ECT2/PSMD14/PTTG1 axis promotes the proliferation of glioma through stabilizing E2F1.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 (ECT2) is upregulated in glioma and promotes glioma cell proliferation. A preliminary experiment showed a positive correlation between ECT2 and pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1). The aim of this study was to explore how ECT2 affects PTTG1 to influence the proliferation of glioma cells. METHODS:The expression of ECT2 in glioma was detected by western blot and reverse transcription PCR. The effect of ECT2 on glioma proliferation was examined using cell proliferation-related assays and in vivo experiments. The effect of ECT2 on the stability of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and the expression of PTTG1 were examined by western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, and in vivo ubiquitination assays. RESULTS:ECT2 was upregulated in gliomas and was negatively correlated with prognosis; its downregulation inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Furthermore, ECT2 regulated PTTG1 expression by affecting the stability of E2F1, thereby affecting the glioma cell proliferation. In addition, the deubiquitinating enzyme proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 14 (PSMD14) affected the degradation of E2F1 and regulated the stability of E2F1. Interestingly, ECT2 regulated the expression of PSMD14. CONCLUSION:In this study, we clarify a new mechanism by which ECT2 regulates the expression of PTTG1 and thus affects the proliferation of glioma cells: ECT2 influences the stability of E2F1 by regulating the expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme PSMD14, thereby affecting the expression of PTTG1. Intensive and extensive understanding of the mechanism of ECT2 in glioma proliferation may provide an opportunity for the development of new molecular therapeutic targets for glioma treatment.
Project description:Phosphorylation affects ubiquitination, stability, and activity of transcriptional factors, thus regulating various cellular functions. E2F transcriptional factor 1 (E2F1) regulates paternally expressed imprinted gene 10 (Peg10) expression, thereby promoting cell proliferation. However, the effect of E2F1 stability on Peg10 expression and the molecular regulation of E2F1 stability by its phosphorylation have not been well demonstrated. Here, we describe a new pathway in which phosphorylation of E2F1 by GSK3? increases E2F1 association with the deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11), which removes K63-linked ubiquitin chains thereby preventing E2F1 degradation in the nuclei. Downregulation of USP11 increases E2F1 ubiquitination and reduces E2F1 stability and protein levels, thereby decreasing Peg10 mRNA levels. Physiologically, USP11 depletion suppresses cell proliferation and wound healing in lung epithelial cells, and these effects are reversed by E2F1 and PEG10 overexpression. Thus, our study reveals a new molecular model that phosphorylation promotes substrate stability through increasing its association with a deubiquitinating enzyme. The data suggest that GSK3? and USP11 act in concert to modulate E2F1 abundance and PEG10 expression in lung epithelial cells to affect cell wound healing. This study provides new therapeutic targets to lessen lung injury by improving lung epithelial cell repair and remodeling after injury.
Project description:Increasing evidence reveals a close relationship between deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and cancer progression. In this study, we attempted to identify the roles and mechanisms of critical DUBs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). <b>Methods:</b> Bioinformatics analysis was performed to screen differentially expressed novel DUBs in HNSCC. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure the expression of DUB PSMD14 in HNSCC specimens and adjacent normal tissues. The level of PSMD14 in HNSCC tumorigenesis was investigated using a 4-NQO-induced murine HNSCC model. The function of PSMD14 was determined through loss-of-function assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunoprecipitation and <i>in vivo</i> ubiquitination assay were conducted to explore the potential mechanism of PSMD14. The anti-tumor activity of PSMD14 inhibitor Thiolutin was assessed by <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments. <b>Results:</b> We identified PSMD14 as one of significantly upregulated DUBs in HNSCC tissues. Aberrant expression of PSMD14 was associated with tumorigenesis and malignant progression of HNSCC and further indicated poor prognosis. The results of <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments demonstrated PSMD14 depletion significantly undermined HNSCC growth, chemoresistance and stemness. Mechanically, PSMD14 inhibited the ubiquitination and degradation of E2F1 to improve the activation of Akt pathway and the transcription of SOX2. Furthermore, PSMD14 inhibitor Thiolutin exhibited a potent anti-tumor effect on HNSCC <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i> by impairing DUB activity of PSMD14. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our findings demonstrate the role and mechanism of PSMD14 in HNSCC, and provide a novel and promising target for diagnosis and clinical therapy of HNSCC.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in response to cartilage damage. In this study, we sought to characterize the inhibitory role of microRNA (miR)-31 encapsulated in synovial MSC (SMSC)-derived EVs in knee osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of miR-31, lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), and pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) was validated in cartilage tissues of knee OA patients. Following SMSC-EV extraction and identification, chondrocytes with the miR-31 inhibitor were added with SMSC-EVs, whereupon the effects of miR-31 on proliferation and migration of chondrocytes were assessed. The interaction among miR-31, KDM2A, E2F1, and PTTG1 in chondrocyte activities was probed <i>in vitro</i>, along with an <i>in vivo</i> mouse knee OA model. We identified downregulated miR-31, E2F1, and PTTG1 and upregulated KDM2A in cartilage tissues of knee OA patients. SMSC-EV-packaged miR-31 potentiated chondrocyte proliferation and migration as well as cartilage formation by targeting KDM2A. Mechanistically, KDM2A bound to the transcription factor E2F1 and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Enrichment of E2F1 in the PTTG1 promoter region activated PTTG1 transcription, accelerating chondrocyte proliferation and migration. SMSC-EVs and EVs from miR-31-overexpressed SMSCs alleviated cartilage damage and inflammation in knee joints <i>in vivo</i>. SMSC-EV-encapsulated miR-31 ameliorates knee OA via the KDM2A/E2F1/PTTG1 axis.
