Prediction of arterial extravasation in pelvic fracture patients with stable hemodynamics using coagulation biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: Background:Determining the presence of an active arterial hemorrhage in the acute phase is important as a treatment strategy in patients with pelvic fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether coagulation biomarkers could predict arterial extravasation, especially in pelvic fracture patients with stable hemodynamics. Methods:We studied patients with a pelvic fracture who had a systolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg and lactate level less than 5.0 mmol/L on hospital arrival. Patients were divided into two groups: those with arterial extravasation on enhanced computed tomography (CT) or angiography (extravasation [+] group) and those without arterial extravasation (extravasation [-] group). Coagulation biomarkers measured on arrival were statistically compared between the two groups. Predictive ability of arterial extravasation using coagulation biomarkers was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic analyses provided area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and diagnostic indicators with optimal cutoff point including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Results:Sixty patients were analyzed. Fibrin degradation products (FDP), D-dimer, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR), and the ratio of FDP to fibrinogen were significantly higher in the extravasation (+) group than in the extravasation (-) group (FDP, 242 μg/mL [145-355] vs. 96 μg/mL [58-153]; D-dimer, 81 μg/mL [41-140] vs. 39 μg/mL [21-75]; PT-INR, 1.09 [1.05-1.24] vs. 1.02 [0.98-1.08]; and ratio of FDP to fibrinogen, 1.06 [0.85-2.01] vs. 0.46 [0.25-0.74]). The highest AUROC was with a ratio of FDP to fibrinogen of 0.777 (95% confidence interval, 0.656-0.898), and the highest predictive ability in terms of DOR was with a ratio of FDP to fibrinogen (sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.76; DOR 9.90). Conclusion:Coagulation biomarker could predict of arterial extravasation in pelvic fracture patients with stable hemodynamics.
Project description:Sixty four patients of cancer, comprising of 39 leukaemia, 8 lymphomas and 17 cases of solid tumours were included in this study. Quantitative estimation of FDP, fibrinogen and platelets were done in all. Elevated levels of FDP (≥ 10 µgm/mL) were found in 29 patients. These patients were further categorised as decompensated, overcompensated and compensated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolytic syndrome on the basis of platelet counts and fibrinogen levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vascular damage in polytrauma patients is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Therefore, specific clinical implications of vascular damage with fractures in major trauma patients are reassessed. METHODS:This comprehensive nine-year retrospective single center cohort study analyzed demography, laboratory, treatment and outcome data from 3689 patients, 64 patients with fracture-associated vascular injuries were identified and were compared to a control group. RESULTS:Vascular damage occurred in 7% of patients with upper and lower limb and pelvic fractures admitted to the trauma room. Overall survival was 80% in pelvic fracture and 97% in extremity fracture patients and comparable to non-vascular trauma patients. Additional arterial damage required substantial fluid administration and was visible as significantly anemia and disturbed coagulation tests upon admission. Open procedures were done in over 80% of peripheral extremity vascular damage. Endovascular procedures were predominant (87%) in pelvic injury. CONCLUSION:Vascular damage is associated with high mortality rates especially in combination with pelvic fractures. Initial anemia, disturbed coagulation tests and the need for extensive pre-clinical fluid substitution were observed in the cohort with vascular damage. Therefore, fast diagnosis and early interventional and surgical procedures are necessary to optimize patient-specific outcome.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: We tested two hypotheses that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock (ACOTS) in the early phase of trauma are similar disease entities and that the DIC score on admission can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 562 trauma patients, including 338 patients whose data were obtained immediately after admission to the emergency department. We collected serial data for the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels. DIC was diagnosed according to the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC scoring system, and ACOTS was defined as a prothrombin-time ratio of >1.2. RESULTS: The higher levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer and greater FDP/D-dimer ratios in the DIC patients suggested DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype. The DIC patients with the fibrinolytic phenotype exhibited persistently lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased prothrombin time ratios, higher FDP and D-dimer levels, and lower antithrombin levels compared with the non-DIC patients on arrival to the emergency department and during the early stage of trauma. Almost all ACOTS patients met the criteria for a diagnosis of DIC; therefore, the same changes were observed in the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels as noted in the DIC patients. The JAAM DIC score obtained immediately after arrival to the emergency department was an independent predictor of massive transfusion and death due to trauma and correlated with the amount of blood transfused. