distances of 16.3% and 15.2%, respectively). Hippocampus nalu sp. nov. represents the eighth member of the pygmy seahorse clade to be described from the Indo-Pacific, the first confirmed record from the African continent and the Indian Ocean, and an extension of more than 8000 km beyond the previously known range of pygmy seahorses from the Central and Western Indo-Pacific.
Project description:The primitively segmented spider genus Qiongthela Xu & Kuntner, 2015 consists of seven species that are distributed in Hainan Island, China and southern Vietnam. Of the seven species, five are known from Hainan Island. In this study, four more Qiongthela species collected from Hainan Island are diagnosed and described as new to science based on morphological characters: Q. baoting sp. nov. (??), Q. qiongzhong sp. nov. (??), Q. sanya sp. nov. (??), Q. yinggezui sp. nov. (??). To facilitate future identification, the GenBank accession codes of the DNA barcode gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), for all the type specimens are also provided.
Project description:Three new species of the genus Flexicrurum Tong & Li, 2007, from Hainan Island, China are described: F.wuzhishanense sp. nov. (♂♀), F.yangjiao sp. nov. (♂♀), and F.qishi sp. nov. (♂♀). A key to males of species of Flexicrurum is provided. Additionally, the female of F.minutum Tong & Li, 2007, is described for the first time. To date, the genus is endemic to Hainan Island, China. Types are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing.
Project description:A new species of pycnogonid collected by the Chinese research vessel, R/V HY IV, during deep sea cruises to the South China Sea in 2013, is described. The new species, Hemichela nanhaiensis, obtained from more than 1300 m depth, is distinguished from the other two species in the genus by the characters of the chela dactylus with 12 denticulations on the inner margin and by the presence of taller tubercles on the lateral processes.
Project description:Hyphalus shiyuensis sp. nov. is described from Xisha Islands of China, which represents the ninth species and provides new distribution information for this unique intertidal genus. Brief comparisons between the new species and the known species are given. An updated key to the species of genus Hyphalus is provided.
Project description:Sixteen new species of the genus Meleonoma Meyrick, 1914 from Hainan Island, China are described: M. apicicurvata Wang, sp. nov., M. apicirectangula Wang, sp. nov., M. bicuspidata Wang, sp. nov., M. bidentata Wang, sp. nov., M. conica Wang, sp. nov., M. hainanensis Wang, sp. nov., M. latiunca Wang, sp. nov., M. linearis Wang, sp. nov., M. magnidentata Wang, sp. nov., M. ornithorrhyncha Wang, sp. nov., M. parilis Wang, sp. nov., M. pectinalis Wang, sp. nov., M. puncticulata Wang, sp. nov., M. quadritaeniata Wang, sp. nov., M. robustispina Wang, sp. nov. and M. rostellata Wang, sp. nov. Images of adult dorsal habitus and genitalia of the new species are provided. A map showing the collecting localities and photos of the habitat where the specimens were collected are provided, along with two maps showing the distribution of each species.
Project description:A new species of land-locked freshwater shrimp, Neocaridinafonticulata sp. n. (Atyidae), is described from Kenting, Hengchun Peninsula, Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. This new species can be distinguished from its congeners by rostrum structure, pereiopods, and male first and second pleopods. The molecular evidence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) also supports the establishment of a new species. This is the third endemic species of Neocaridina known from Taiwan.
Project description:Tempsarima Chang & Chen, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Issidae: Sarimini), with type species Tempsarima bipunctata Chang & Chen, sp. nov. and Tetrichina Chang & Chen, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Issidae: Sarimini), with type species Tetrichina trihamulata Chang & Chen, sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Hainan Province of China. The female genitalia characters of Issidae are discussed.
Project description:Mesopontonia verrucimanus and Mesopontonia kimwoni sp. nov. are recorded from high-latitude temperate waters in Munseom Islet, Jejudo Island, Republic of Korea, with both species collected on gorgonians and sponges by trimix diving between 50 and 75 m depth. Mesopontonia kimwoni sp. nov. is morphologically allied to M. brevicarpus, but can be distinguished by the cutting edges of the fingers of the first chela being entire. Significant morphological variation in the rostrum as well as the second pereiopods is documented in M. verrucimanus, although cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode analysis proves this to be infra-specific variation. A key to species of the genus Mesopontonia is provided.
Project description:Hippolyte is a genus of small bodied marine shrimps, with a global distribution. Here, we studied the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships amongst the species of this genus with two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, using Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood, genetic divergence, molecular clock and S-DIVA. In addition, the Indo-West Pacific genus Alcyonohippolyte was included. Based on sequences from 57 specimens of 27 species, we recovered a robust biogeographic scenario that shows the Indo-West Pacific as the probable ancestral area of the genus Hippolyte, which emerged in the Paleocene, followed by dispersal in three general directions: (1) South Pacific, (2) eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea and (3) Americas, the latter with a primary colonization in the eastern Pacific followed by a radiation into the western Atlantic. Our analysis reveals that the species of the H. ventricosa group do not constitute a monophyletic group and Alcyonohippolyte does not constitute a reciprocally monophyletic group to Hippolyte, with both genera herein synonimised. The relationships and systematic status of several transisthmian and Atlantic species are clarified.