Oxidation of 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine Leads to Substantial DNA-Histone Cross-Links within Nucleosome Core Particles.
ABSTRACT: 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine(8-oxodGuo) is a common primary product of cellular oxidative DNA damage. 8-OxodGuo is more readily oxidized than 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG); a two-electron oxidation generates a highly reactive intermediate (OGox), which forms covalent adducts with nucleophiles, including OH-, free amines, and the side chains of amino acids such as lysine. We determined here that K3Fe(CN)6 oxidation of 8-oxodGuo in nucleosome core particles (NCPs) produces high yields, quantitative (i.e., 100%) in some cases, of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). The efficiency of DPC formation was closely related to 8-oxodGuo base pairing and location within the NCP and was only slightly decreased by adding the DNA-protective polyamine spermine to the system. Using NCPs that contained histone mutants, we determined that DPCs result predominantly from OGox trapping by the N-terminal histone amine. The DPCs were stable under physiological conditions and therefore could have important biological consequences. For instance, the essentially quantitative yield of DPCs at some positions within NCPs would reduce the yield of the mutagenic DNA lesions spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin produced from the common intermediate OGox, which in turn would affect mutation signatures of oxidative stress in a position-dependent manner. In summary, our findings indicate that site-specific incorporation of 8-oxodGuo into NCPs, followed by its oxidation, leads to DPCs with an efficiency depending on 8-oxodGuo location and orientation. Given that 8-oxodGuo formation is widespread in genomic DNA and that DPC formation is highly efficient, DPCs may occur in eukaryotic cells and may affect several important biological processes.
Project description:Monofunctional alkylating agents preferentially react at the N7 position of 2'-deoxyguanosine in duplex DNA. Methylated DNA, such as that produced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and temozolomide, exists for days in organisms. The predominant consequence of N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (MdG) is widely believed to be abasic site (AP) formation via hydrolysis, a process that is slow in free DNA. Examination of MdG reactivity within nucleosome core particles (NCPs) provided two general observations. MdG depurination rate constants are reduced in NCPs compared with when the identical DNA sequence is free in solution. The magnitude of the decrease correlates with proximity to the positively charged histone tails, and experiments in NCPs containing histone variants reveal that positively charged amino acids are responsible for the decreased rate of abasic site formation from MdG. In addition, the lysine-rich histone tails form DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) with MdG. Cross-link formation is reversible and is ascribed to nucleophilic attack at the C8 position of MdG. DPC and retarded abasic site formation are observed in NCPs randomly damaged by MMS, indicating that these are general processes. Histone-MdG cross-links were also detected by mass spectrometry in chromatin isolated from V79 Chinese hamster lung cells treated with MMS. The formation of DPCs following damage by a monofunctional alkylating agent has not been reported previously. These observations reveal the possibility that such DPCs may contribute to the cytotoxicity of monofunctional alkylating agents, such as MMS, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and temozolomide.
Project description:The oxidation products obtained from the reaction of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) with dG include-among others-8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 2,2-diamino-4[(2-deoxy-beta-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)amino]-5(2H)-oxazolone (oxazolone), spiroiminodihydantoin, and N1-(beta-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5-guanidinohydantoin (guanidinohydantoin). In the present work, the formation of these products from the treatment of calf thymus DNA with varying amounts of ONOO- was studied quantitatively in vitro. 13C-, 15N-labeled standards were synthesized for the nucleosides of interest, and calf thymus DNA was reacted with ONOO- and digested enzymatically down to the nucleoside level. Specific modifications in the DNA were measured by HPLC separation followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis in the selected reaction-monitoring mode. Artifacts of the above four oxidation products, arising from oxidation of dG and/or 8-oxodG during DNA digestion and subsequent workup, were evaluated with 7-15N-dG and/or stable-isotope-labeled 8-oxodG as internal standards. Levels of artifactual 8-oxodG were about 5/10(6) nucleosides. The artifacts of spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin, arising from 8-oxodG, were 3.7% and 0.6% of the measured 8-oxodG values, respectively. No artifacts of oxazolone were detected. 8-OxodG and oxazolone were formed dose-dependently in DNA treated with ONOO-, while the levels of spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin increased significantly at low ONOO- doses, and then dropped off at higher ONOO- doses. The complexity of these dose-response relationships is likely due to the dual role of peroxynitrite as both an oxidant and a nucleophile in competition with water.
Project description:N7-Methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (MdG) is the major damage product in DNA produced by methylating agents, but it often thought to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic. MdG is chemically unstable. An abasic site (AP) is the major product produced from MdG under physiologically relevant conditions. AP formation is frequently considered to be responsible for the cytotoxic effects of MdG, but the reaction is suppressed in nucleosome core particles (NCPs). Recently, it was discovered that histone proteins form reversible DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) with MdG in reconstituted NCPs, as well as in methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) treated cells. In this study, the formation and reactivity of MdG in MMS treated NCPs was examined at single nucleotide resolution. Sequences consisting of three or more consecutive dGs are more reactive with MMS. The efficiency and selectivity of MdG formation by MMS is largely unaffected within a NCP, although reactivity at several dGs is ?1.5-2.5-fold higher in NCPs. DPC formation from MdG (DPCMdG) predominates over AP at all positions within the NCP. With few exceptions, DPCMdG yield is strongly dependent upon the accessibility of the major groove containing MdG to lysine-rich histone N-terminal tails. These data indicate that histone-MdG DPC formation will depend upon DNA sequence and translational position within an NCP.