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who develop DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype during the early stage of trauma exhibit consumption coagulopathy associated with increased fibrin(ogen)olysis and lower levels of antithrombin. The same is true in patients with ACOTS. The JAAM DIC score can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinically, D-dimer (DD) levels are mainly used to exclude diseases such as deep venous thrombosis (DVT). In clinical testing, DD assays can be subjected to interference that may cause false results, which directly affect the clinical diagnosis. Our hypothesis was that the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the fibrin degradation product (FDP)/DD and fibrinogen (Fib)/DD ratios were used to identify these false results and corrected via multiple dilutions. METHODS:In total, 16 776 samples were divided into three groups according to the DD levels detected by Sysmex CS5100 and CA7000: Group A, DD ? 2.0 ?g/mL fibrinogen equivalent unit (FEU); group B, 0.5 < DD < 2.0 ?g/mL FEU; and group C, DD ? 0.5 ?g/mL FEU. The 95% CIs of the FDP/DD and Fib/DD ratios were calculated. Six abnormal DD results were found according to the 95% CIs. For verification, we performed multiple dilutions, compared the results with those of other instruments, and tested the addition of heterophilic blocking reagent (HBR). RESULTS:The median and 95% CI of the FDP/DD ratio were 3.76 and 2.25-8.15 in group A, 5.63 and 2.86-10.58 in group B, 10.23 and 0.91-47.71 in groups C, respectively. For the Fib/DD ratio, the 95% CIs was 0.02-2.21 in group A, 0.68-8.15 in group B, and 3.82-55.27 in groups C. Six abnormal results were identified after multiple dilutions, by comparison with other detection systems, and after HBR addition. CONCLUSIONS:The FDP/DD ratio is more reliable for identifying false results. If the FDP/DD ratio falls outside the 95% CI, it should be verified by different methods.
Project description:Cancer-induced blood coagulation in human tumour generates insoluble fibrin (IF)-rich cancer stroma in which uneven monoclonal antibody (mAb) distribution reduce the potential effectiveness of mAb-mediated treatments. Previously, we developed a mAb that reacts only with IF and not with fibrinogen (FNG) or the fibrin degradation product (FDP). Although IF, FNG and FDP share same amino acid sequences, the mAb is hardly neutralised by FNG and FDP in circulation and accumulates in fibrin clots within tumour tissue. Here, we created an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) using the anti-IF mAb conjugated with a chemotherapy payload (IF-ADC). The conjugate contains a linker severed specifically by plasmin (PLM), which is activated only on binding to IF. Imaging mass spectrometry showed the substantial intratumour distribution of the payload following the IF-ADC injection into mice bearing IF-rich 5-11 xenografts derived from pancreatic tumours of LSL-KrasG12D/+; LSL-Trp53R172H/+; Ptf1a-Cre (KPC) mice. IF-ADC treatment significantly extended the survival of the KPC mice. These data suggest that conjugating chemotherapy drugs to this IF-specific mAb could represent an effective means of treating stroma-rich tumours.
Project description:Background:Management of pelvic fracture associated haemorrhage is often complex with high morbidity and mortality rates. Different treatment options are used to control bleeding with an on-going discussion in the trauma community regarding the best management algorithm. Main body:Recent studies have shown trans-arterial embolisation (TAE) to be a safe and effective technique to control pelvic fracture associated haemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) evidence of active bleeding, haemodynamic instability, and pelvic fracture patterns are amongst important indicators for TAE. Conclusion:Herein, we aim to provide a comprehensive literature review of the effectiveness of TAE in controlling haemorrhage secondary to pelvic fracture according to the indications, technique and embolic agents, and outcomes, whilst incorporating our Level 1 major trauma centre's (MTC) results between 2014-2017.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Perioperative coagulation testing often is performed with arterial samples even though device reference ranges typically are established in venous samples. Although limited studies exist comparing coagulation parameters across sampling sites, viscoelastic testing devices have demonstrated some differences. The objective of this study was to compare coagulation parameters determined using the Quantra System for venous and arterial samples. DESIGN:Prospective, observational study. SETTING:Tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS:The study comprised 30 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS:Paired arterial and venous samples were obtained at 2 of the following time points: baseline, during bypass, or after protamine reversal of heparin. Quantra measurements included Clot Time (CT), Heparinase Clot Time (CTH), Clot Time Ratio (CTR), Clot Stiffness (CS), and Fibrinogen (FCS) and Platelet (PCS) Contributions to clot stiffness. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The relationship and agreement between matched data pairs were established and statistical analysis was performed via paired t tests. CTR, CS, FCS, and PCS were unaffected by the sampling site, whereas CT and CTH demonstrated statistically significant differences between arterial and venous samples (p < 0.001). Arterial clot times were prolonged relative to the venous ones with a mean percent error of 14.2 % and 11.9 %, respectively. These results are in general agreement with those reported for other viscoelastic testing devices. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that Quantra clot stiffness-based parameters (CS, FCS, PCS) are unaffected by sampling site, whereas the clot time parameters (CT and CTH) show good correlation in the presence of a bias. CTR, a ratio of CT and CTH, also is unaffected.
