Behavioral problems are associated with cognitive and language scores in toddlers born extremely preterm.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationship of parent-reported child behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to cognition, language, and motor skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (Bayley-III) in toddlers born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN:Toddlers born extremely preterm (gestational ages 22 0/7 to 26 6/7?weeks) were tested at 22-26?months corrected age with Bayley-III while parents completed the CBCL. Socio-demographic variables and medical history were recorded. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship of Bayley-III cognitive, motor, and language scores with CBCL scores, adjusting for medical and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS:Internalizing, affective, and pervasive development problem behavior scores on the CBCL correlated significantly with lower Bayley-III cognitive, language, and motor scores on unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Although externalizing and anxiety problems were significantly associated with cognitive and language scores on unadjusted analysis, the relationships were not significant after adjusting for socio-economic factors. CBCL scores were similar for boys and girls, with the exception of the pervasive developmental problem scale; boys had significantly more problems than girls (p?=?0.02). CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that parent reported behavior problems were related to lower cognitive, language, and motor development in toddlers born extremely preterm. Early findings of behavioral problems in toddlers born extremely premature may help identify children at greater risk for later learning difficulties. Adding a measure of behavior to the evaluation of these children may help better understand factors that can contribute to delays, especially in cognition and language.
Project description:Importance:Intake of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) among toddlers is low. Supplementation may benefit developmental outcomes of toddlers who were born preterm. Objective:To determine whether 6 months of daily DHA supplementation improves developmental outcomes of toddlers who were born preterm. Design, Setting, and Participants:A randomized, fully masked, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 26, 2012, to March 24, 2017, at a large US pediatric academic center with 9 neonatal intensive care units. Children born at less than 35 weeks' gestation who were 10 to 16 months corrected age underwent 6 months of intervention. Of 2363 children assessed, 982 were eligible, 605 declined, and 377 enrolled and were randomized. Analyses were according to intent to treat. Interventions:One-to-one allocation to receive daily microencapsulated DHA, 200 mg, and arachidonic acid (AA), 200 mg (DHA+AA), or microencapsulated corn oil (placebo). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome specified a priori was Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III), cognitive composite score at 16 to 22 months corrected age. Secondary outcomes were Bayley-III language and motor composite scores and Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire effortful control and activity level scores. Subgroup analyses defined a priori were by income, sex, and birth weight. Results:Among 377 children randomized and included in the analysis (182 girls and 195 boys; median corrected age, 15.7 months), 338 children (89.7%) had complete data on the primary outcome. Bayley-III cognitive scores did not differ between the DHA+AA and placebo groups (difference in change, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.8 to 2.8]; effect size, 0.05; P?=?.66). Assignment to the DHA+AA group had a small to medium negative effect on Bayley-III language scores among children with lower birth weights (eg, a child with a birth weight of 1000 g assigned to receive DHA+AA experienced a 4.1-point relative decrease, while a child assigned to placebo did not; P?=?.03 for interaction). Supplementation had a similar negative effect on effortful control scores among children with annual household incomes greater than $35?000 (difference in change, -0.3 [95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1]; effect size, -0.37; P?=?.01). Bayley-III motor scores and activity level scores were unaffected. Conclusions and Relevance:Daily supplementation with 200 mg of DHA and 200 mg of AA for 6 months resulted in no improvement in cognitive development and early measures of executive function vs placebo, and may have resulted in negative effects on language development and effortful control in certain subgroups of children. These findings do not support DHA supplementation in the second year of life for children who are born preterm. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01576783.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations in toddlers born extremely preterm (<28?weeks) between neonatal neuroimaging and 18- to 22-month developmental and behavioral outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort analysis from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Trial Neuroimaging and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Study of infants born extremely preterm. Subjects underwent cranial ultrasonography and near-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At 18-22 months of corrected age, the assessment included the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) Problem and Competence Scale scores and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). The BITSEA Problem Scale assesses dysregulation; the Competence Scale assesses social-emotional competence. We examined associations of Problem and Competence scores and positive screen rates with cranial ultrasonography and near-term MRI. Mean BITSEA and Bayley-III scores were compared using ANOVA and positive screen rates with the ?2 test. We computed correlations between BITSEA and Bayley-III scores. RESULTS:Of the 397 children, positive BITSEA screens were found in 34% for the Problem score and 26% for the Competence score. Presence of lesions on near-term MRI that included cerebellar lesions were significantly associated with lower BITSEA Competence but not with Problem scores; Competence scores were inversely related to the presence/significance of lesions. Positive screens on Competence scores and on both Competence and Problem scores were significantly associated with Bayley-III cognitive and language scores <85 (P?<?.001). CONCLUSIONS:Social-emotional competence contributes to deficits in cognitive and language development. Presence of injury on near-term MRI that includes cerebellar lesions is associated with later social-emotional competence and may be a useful predictor to guide early assessment and intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00063063 and NCT00233324.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To develop an index to determine which opioid-exposed neonates have the most severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).