Utility of ripple mapping for identification of slow conduction channels during ventricular tachycardia ablation in the setting of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Ripple mapping displays every deflection of a bipolar electrogram and enables the visualization of conduction channels (RMCC) within postinfarction ventricular scar to guide ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation. The utility of RMCC identification for facilitation of VT ablation in the setting of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) has not been described. OBJECTIVE:We sought to (a) identify the slow conduction channels in the endocardial/epicardial scar by ripple mapping and (b) retrospectively analyze whether the elimination of RMCC is associated with improved VT-free survival, in ARVC patients. METHODS:High-density right ventricular endocardial and epicardial electrograms were collected using the CARTO 3 system in sinus rhythm or ventricular pacing and reviewed for RMCC. Low-voltage zones and abnormal myocardium in the epicardium were identified by using standardized late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) z-scores. RESULTS:A cohort of 20 ARVC patients that had undergone simultaneous high-density right ventricular endocardial and epicardial electrogram mapping was identified (age 44?±?13 years). Epicardial scar, defined as bipolar voltage less than 1.0?mV, occupied 47.6% (interquartile range [IQR], 30.9-63.7) of the total epicardial surface area and was larger than endocardial scar, defined as bipolar voltage less than 1.5?mV, which occupied 11.2% (IQR, 4.2?±?17.8) of the endocardium (P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium resulting in reentrant ventricular tachycardia (VT). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can noninvasively measure regional abnormalities using tissue-tracking strain as well as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). In this study, we examine arrhythmogenic substrate using regional CMR strain, LGE, and electroanatomic mapping (EAM) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy patients presenting for VT ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-one patients underwent right ventricular endocardial EAM, whereas 17 underwent epicardial EAM, to detect dense scar (<0.5 mV) as well as CMR study within 12 months. Quantitative regional strain analysis was performed in all 21 patients, although the presence of LGE was visually examined in 17 patients. Strain was lower in segments with dense scar on endocardial and epicardial EAM (-9.7±4.1 versus -7.3±4.0, and -9.8±2.8 versus -7.6±3.8; P<0.05), in segments with LGE scar (-9.9±4.4 versus -6.0±3.6; P=0.001), and at VT culprit sites (-7.4±3.7 versus -10.1±4.1; P<0.001), compared with the rest of right ventricular. On patient-clustered analysis, a unit increase in strain was associated with 21% and 18% decreased odds of scar on endocardial and epicardial EAM, respectively, 17% decreased odds of colocalizing VT culprit site, and 43% decreased odds of scar on LGE-CMR ( P<0.05 for all). LGE and EAM demonstrated poor agreement with ?=0.18 (endocardial, n=17) and ?=0.06 (epicardial, n=13). Only 8 (15%) VT termination sites exhibited LGE. CONCLUSIONS:Regional myocardial strain on cine CMR improves detection of arrhythmogenic VT substrate compared with LGE. This may enhance diagnostic accuracy of CMR in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy without the need for invasive procedures and facilitate the planning of VT ablation procedures.
Project description:The association of scar on late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) with local electrograms on electroanatomic mapping has been investigated. We aimed to quantify these associations to gain insights regarding LGE-CMR image characteristics of tissues and critical sites that support postinfarct ventricular tachycardia (VT).LGE-CMR was performed in 23 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy before VT ablation. Left ventricular wall thickness and postinfarct scar thickness were measured in each of 20 sectors per LGE-CMR short-axis plane. Electroanatomic mapping points were retrospectively registered to the corresponding LGE-CMR images. Multivariable regression analysis, clustered by patient, revealed significant associations among left ventricular wall thickness, postinfarct scar thickness, and intramural scar location on LGE-CMR, and local endocardial electrogram bipolar/unipolar voltage, duration, and deflections on electroanatomic mapping. Anteroposterior and septal/lateral scar localization was also associated with bipolar and unipolar voltage. Antiarrhythmic drug use was associated with electrogram duration. Critical sites of postinfarct VT were associated with >25% scar transmurality, and slow conduction sites with >40 ms stimulus-QRS time were associated with >75% scar transmurality.Critical sites for maintenance of postinfarct VT are confined to areas with >25% scar transmurality. Our data provide insights into the structural substrates for delayed conduction and VT and may reduce procedural time devoted to substrate mapping, overcome limitations of invasive mapping because of sampling density, and enhance magnetic resonance-based ablation by feature extraction from complex images.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epicardial pacing increases risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) when pacing in proximity to scar. Endocardial pacing may be less arrhythmogenic as it preserves the physiological sequences of activation and repolarization. