Succession of Composition and Function of Soil Bacterial Communities During Key Rice Growth Stages.
ABSTRACT: Elucidating the succession of soil microbial communities and microbial functions at key plant growth stages is a major goal of microbial ecology research. In this study, we investigated the succession of soil bacteria during four fertilizer treatments (control, NPK, NPK + pig manure, and NPK + straw) and at three crucial rice growth stages (tillering, heading, and ripening) in paddy soil from a rice-wheat cropping system over a 10-year period. The results showed that the bacterial community and function composition of the control treatment was significantly different from that of the other treatments with NPK fertilizers, and S1 from others stages (ANOSIM, p < 0.05). The application of pig manure could reduce the effects of applying NPK fertilizers on bacterial communities in heading and ripening stages, but the effects of straw returning is not obvious. Variance partitioning analyses (VPA) suggested that pH, OM, and AK appeared to be key factors responsible for the microbial community changes observed in all the treatments or stages. The correlation results showed the bacterial families different between S1 and other stages such as Micromonosporaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Gaiellaceae, and Anaerolineaceae etc., were correlated with bacterial KEGG metabolic pathways. In addition, the topological of the soil bacterial community network with more nodes, links and higher Maximal degree at the heading stage and maintained relatively similar topological structures at the heading and ripening stages. However, the topological of the functional networks at the ripening stage were a small yet complicated co-occurring network with 209 nodes, 789 links, higher Average connectivity (avgK), and Maximal degree. These results suggest an obvious succession of soil bacteria and bacterial function at the key rice growth stages, but the topological of functional network structure of bacteria changes a little in the early and middle stages of rice, while its changes significantly in the ripening stage of rice growth.
Project description:Microorganisms are the most abundant and diverse organisms in soils and have important effects on soil fertility. In this study, effects of the long-term fertilization treatments no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK)), and organic–inorganic fertilizer (NPK and organic fertilizer (NPKM)) on rice yield and soil bacterial and fungal community diversity, structure, composition, and interaction networks were evaluated. Of the three treatments, the highest rice yield was in NPKM. Bacterial richness was significantly higher in NPKM than in NPK. Fertilization treatment significantly altered β diversity of communities, species composition of bacterial and fungal communities, and structure of soil microbial networks. The most complex bacterial and fungal interaction co-occurrence network with the highest average degree and numbers of edges and nodes was in NPKM. Relative abundance of the plant growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma increased significantly in NPKM compared with CK and NPK. The results of the study indicate that bacterial richness and microbial community member interactions (network complexity) might be suitable indicators of soil biological fertility. This research provides new insights on the effects of different fertilization regimes on responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities and their contributions to crop yield. New indicators such as bacterial richness and complexity of microbial interaction networks are also identified that can be used to evaluate soil biological fertility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exploiting soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants can significantly improve agricultural productivity; however, the mechanism by which microorganisms specifically affect agricultural productivity is poorly understood. To clarify this uncertainly, the rhizospheric microbial communities of super rice plants at various growth stages were analysed using 16S rRNA high-throughput gene sequencing; microbial communities were then related to soil properties and rice productivity. RESULTS:The rhizospheric bacterial communities were characterized by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia during all stages of rice growth. Rice production differed by approximately 30% between high- and low-yield sites that had uniform fertilization regimes and climatic conditions, suggesting the key role of microbial communities. Mantel tests showed a strong correlation between soil conditions and rhizospheric bacterial communities, and microorganisms had different effects on crop yield. Among the four growing periods, the rhizospheric bacterial communities present during the heading stage showed a more significant correlation (p?<? 0.05) with crop yield, suggesting their potential in regulating crop production. The biological properties (i.e., microbes) reflected the situation of agricultural land better than the physicochemical characterics (i.e., nutrient elements), which provides theoretical support for agronomic production. Molecular ecological network (MEN) analysis suggested that differences in productivity were caused by the interaction between the soil characteristics and the bacterial communities. CONCLUSIONS:During the heading stage of rice cropping, the rhizospheric microbial community is vital for the resulting rice yield. According to network analysis, the cooperative relationship (i.e., positive interaction) between between microbes may contribute significantly to yield, and the biological properties (i.e., microbes) better reflected the real conditions of agricultural land than did the physicochemical characteristics (i.e., nutrient elements).