<h4>Study design</h4>Full-term neonates with NAS (n = 116) from mothers maintained on methadone or buprenorphine were enrolled from 8 sites into a randomized clinical trial of morphine vs methadone. Ninety-nine (85%) were evaluated at hospital discharge using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). At 18 months, 83 of 99 (83.8%) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III), and 77 of 99 (77.7%) were evaluated with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).<h4>Results</h4>Cluster analysis was used to define high (n = 21) and low (n = 77) NAS severity. Compared with infants in the low NAS severity cluster, infants in the high NAS severity cluster had a longer length of stay (P < .001), longer length of stay due to NAS (P < .001), longer duration of treatment due to NAS (P < .001), and higher total dose of the study drug (P < .001) and were more likely to have received phenobarbital (P < .001), to have been treated with morphine (P = .020), and to have an atypical NNNS profile (P = .005). The 2 groups did not differ in terms of maximum Finnegan score. At 18 months, in unadjusted analyses, compared with the high-severity cluster, the low-severity cluster had higher scores on the Bayley-III Cognitive (P = .013), Language (P < .001), and Motor (P = .041) composites and less total behavior problems on the CBCL (P = .028). In adjusted analyses, the difference in the Bayley-III Language composite remained (P = .013).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Presumptive measures of NAS severity can be aggregated to develop an index that predicts developmental outcomes at age 18 months.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Developmental assessment is an important facility for early detection and intervention of developmental delay in children. Objective: to assess the performance of a sample of middle social class Egyptian infants and toddlers on Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-third edition (Bayley III), and to compare their cognitive, motor, and communication scores with that of the reference norms.<h4>Methods</h4>It was a cross-sectional pilot study, included 270 children aged 18-42 months. Mothers filled a questionnaire including questions about family socioeconomic background, perinatal history, and family history. Physical examination and growth assessment of children were performed. Developmental assessment of cognitive, language and motor skills was performed using the Bayley III scales and compared the American norm scores with the Egyptian mean scores.<h4>Results</h4>The mean cognitive, language and motor composite scores were 92.5+18.5, 91.76+ 15.6, and 95.67+18.9 respectively. All were lower than the American mean (100+ 15) with highly significant differences. About one-fourth of the enrolled Egyptian children had below-average composite scores according to the US cutoff point. The ranks of Egyptian children on the American versus the Egyptian percentile curves were significantly different.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Mean values of all assessed developmental domains of Egyptian children are within the norm-referenced average of Bayley III, but lower than the recorded American mean. Assessing Egyptian children according to the American norms may result in overestimating developmental delay. This pilot study raised the question about using different cutoff points suitable for the developmental trajectory of Egyptian children. Answering this question needs further studies on Bayley-III after cultural adaptation and standardization, using a larger, more diverse, and representative sample of the Egyptian population.
Project description:Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers ( n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21-9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10-17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69-17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes in linear growth-restricted (LGR) infants born <29 weeks with and without weight gain out of proportion to linear growth. STUDY DESIGN:We compared 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes between infants with and without LGR and between LGR infants with and without weight gain out of proportion to linear growth. The outcomes were Bayley-III cognitive, motor, and language scores, cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level???2, and neurodevelopmental impairment. RESULT:In total, 1227 infants were analyzed. LGR infants were smaller and less mature at birth, had higher BMI, and had lower Bayley-III language scores (82.3 vs. 85.0, p?<?0.05). Among infants with LGR, infants with high BMI had lower language scores compared with those with low-to-normal BMI (80.8 vs. 83.3, p?<?0.05), and were more likely to have GMFCS level ?2 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSION:Among infants with LGR, weight gain out of proportion to linear growth was associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Project description:Background: The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III) is the most widely used developmental assessment tool for infants and toddlers worldwide, but less is known about its psychometric properties and feasibility in low and middle-income countries. Aim: To assess the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Bayley-III when used in a large scale randomized controlled intervention trial in Nepal. Methods: The participating infants were part of a randomized, doubled blind, placebo-controlled trial to measure the efficacy of vitamin B12 supplementation on growth and neurodevelopment. A total of 600 children aged 6-11 months were enrolled and included for developmental assessment. The Bayley-III measures child development across five domains: cognition, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor skills. Some items were culturally adapted. To measure and ensure appropriate inter-observer agreement, standardization exercises were performed during the initial training, and double scoring of 7% of test sessions were conducted throughout the study by two examiners. Results: The inter-rater agreement was excellent for both the standardization exercises before the start of the study, and for the quality control throughout the study with intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.95 to 0.99. The internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged between 0.57 and 0.87. The subtests raw scores as well as scaled scores were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). The means and SDs of the scaled scores compared with American norms were similar to the distribution in the American sample, with the exception of the receptive (Mean = 7.7, SD = 2.2) and expressive (Mean = 7.3, SD = 1.9) language subtests that were lower than the American norms. Conclusion: The inter-rater reliability between the scorers on the Bayley-III was excellent both during standardization and for the quality control. The distributions for the cognitive and motor subscales are comparable to the American norms, while caution is needed in the interpretation of the language scales. The results suggest that Bayley-III is a feasible tool for the assessment of neurodevelopmental status in nutritional studies in low resource settings such as Nepal. Cultural adaptations, training and standardization are prerequisites for a valid and reliable assessment using the Bayley-III.