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the relative arrhythmogenic risk of endocardial compared to epicardial pacing, and the role of the transmural gradient of action potential duration (APD) and pacing location relative to scar on arrhythmogenic risk during endocardial pacing. METHODS:Computational models of ICM patients (n = 24) were used to simulate left ventricular (LV) epicardial and endocardial pacing 0.2-3.5 cm from a scar. Mechanisms were investigated in idealized models of the ventricular wall and scar. Simulations were run with/without a 20-ms transmural APD gradient in the physiological direction and with the gradient inverted. Dispersion of repolarization was computed as a surrogate of VT risk. RESULTS:Patient-specific models with a physiological APD gradient predict that endocardial pacing decreases VT risk (34%; P <.05) compared to epicardial pacing when pacing in proximity to scar (0.2 cm). Endocardial pacing location does not significantly affect VT risk, but epicardial pacing at 0.2 cm compared to 3.5 cm from scar increases it (P <.05). Inverting the transmural APD gradient reverses this trend. Idealized models predict that propagation in the direction opposite to APD gradient decreases VT risk. CONCLUSION:Endocardial pacing is less arrhythmogenic than epicardial pacing when pacing proximal to scar and is less susceptible to pacing location relative to scar. The physiological repolarization sequence during endocardial pacing mechanistically explains reduced VT risk compared to epicardial pacing.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to evaluate the association between contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) attenuation and local epicardial conduction speed (ECS) and electrographic abnormalities in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND:CE-MDCT is a widely available and fast imaging technology with high spatial resolution that is less prone to defibrillator generator-related safety issues and image artifacts. However, the association between hypoattenuation on MDCT and VT substrates in ARVC remains unknown. METHODS:Patients with ARVC who underwent CE-MDCT followed by endocardial (n = 30) and epicardial (n = 21) electroanatomical mapping (EAM) and VT ablation were prospectively enrolled. Right ventricular (RV) mid-myocardial attenuation was calculated from 3-dimensional MDCT images and registered to EAM. Local ECS was calculated by averaging the ECS between each point and 5 adjacent points with concordant wave front direction. RESULTS:A total of 17,311 epicardial and 5,204 endocardial points were included. In multivariable regression analysis clustered by patient, RV myocardial attenuation was associated with epicardial bipolar voltage amplitude (2.5% decrease in amplitude per 10 HU decrease in attenuation; p < 0.001), with endocardial unipolar voltage amplitude (0.9% decrease in amplitude per 10 HU decrease in attenuation; p < 0.001), and with ECS (0.4% decrease in ECS per 10 HU decrease in attenuation; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CE-MDCT attenuation distribution is associated with regional ECS and electrographic amplitude in ARVC. Regions with low attenuation likely reflect fibro-fatty involvement in the RV and may serve as important VT substrates in patients with ARVC who are undergoing VT ablation.
Project description:Visualization of the complex 3D architecture of myocardial scar could improve guidance of radio-frequency ablation in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT). In this study, we sought to develop a framework for 3D holographic visualization of myocardial scar, imaged using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), on the augmented reality HoloLens. 3D holographic LGE model was built using the high-resolution 3D LGE image. Smooth endo/epicardial surface meshes were generated using Poisson surface reconstruction. For voxel-wise 3D scar model, every scarred voxel was rendered into a cube which carries the actual resolution of the LGE sequence. For surface scar model, scar information was projected on the endocardial surface mesh. Rendered layers were blended with different transparency and color, and visualized on HoloLens. A pilot animal study was performed where 3D holographic visualization of the scar was performed in 5 swines who underwent controlled infarction and electroanatomic mapping to identify VT substrate. 3D holographic visualization enabled assessment of the complex 3D scar architecture with touchless interaction in a sterile environment. Endoscopic view allowed visualization of scar from the ventricular chambers. Upon completion of the animal study, operator and mapping specialist independently completed the perceived usefulness questionnaire in the six-item usefulness scale. Operator and mapping specialist found it useful (usefulness rating: operator, 5.8; mapping specialist, 5.5; 1-7 scale) to have scar information during the intervention. HoloLens 3D LGE provides a true 3D perception of the complex scar architecture with immersive experience to visualize scar in an interactive and interpretable 3D approach, which may facilitate MR-guided VT ablation.
Project description:The association of local electrogram features with scar morphology and distribution in nonischemic cardiomyopathy has not been investigated. We aimed to quantify the association of scar on late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance with local electrograms and ventricular tachycardia circuit sites in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.Fifteen patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance before ventricular tachycardia ablation. The transmural extent and intramural types (endocardial, midwall, epicardial, patchy, transmural) of scar were measured in late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance short-axis planes. Electroanatomic map points were registered to late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images. Myocardial wall thickness, scar transmurality, and intramural scar types were independently associated with electrogram amplitude, duration, and deflections in linear mixed-effects multivariable models, clustered by patient. Fractionated and isolated potentials were more likely to be observed in regions with higher scar transmurality (P<0.0001 by ANOVA) and in regions with patchy scar (versus endocardial, midwall, epicardial scar; P<0.05 by ANOVA). Most ventricular tachycardia circuit sites were located in scar with >25% scar transmurality.Electrogram features are associated with scar morphology and distribution in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Previous knowledge of electrogram image associations may optimize procedural strategies including the decision to obtain epicardial access.