Project description:PSMD14 is a 19S-proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme that facilitates protein degradation by the 20S proteasome core particle. Although accumulating evidence indicates that PSMD14 has emerged as a critical oncogenic factor by promoting tumor growth, the expression and function of PSMD14 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed PSMD14 expression and correlated it with clinical-pathological features and patient survival in NSCLC. We also determined the roles of PSMD14 in the regulation of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cell growth. The results showed that PSMD14 expression was significantly upregulated in human NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The PSMD14 level was associated with tumor size, lymph node invasion, and TNM stage in LUAD patients. Importantly, high PSMD14 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in LUAD patients. Further, knockdown of PSMD14 significantly inhibited cell growth and caused G1 arrest and cellular senescence by increasing p21 stability in LUAD cells. PSMD14 knockdown also promoted cell apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 levels in H1299 cells. PSMD14 may serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for LUAD patients.
Project description:The pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG1) is a recently discovered oncogene implicated in the malignant progression of a number of neoplasms. It has been shown to drive both endocrine and non-endocrine malignancies, but has not yet been studied in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is cytogenetically characterized by deletion of chromosome 3p, harboring the von-Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor gene, and amplification of chromosome 5q. The significance of copy number gain of chromosome 5 is not clear, but is presumed to be the location of oncogenes that influence ccRCC development or progression. The PTTG1 oncogene maps to chromosome 5q, and here we show that PTTG1 is amplified in clear cell RCC, is overexpressed in tumor tissue relative to adjacent normal kidney, and expression is associated with high grade, high stage, and poor prognosis. Furthermore, we establish a functional role for PTTG1 in ccRCC tumorigenesis and progression. PTTG1 ablation reduces both the tumorigenic ability of ccRCC cells in vitro and in vivo and the invasive ability of these cells in vitro. An analysis of genes whose transcription is regulated by PTTG1 was supportive of an association with invasive and metastatic disease. PTTG1-dependent expression of the Rho-GEF ECT2, another proto-oncogene, is observed in a number of ccRCC cell lines, and ECT2 expression correlates with PTTG1 expression, high stage, high grade, and poor prognosis ccRCC. As GEF's have been promoted as potential drug targets for targeted cancer therapeutics, the relationship between the PTTG1 and ECT2 oncogenes may be able to be exploited for the treatment of this disease. PTTG1 was knocked down by siRNA.
Project description:Dysregulation of deubiquitination has been reported to contribute to carcinogenesis. However, the function and mechanism of deubiquitinating enzyme 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 (PSMD14) in the progression of ovarian cancer (OV), the deadliest gynecological cancer, still remains to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that PSMD14 was overexpressed in OV tissues and its higher levels correlated with a higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage in OV patients. A high level of PSMD14 expression was related to poor survival in OV patients. Knockdown and overexpression experiments elucidated that PSMD14 stimulated OV cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. Repression of PSMD14 suppressed OV tumor growth in vivo. PSMD14 inhibitor O-phenanthroline (OPA) effectively attenuated malignant behaviors of OV cells in vitro and OV tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, we uncovered that PSMD14 was involved in post-translational regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2). PSMD14 decreased K63-linked ubiquitination on PKM2, downregulated the ratio of PKM2 tetramers to dimers and monomers, and subsequently diminished pyruvate kinase activity and induced nuclear translocation of PKM2, contributing to aerobic glycolysis in OV cells. Collectively, our findings highlight the potential roles of PSMD14 as a biomarker and therapeutic candidate for OV.