Project description:The electrochemical and chemical oxidation of a series of C8-arylamine adducts of 2'-deoxyguanosine has been examined. The oxidations were found to be reversible by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry in both aqueous buffer and aprotic organic solvent. The mechanism of the oxidation in protic media was either one- or two-electron, depending on the aryl group. The chemical oxidation resulted in guanidinohydantoin and spiroiminodihydantoin rearrangement products similar to those observed for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine.
Project description:Duplex DNA containing an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lesion undergoes cleavage significantly more rapidly in nucleosome core particles (NCPs) than it does when free. The mechanism of AP cleavage within NCPs was studied through independently generating lesions within them. AP mediated DNA cleavage within NCPs is initiated by DNA-protein cross-link (DPC(un)) formation followed by ?-elimination to give DPCs containing cleaved DNA (DPC(cl)). Hydrolysis of DPC(cl) produces a DNA single strand break (SSB). C2-dideuteration of AP showed that deprotonation from this position is involved in the rate-determining step. Experiments utilizing NCPs containing mutated histone H4 proteins indicated that lysine residues in the amino terminal tail are involved in both DPC formation and ?-elimination steps. Lysines 16 and 20 seem to play a greater role in reacting with AP at superhelical location 1.5, but other amino acids (e.g., lysines 5, 8, and 12) compensate in their absence. The mechanism of rapid double strand breaks in bistranded, clustered AP lesions was studied by independently preparing reaction intermediates within model NCPs. A single strand break on one strand enhances the cleavage of a proximal AP on the opposite strand.
Project description:In situ generation of 5-formylcytosine (5fC) in nucleosome core particles (NCPs) reveals that 5fC leads to essential DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Mechanistic studies using chemical models and mutated histones demonstrate that DPCs form reversibly between the formyl function of 5fC and primary amines on histones. These results suggest that DPC formation from 5fC in chromatin occurs in addition to its role in DNA demethylation.
Project description:Two convenient synthetic routes to the oxidized guanosine triphosphate lesions spiroiminodihydantoin-2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphate (dSpTP) and guanidinohydantoin-2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphate (dGhTP) are reported. Both two-electron oxidation of 2'-deoxy-7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dOGTP) using SO4*- generated photolytically from K2S2O8 or four-electron oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP) from singlet oxygen provide either dSpTP or dGhTP at pH 8.0 or 4.4, respectively. Highly purified triphosphates are obtained by ion pair reversed-phase HPLC.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species attack both base and sugar moieties in DNA with a preference among the bases for reaction at guanine. In the present study, 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) was oxidized by a copper-mediated Fenton reaction with the reductants ascorbate or N-acetyl-cysteine, yielding oxidation on both the base and the sugar. The primary oxidized lesions observed in these studies include the 2'-deoxyribonucleosides of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (dOG), spiroiminodihydantoin (dSp), guanidinohydantoin (dGh), oxazolone (dZ), and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (d2Ih), as well as the free base guanine. d2Ih was the major product observed in the nucleoside, single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide contexts and is proposed to arise from oxidation at C5 of guanine. Product distribution studies provide insight into the role of the reductant in partitioning of dG base oxidation along the C5 and C8 pathways.
Project description:Exogenously and endogenously produced reactive oxygen species attack the base and sugar moieties of DNA showing a preference for reaction at 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) sites. In the present work, dG was oxidized by HO(•) via the Fe(II)-Fenton reaction or by X-ray radiolysis of water. The oxidized lesions observed include the 2'-deoxynucleosides of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (dOG), spiroiminodihydantoin (dSp), 5-guanidinohydantoin (dGh), oxazolone (dZ), 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (d2Ih), 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (cyclo-dG), and the free base guanine (Gua). Reactions conducted with ascorbate or N-acetylcysteine as a reductant under aerobic conditions identified d2Ih as the major lesion formed. Studies were conducted to identify the role of O2 and the reductant in product formation. From these studies, mechanisms are proposed to support d2Ih as a major oxidation product detected under aerobic conditions in the presence of the reductant. These nucleoside observations were then validated in oxidations of oligodeoxynucleotide and ?-DNA contexts that demonstrated high yields of d2Ih in tandem with dOG, dSp, and dGh. These results identify dG oxidation to d2Ih to occur in high yields leading to a hypothesis that d2Ih could be found from in cells stressed with HO(•). Further, the distorted ring structure of d2Ih likely causes this lesion to be highly mutagenic.
Project description:Oxidative damage to DNA has many origins, including irradiation, inflammation, and oxidative stress, but the chemistries are not the same. The most oxidizable base in DNA is 2-deoxyguanosine (dG), and the primary oxidation products are 8-oxodG and 2-amino-imidazolone. The latter rapidly converts to 2,2-diamino-oxazolone (Ox), and 8-oxodG is further oxidized to spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh). In this study, we have examined the dose-response relationship for the formation of the above four products arising in calf thymus DNA exposed to gamma irradiation, photoactivated rose bengal, and two sources of peroxynitrite. In order to carry out these experiments, we developed a chromatographic system and synthesized isotopomeric internal standards to enable accurate and precise analysis based upon selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. 8-OxodG was the most abundant products in all cases, but its accumulation was highly dependent on the nature of the oxidizing agent and the subsequent conversion to Sp and Gh. Among the other oxidation products, Ox was the most abundant, and Sp was formed in significantly greater yield than Gh.