Project description:Understanding the effects of external organic and inorganic components on soil fertility and quality is essential for improving low-yielding soils. We conducted a field study over two consecutive rice growing seasons to investigate the effect of applying chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus green manure (NPKG), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS) on the soil nutrient status, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling, microbial community and rice yields of yellow clayey soil. Results showed that the fertilized treatments significantly improved rice yields over the first three experimental seasons. Compared with the NPK treatment, organic amendments produced more favorable effects on soil productivity. Notably, the NPKM treatment exhibited the highest levels of nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), activities of most enzymes and the microbial community. This resulted in the highest soil quality index (SQI) and rice yield, indicating better soil fertility and quality. Significant differences in enzyme activities and the microbial community were observed among the treatments, and redundancy analysis showed that MBC and available N were the key determinants affecting the soil enzyme activities and microbial community. The SQI score of the non-fertilized control (0.72) was comparable to that of the NPK (0.77), NPKG (0.81) and NPKS (0.79) treatments but significantly lower compared with NPKM (0.85). The significant correlation between rice yield and SQI suggests that SQI can be a useful to quantify soil quality changes caused by different agricultural management practices. The results indicate that application of NPK plus pig manure is the preferred option to enhance SOC accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase rice yield in yellow clayey soil.
Project description:The application of straw and biochar can effectively improve soil quality, but whether such application impacts paddy soil bacterial community development remains to be clarified. Herein, the impacts of three different field amendment strategies were assessed including control (CK) treatment, rice straw (RS) application (9000 kg ha−1), and biochar (BC) application (3150 kg ha−1). Soil samples were collected at five different stages of rice growth, and the bacterial communities therein were characterized via high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. The results of these analyses revealed that soil bacterial communities were dominated by three microbial groups (Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria). Compared with the CK samples, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Gemmatimonadetes levels were dominated phyla in the RS treatment, and Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Patescibacteria were dominated phyla in the BC treatment. Compared with the RS samples, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia levels were increased, however, Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, and Firmicute levels were decreased in the BC samples. Rhizosphere soil bacterial diversity rose significantly following RS and BC amendment, and principal component analyses confirmed that there were significant differences in soil bacterial community composition among treatment groups when comparing all stages of rice growth other than the ripening stage. Relative to the CK treatment, Gemmatimonadaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Thiovulaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Clostridiaceae-1 families were dominant following the RS application, while Thiovulaceae and uncultured-bacterium-o-C0119 were dominant following the BC application. These findings suggest that RS and BC application can improve microbial diversity and richness in paddy rice soil in Northeast China.
Project description:Decomposition of crop residues in soil is mediated by microorganisms whose activities vary with fertilization. The complexity of active microorganisms and their interactions utilizing residues is impossible to disentangle without isotope applications. Thus, 13C-labeled rice residues were employed, and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) combined with high-throughput sequencing was applied to identify microbes active in assimilating residue carbon (C). Manure addition strongly modified microbial community compositions involved in the C flow from rice residues. Relative abundances of the bacterial genus Lysobacter and fungal genus Syncephalis were increased, but abundances of the bacterial genus Streptomyces and fungal genus Trichoderma were decreased in soils receiving mineral fertilizers plus manure (NPKM) compared to levels in soils receiving only mineral fertilizers (NPK). Microbes involved in the flow of residue C formed a more complex network in NPKM than in NPK soils because of the necessity to decompose more diverse organic compounds. The fungal species (Jugulospora rotula and Emericellopsis terricola in NPK and NPKM soils, respectively) were identified as keystone species in the network and may significantly contribute to residue C decomposition. Most of the fungal genera in NPKM soils, especially Chaetomium, Staphylotrichum, Penicillium, and Aspergillus, responded faster to residue addition than those in NPK soils. This is connected with the changes in the composition of the rice residue during degradation and with fungal adaptation (abundance and activity) to continuous manure input. Our findings provide fundamental information about the roles of key microbial groups in residue decomposition and offer important cues on manipulating the soil microbiome for residue utilization and C sequestration in soil.IMPORTANCE Identifying and understanding the active microbial communities and interactions involved in plant residue utilization are key questions to elucidate the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural ecosystems. Microbial community composition responds strongly to management, but little is known about specific microbial groups involved in plant residue utilization and, consequently, microbial functions under different methods of fertilization. We combined DNA stable-isotope (13C) probing and high-throughput sequencing to identify active fungal and bacterial groups degrading residues in soils after 3 years of mineral fertilization with and without manure. Manuring changed the active microbial composition and complexified microbial interactions involved in residue C flow. Most fungal genera, especially Chaetomium, Staphylotrichum, Penicillium, and Aspergillus, responded to residue addition faster in soils that historically had received manure. We generated a valuable library of microorganisms involved in plant residue utilization for future targeted research to exploit specific functions of microbial groups in organic matter utilization and C sequestration.