Project description:Glioma accounts for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors in adults and is highly aggressive. Although various therapeutic approaches have been applied, outcomes of glioma treatment remain poor. Acquiring a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms is essential to the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Previous studies have found that miR-520d-5p was negatively correlated with glioma grade, but its role and mechanism in glioma progression remain largely unknown. In the present study, we reported that miR-520d-5p directly targeted the Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (PTTG1) and functioned as a tumor-suppressor in glioma. The expression of miR-520d-5p in glioma cells and specimens were detected by Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The effects of miR-520d-5p on glioma progression was examined by cell-counting kit 8, colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EDU) and flow cytometry assays. Using bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays, we identified PTTG1 as a novel and direct target of miR-520d-3p. A xenograft model was used to study the effect of miR-520d-5p on tumor growth and angiogenesis. We found that miR-520d-5p expression was significantly decreased in glioma cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of miR-520d-5p showed a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and accompanied cell cycle G0/G1 arrest in U87-MG and LN229 glioma cells. PTTG1 was a novel and direct target of miR-520d-5p, and the protein expression of PTTG1 was markedly reduced after overexpression of miR-520d-5p in U87-MG and LN229 cells. Overexpression of PTTG1 reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-520d-5p on glioma cell proliferation. In vivo studies confirmed that miR-520d-5p overexpression retarded the growth of U87 xenograft tumors, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PTTG1. In conclusion, these results provide compelling evidence that miR-520d-5p functions as an anti-onco-miRNA, which is important in inhibiting cell proliferation in GBM, and its anti-oncogenic effects are mediated chiefly through direct suppression of PTTG1 expression. Therefore, we suggest that miR-520d-5p is a potential candidate for the prevention of glioblastoma.
Project description:Metastasis and chemoresistance are major causes of poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), manipulated by multiple factors including deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB). DUB PSMD14 is reported to be a promising therapeutic target in various cancers. Here, we explored the antitumor activity of Thiolutin (THL), the PSMD14 inhibitor, as a new therapy strategy in ESCC. <b>Methods:</b> Through 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model, we investigated the expression of PSMD14 in esophageal tumorigenesis. Ubiquitin-AMC assay was performed to evaluate DUB activity of PSMD14 with THL treatment. The effect of THL on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, stemness and chemosensitivity was detected by using <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments. Immunoprecipitation and <i>in vivo</i> ubiquitination assay were conducted to examine whether THL could impair the deubiquitination and stability of SNAIL regulated by PSMD14. <b>Results:</b> Compared with normal esophageal epithelium, PSMD14 was upregulated in 4-NQO-induced murine esophageal epithelium dysplasia and ESCC tissues. THL could significantly weaken DUB activity of PSMD14. Furthermore, the results of <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> assays showed that THL efficiently suppressed motility and stemness and increased sensitivity to cisplatin in ESCC. Mechanically, THL impaired the interaction between PSMD14 and SNAIL, then promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of SNAIL to inhibit EMT which plays a crucial role in ESCC metastasis, stemness and chemosensitivity. TCGA database analysis revealed that high concomitant PSMD14/SNAIL expression predicted shorter overall survival in esophageal cancer. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our findings demonstrate for the first time that suppression of PSMD14/SNAIL axis by THL could be a novel and promising therapeutic approach for ESCC clinical therapy.
Project description:Ect2 is a BRCT-containing guanidine exchange factor for Rho GTPases. It is essential for cytokinesis and is also involved in tumorigenesis. Since most BRCT-containing proteins are involved in DNA damage response and/or DNA repair, we tested whether Ect2 plays similar roles. We report that in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), DNA damage quickly led to Ect2 relocalization to the chromatin and DNA damage foci-like structures. Ect2 knockdown did not affect foci localization of γH2AX, TopBP1, or Brca1, or activation of Atm, yet it impeded p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and activation, and resulted in defects in apoptosis and activation of S and G2/M checkpoints in response to DNA damage. These results suggest that Ect2 plays a role in DNA damage response. Interestingly, Ect2 is down-regulated at late stages of DNA damage response. Although p53 and E2F1 have been shown to regulate Ect2 transcription, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation occurred in p53-/- or Atm-/- MEFs and E2F1 knockdown cells. Instead, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation is mainly attributable to decreased protein stability. Like Ect2 knockdown, Ect2 destabilization may help the cell to recover from DNA damage response. These results suggest that Ect2 plays roles in multiple aspects of DNA damage response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) signaling pathway has been implicated in many types of cancer, its role of tumorigenesis seems to be controversial and its ubiquitin-modifying mechanisms have not been fully addressed. Our study was designed to investigate how BMP6 signaling pathway is regulated by ubiquitin-modifying systems and to address molecular and clinical significance in colorectal cancers. METHODS:Human deubiquitnase (DUB) siRNA library was used to screen the specific DUB, named PSMD14, involved in BMP6 signaling pathway. Immunoblot, immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays were used to analyze targets of the PSMD14. A role of PSMD14-mediated BMP6 signaling pathway for malignant cancer progression was investigated using in vitro and in vivo model of colorectal cancers as well as clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients. FINDINGS:The deubiquitinase PSMD14 acts as a positive regulator for the initiation of the BMP6 signaling pathway through deubiquitinating K48-linked ALK2 type I receptor ubiquitination mediated by Smurf1 E3 ligase, resulting in increased stability of the ALK2. This role of PSMD14 is independent of its intrinsic role in the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, either PSMD14 or ALK2 depletion significantly decreases tumorigenesis of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells in a xenograft model as well as cancer stemness/chemoresistance, and expression of the PSMD14 and ALK2 gene are correlated with malignant progression and the survival of colorectal cancer patients. INTERPRETATION:These findings suggest that the PSMD14-ALK2 axis plays an essential role in initiation of the BMP6 signaling pathway and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of colorectal cancers.