Project description:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under general anesthesia. Recently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy under regional anesthesia has become popular, but this creates a serious risk of thromboembolism because of pneumoperitoneum, anesthesia technique, operative positioning, and patient-specific risk factors.This randomized controlled trial compares the effects of two different anesthesia techniques in laparoscopic cholecystectomy on coagulation and fibrinolysis.This randomized prospective study included 60 low-risk patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who underwent elective LC without thrombo-emboli prophylaxis. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the anesthesia technique: the general anesthesia (group 1, n = 30) and spinal epidural anesthesia (group 2, n = 30) groups. Measurement of the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and blood levels of D-dimer (DD) and fibrinogen (F) were recorded preoperatively (pre), at the first hour (post 1) and 24 h (post 24) after the surgery. These results were compared both between and within the groups.The mean age was 51.5 ±16.7 years (range: 19-79 years). Pneumoperitoneum time was similar between group 1 (33.8 ±7.8) and group 2 (34.8 ±10.4). The TT levels significantly declined postoperatively in both groups. The levels of PT, aPTT, INR, D-dimer and fibrinogen dramatically increased postoperatively in both groups.While there was not any DVT, there was a significant decline in TT. There was a dramatic rise in the PT, INR, D-dimer, fibrin degradation products (FDP), and fibrinogen following LC. This may be attributed to the effects of pneumoperitoneum and anesthesia techniques on portal vein flow.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We present a report of a blunt-trauma patient who developed an atypical extrapleural hematoma with hemodynamic instability following a dislocation fracture of the first lumbar vertebra. We successfully treated her with arterial embolization (AE) of the lumbar and intercostal arteries. CASE REPORT: The patient, a 74-year-old woman, was injured in a traffic accident. At the scene of the accident, she was found to be alert, and her hemodynamic condition was stable. She arrived at our hospital complaining of lumbago. A thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast enhancement showed a dislocation fracture of the first lumbar vertebra along with paravertebral and retroperitoneal hematomas. Therefore, we managed the patient conservatively with bed rest. However, 3 h after admission, her blood pressure suddenly decreased. A repeated thoracoabdominal CT scan showed enlargement of the right retroperitoneal hematoma with extravasation of the contrast medium into the right extrapleural space. Angiography was immediately performed, showing extravasation of the contrast media from the right intercostal (Th12) and lumbar arteries (L1). After arterial embolization (AE) with gelatin-sponge particles, extravasation of the contrast medium ceased, and the patient's hemodynamic condition stabilized without massive fluid resuscitation. CONCLUSION: The extrapleural hematoma reduced in size after AE, and almost disappeared on the 14th day of hospitalization. The lumbar spinal fracture was successfully repaired on day 16, and the patient was kept in the hospital to recuperate. We believe that AE is effective for the management of intractable bleeding following fractures of the spine.
Project description:Hip fractures with unstable pelvic ring have great morbidity and mortality rates. These fractures result from high energy trauma such as falls from heights, road accidents and collapsing structures or other similar mechanisms of action. We report the case of a 63 years old man, construction worker, who stood inside a ditch during a wall construction when he was surprised by this collapse, which resulted in direct trauma to the right thigh and pelvis. The autopsy revealed diaphysis fracture of the right femur with an open book pelvic fracture with severe hemorrhagic infiltration and hematoma of the pelvic muscles without arterial injury. Bone bleeding and the vascular damage associated with disruption of the sacroiliac ligaments promote a very significant bleeding. Simple maneuvers such as sheet circumferential compression to promote pelvic ring closure are effective on stabilizing and closure of the sacroiliac joint. Hip manipulation of the fracture was performed during the necropsy to demonstrate and prove how a simple sheet contention can promote stabilization of the pelvic ring by closing the sacroiliac joints in open book fractures.