Project description:In the context of secondary forest succession, aboveground-belowground interactions are known to affect the dynamics and functional structure of plant communities. However, the links between soil microbial communities, soil abiotic properties, plant functional traits in the case of semi-arid and arid ecosystems, are unclear. In this study, we investigated the changes in soil microbial species diversity and community composition, and the corresponding effects of soil abiotic properties and plant functional traits, during a ?150-year secondary forest succession on the Loess Plateau, which represents a typical semi-arid ecosystem in China. Plant community fragments were assigned to six successional stages: 1-4, 4-8, 8-15, 15-50, 50-100, and 100-150 years after abandonment. Bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the rRNA operon, respectively. A multivariate variation-partitioning approach was used to estimate the contributions of soil properties and plant traits to the observed microbial community composition. We found considerable differences in bacterial and fungal community compositions between the early (S1-S3) and later (S4-S6) successional stages. In total, 18 and 12 unique families were, respectively, obtained for bacteria and fungi, as indicators of microbial community succession across the six stages. Bacterial alpha diversity was positively correlated with plant species alpha diversity, while fungal diversity was negatively correlated with plant species diversity. Certain fungal and bacterial taxa appeared to be associated with the occurrence of dominant plant species at different successional stages. Soil properties (pH, total N, total C, NH<sub>4</sub>-N, NO<sub>3</sub>-N, and PO<sub>4</sub>-P concentrations) and plant traits explained 63.80% and 56.68% of total variance in bacterial and fungal community compositions, respectively. These results indicate that soil microbial communities are coupled with plant communities via the mediation of microbial species diversity and community composition over a long-term secondary forest succession in the semi-arid ecosystem. The bacterial and fungal communities show distinct patterns in response to plant community succession, according to both soil abiotic properties and plant functional traits.
Project description:Soil microbes play a crucial role in a forest ecosystem. However, whether the distribution of bacteria and fungi in different forest succession stages is random or following ecological specialization remains to be further studied. In the present study, we characterized soil bacterial and fungal communities to determine their distribution preference, with different succession communities in a temperate mountain forest. The Kruskal-Wallis method was used to analyze structural differences between bacterial and fungal communities in different succession processes. The specificity of soil microbial distribution in a secondary forest was studied by network analysis. The torus-translation test was used to analyze the species distribution preference of soil microbes in different succession stages. Results showed that the species composition of soil bacteria and fungi differed significantly in different succession processes. The modularity index of fungi (0.227) was higher than that of bacteria (0.080). Fungi (54.47%) had specific preferences than bacteria (49.95%) with regard to forests in different succession stages. Our work suggests that the distribution pattern of most soil microbes in a temperate mountain forest was not random but specialized in temperate mountain forests. Different microbes showed different distribution preferences. Fungi were more sensitive than bacteria during secondary succession in a temperate mountain forest. In addition, microbe-environment relations varied during secondary succession. Our results provided new insight into the mechanism through which complex soil microbial communities responded to changes in forest community succession.