Project description:Aims:Contact mapping is currently used to guide catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) but usually provides incomplete assessment of 3D re-entry circuits and their arrhythmogenic substrates. This study investigates the feasibility of non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) in mapping scar substrates and re-entry circuits throughout the epicardium and endocardium. Methods and results:Four patients undergoing endocardial and epicardial mapping and ablation of scar-related VT had computed tomography scans and a 120-lead electrocardiograms, which were used to compute patient-specific ventricular epicardial and endocardial unipolar electrograms (CEGMs). Native-rhythm CEGMs were used to identify sites of myocardial scar and signal fractionation. Computed electrograms of induced VT were used to localize re-entrant circuits and exit sites. Results were compared to in vivo contact mapping data and epicardium-based ECGi solutions. During native rhythm, an average of 493?±?18 CEGMs were analysed on each patient. Identified regions of scar and fractionation comprised, respectively, 25?±?4% and 2?±?1% of the ventricular surface area. Using a linear mixed-effects model grouped at the level of an individual patient, CEGM voltage and duration were significantly associated with contact bipolar voltage. During induced VT, the inclusion of endocardial layer in ECGi made it possible to identify two epicardial vs. three endocardial VT exit sites among five reconstructed re-entry circuits. Conclusion:Electrocardiographic imaging may be used to reveal sites of signal fractionation and to map short-lived VT circuits. Its capacity to map throughout epicardial and endocardial layers may improve the delineation of 3D re-entry circuits and their arrhythmogenic substrates.
Project description:In catheter ablation of scar-related monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate voltage mapping is used to electrically define the scar during sinus rhythm. However, the electrically defined scar may not accurately reflect the anatomical scar. Magnetic resonance-based visualization of the scar may elucidate the 3D anatomical correlation between the fine structural details of the scar and scar-related VT circuits. We registered VT activation sequence with the 3D scar anatomy derived from high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction using epicardial sock electrodes (n=6, epicardial group), which have direct contact with the myocardium where the electrical signal is recorded. In a separate group of animals (n=5, endocardial group), we also assessed the incidence of endocardial reentry in this model using endocardial basket catheters. Ten to 12 weeks after myocardial infarction, sustained monomorphic VT was reproducibly induced in all animals (n=11). In the epicardial group, 21 VT morphologies were induced, of which 4 (19.0%) showed epicardial reentry. The reentry isthmus was characterized by a relatively small volume of viable myocardium bound by the scar tissue at the infarct border zone or over the infarct. In the endocardial group (n=5), 6 VT morphologies were induced, of which 4 (66.7%) showed endocardial reentry. In conclusion, MRI revealed a scar with spatially complex structures, particularly at the isthmus, with substrate for multiple VT morphologies after a single ischemic episode. Magnetic resonance-based visualization of scar morphology would potentially contribute to preprocedural planning for catheter ablation of scar-related, unmappable VT.
Project description:The relationship between cardiac contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI)-derived scar characteristics and substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with structural heart disease (SHD) has not been fully investigated.This study included 51 patients (mean age, 63.3±15.1 years) who underwent CE-MRI with SHD and VT induction testing before ablation. Late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) regions on MRI slices were quantified by thresholding techniques. Signal intensities (SIs) 2-6 SDs above the mean SI of the remote left ventricular (LV) myocardium were considered as scar border zones, and SI>6 SDs, as scar zone, and the scar characteristics related to VT inducibility and successful ablation via endocardial approaches were evaluated.The proportion of the total CE-MRI-derived scar border zone in the inducible VT group was significantly greater than that in the non-inducible VT group (26.3±9.9% vs. 19.2±7.8%, respectively, P=0.0323). The LV endocardial scar zone to total LV myocardial scar zone ratio in patients whose ablation was successful was significantly greater than that in those whose ablation was unsuccessful (0.61±0.11 vs. 0.48±0.12, respectively, P=0.0042). Most successful ablation sites were located adjacent to CE-MRI-derived scar border zones.By CE-MRI, we were able to characterize not only the scar, but also its location and heterogeneity, and those features seemed to be related to VT inducibility and successful ablation from an endocardial site.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sudden cardiac death (SCD) induced by malignant ventricular tachycardia (MVT) among young adults with right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a devastating event. Parts of ARVC/D patients have a mutation in genes encoding components of cardiac desmosomes, such as desmoglein-2 (DSG2), plakophilin-2 and desmoplakin. CASE PRESENTATION:Here we report a potentially pathogenic mutation in the DSG2 gene, which was identified in a family with ARVC/D using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and Sanger Sequencing. In all, Patient III:1 with ARVC/D carried the compound heterozygous mutations of DSG2 p.F531C and KCNE5 p.D92E/E93X, which were both inherited from her mother (II:2), who died of SCD. Carriers of DSG2p.F531C showed various phenotypes, such as ARVC/D, SCD, MVT and dilated cardiomyopathy. For III:1, there were significant low-voltage regions in the inferior-apical, inferior-lateral wall of the right ventricular epicardium and outflow tracts of the right ventricle. Under the guidance of a three-dimensional mapping system, MVT was successfully ablated with an epicardial-endocardial approach targeting for late, double or fragmental potentials after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) electrical storms. No VT recurrence was observed during the one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:When coexisting with heterozygous KCNE5 p.D92E/E93X, heterozygous DSG2 p.F531C as a genetic background was found to predispose to ARVC/D, SCD and MVT, which were successfully ablated using an epicardial-endocardial approach.