Project description:Background:Children in low and middle income countries may have many risk factors for poor cognitive development, and are accordingly at a high risk of not reaching their developmental potential. Determinants for cognitive development in early life can be found among biological and socioeconomic factors, as well as in stimulation and learning opportunities. Objective:The present study aimed to identify determinants of cognitive, language and motor development in 6-11 months old Nepalese infants. Methods:Six hundred infants with a length-for-age z-score <-1 were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Information on socioeconomic factors, child and maternal demographics, clinical and biological factors, and the home environment were collected. In a manual stepwise variable selection procedure, we examined the association between selected biological, socioeconomic and stimulation and learning opportunity variables and the Bayley-III cognitive, language and motor development subscale scores in multiple linear regression models. Results:The length-for-age z-scores was positively associated with the cognitive composite score [standardized beta (ß): 0.22, p < 0.001] and the motor composite score [(ß): 0.14, p = 0.001]. Children born with low birth weight (<2500 g) scored significantly lower on all subscale scores. Diarrheal history was associated with poor language composite scores, and females had higher language composite scores than boys [(ß): 0.11, p = 0.015]. Children who had been hospitalized during the first month of life had also lower cognitive and motor composite scores than those who had not been hospitalized. Parental reports of physical punishment and lack of spontaneous vocalization were associated with poor cognitive and language composite scores, respectively. The statistical models with the various subscale scores as dependent variables explained between 8 to 16 percent of the variability in the cognitive developmental outcomes. Conclusion:Our findings reveal important determinants for developmental scores in infancy, and underline the role of biological risk factors faced by marginalized children in low and middle income countries such as in Nepal.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the effects of pharmacologic treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome on neurodevelopmental outcome from a randomized, controlled trial.<h4>Study design</h4>Eight sites enrolled 116 full-term newborn infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome born to mothers maintained on methadone or buprenorphine into a randomized trial of morphine vs methadone. Ninety-nine infants (85%) were evaluated at hospital discharge using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. At 18 months, 83 of 99 infants (83.8%) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition and 77 of 99 (77.7%) with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).<h4>Results</h4>Primary analyses showed no significant differences between treatment groups on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition, or CBCL. However in post hoc analyses, we found differences by atypical NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale profile on the CBCL. Infants receiving adjunctive phenobarbital had lower Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition scores and more behavior problems on the CBCL. In adjusted analyses, internalizing and total behavior problems were associated with use of phenobarbital (P = .03; P = .04), maternal psychological distress (measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) (both P < .01), and infant medical problems (both P = .02). Externalizing problems were associated with maternal psychological distress (P < .01) and continued maternal substance use (P < .01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Infants treated with either morphine or methadone had similar short-term and longer term neurobehavioral outcomes. Neurodevelopmental outcome may be related to the need for phenobarbital, overall health of the infant, and postnatal caregiving environment.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958476.
Project description:To determine whether Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition) (Bayley-III) motor scores and neurological examination at 2 years corrected age predict motor difficulties at 4.5 years corrected age.A prospective cohort study of children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand. Assessment at 2 years was performed using the Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination, and at 4.5 years using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) (MABC-2).Of 333 children, 8 (2%) had Bayley-III motor scores below 85, and 50 (15%) had minor deficits on neurological assessment at 2 years; 89 (27%) scored less than or equal to the 15th centile, and 54 (16%) less than or equal to the 5th centile on MABC-2 at 4.5 years. Motor score, fine and gross motor subtest scores, and neurological assessments at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years, explaining 0 to 7% of variance in MABC-2 scores. A Bayley-III motor score below 85 predicted MABC-2 scores less than or equal to the 15th centile with a positive predictive value of 30% and a negative predictive value of 74% (7% sensitivity and 94% specificity).Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years.