Project description:Application of a mycorrhizal inoculum could be one way to increase the yield of rice plants and reduce the application of fertilizer. We therefore studied arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) collected at the seedling, tillering, heading, and ripening stages in four paddy wetlands that had been under a high-input and intensively irrigated rice cultivation system for more than 20 years. It was found that AMF colonization was mainly established in the heading and ripening stages. The AMF community structure was characterized in rhizosphere soils and roots from two of the studied paddy wetlands. A fragment covering the partial small subunit (SSU), the whole internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the partial large subunit (LSU) rRNA operon regions of AMF was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from roots and soils. A total of 639 AMF sequences were obtained, and these were finally assigned to 16 phylotypes based on a phylogenetic analysis, including 12 phylotypes from Glomeraceae, one phylotype from Claroideoglomeraceae, two phylotypes from Paraglomeraceae, and one unidentified phylotype. The AMF phylotype compositions in the soils were similar between the two surveyed sites, but there was a clear discrepancy between the communities obtained from root and soil. The relatively high number of AMF phylotypes at the surveyed sites suggests that the conditions are suitable for some species of AMF and that they may have an important function in conventional rice cultivation systems. The species richness of root-colonizing AMF increased with the growth of rice, and future studies should consider the developmental stages of this crop in the exploration of AMF function in paddy wetlands.
Project description:Corn-soybean rotation and fertilization are common practices improving soil fertility and crop yield. Their effects on bacterial community have been extensively studied, yet, few comprehensive studies about the microbial activity, bacterial community and functional groups in a long-term continuous soybean cropping system after corn insertion and fertilization. The effects of corn insertions (Sm: no corn insertion, CS: 3 cycles of corn-soybean rotations and CCS: 2 cycles of corn-corn-soybean rotations) with two fertilization regimes (No fertilization and NPK) on bacterial community and microbial activity were investigated in a long-term field experiment. The bacterial communities among treatments were evaluated using high-throughput sequencing then bacterial functions were predicted based on the FaProTax database. Soil respiration and extracellular enzyme activities were used to assess soil microbial activity. Soil bacterial community structure was significantly altered by corn insertions (<i>p</i> < 0.01) and fertilization (<i>p</i> < 0.01), whereas bacterial functional structure was only affected by corn insertion (<i>p</i> < 0.01). The activities of four enzymes (invertase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, and β-D-1,4-cellobiohydrolase) involved in soil C cycling were enhanced by NPK fertilizer, and were also enhanced by corn insertions except for the invertase and β-xylosidase under NPK fertilization. NPK fertilizer significantly improved soil microbial activity except for soil metabolic quotient (qCO<sub>2</sub>) and the microbial quotient under corn insertions. Corn insertions also significantly improved soil microbial activity except for the ratio of soil induced respiration (SIR) to basal respiration (BR) under fertilization and the qCO<sub>2</sub> was decreased by corn insertions. These activity parameters were highly correlated with the soil functional capability of aromatic compound degradation, which was the main predictors of bacterial functional structure. In general, the combination of soil microbial activity, bacterial community and corresponding functional analysis provided comprehensive insights into compositional and functional adaptations to corn insertions and fertilization.
Project description:Soil microbial communities are affected by interactions between agricultural management (e.g., fertilizer) and soil compartment, but few studies have considered combinations of these factors. We compared the microbial abundance, diversity and community structure in two fertilizer dose (high vs. low NPK) and soil compartment (rhizosphere vs. bulk soils) under 6-year fertilization regimes in a continuous garlic cropping system in China. The soil contents of NO3- and available K were significantly higher in bulk soil in the high-NPK. The 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial and archaeal abundances were positively affected by both the fertilizer dose and soil compartment, and were higher in the high-NPK fertilization and rhizosphere samples. High-NPK fertilization increased the Shannon index and decreased bacterial and archaeal richness, whereas the evenness was marginally positively affected by both the fertilizer dose and soil compartment. Soil compartment exerted a greater effect on the bacterial and archaeal community structure than did the fertilization dose, as demonstrated by both the nonmetric multidimensional scaling and redundancy analysis results. We found that rhizosphere effects significantly distinguished 12 dominant classes of bacterial and archaeal communities, whereas the fertilizer dose significantly identified four dominant classes. In particular, a Linear Effect Size analysis showed that some taxa, including Alphaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, Xanthomonadaceae and Flavobacterium, were enriched in the garlic rhizosphere of the high-NPK fertilizer samples. Overall, the fertilizer dose interacted with soil compartment to shape the bacterial and archaeal community composition, abundance, and biodiversity in the garlic rhizosphere. These results provide an important basis for further understanding adaptive garlic-microbe feedback, reframing roots as a significant moderating influence in agricultural management and shaping the microbial community.