Early treadmill exercise increases macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
ABSTRACT: The neuroprotective function of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in ischemic stroke was rarely evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of early treadmill exercise on recovery from ischemic stroke and to determine whether these effects are associated with the expression levels of MIF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ischemic area. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the ischemia and exercise group [middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-Ex, n = 10), ischemia and sedentary group (MCAO-St, n = 10), sham-surgery and exercise group (Sham-Ex, n = 10), or sham-surgery and sedentary group (Sham-St, n = 10). The MCAO-Ex and MCAO-St groups were subjected to MCAO for 60 minutes, whereas the Sham-Ex and Sham-St groups were subjected to an identical operation without MCAO. Rats in the MCAO-Ex and Sham-Ex groups then ran on a treadmill for 30 minutes once a day for 5 consecutive days. After reperfusion, the hanging time tested by the wire hang test was longer and the relative fractional anisotropy determined by MRI was higher in the peri-infarct region of the MCAO-Ex group compared with the MCAO-St group. The expression levels of MIF and BDNF in the peri-infarct region were upregulated in the MCAO-Ex group. Increased MIF and BDNF levels were positively correlated with relative fractional anisotropy changes in the peri-infarct region. There was no significant difference in the levels of MIF and BDNF in the peri-infarct region between the Sham-Ex and Sham-St groups. Our study demonstrated that early exercise (initiated 48 hours after the MCAO) could improve motor and neuronal recovery after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the increased levels of MIF and BDNF in the peri-infarct region (penumbra) may be one of the mechanisms of enhanced neurological function recovery. All experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in Asan Medical Center in South Korea (2016-12-126).
Project description:Background: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability. Exercise produces neuroprotection by improving neuroplasticity. Exercise can induce exosome production. According to several studies, exosomes are involved in repairing brain function, but the relationship and mechanism of exercise, exosomes, and neuroprotection have not been elucidated. This study intends to explore the relationship and potential mechanism by observing the changes in the exosome level, infarct volume, neurological function and behavioral scores, synapses, and corticospinal tract (CST). Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: a sham operation (SHAM) group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with sedentary intervention (SED-MCAO) group, MCAO with exercise intervention (EX-MCAO) group, and MCAO with exercise intervention and exosome injection (EX-MCAO-EXO) group. The exercise intervention was started 1 day after MCAO and lasted for 4 weeks. All rats were assessed using the modified neurological severity score (mNSS). The levels of exosomes in serum and brain, gait analysis, and magnetic resonance scan were performed 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention. After 4 weeks of intervention, the number of synapses, synaptophysin (Syn), and postsynaptic density protein 95(PSD-95) expression was detected. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, (1) the EX-MCAO and EX-MCAO-EXO groups showed higher serum exosome (pEX−MCAO = 0.000, pEX−MCAO−EXO = 0.000) and brain exosome (pEX−MCAO = 0.001, pEX−MCAO−EXO = 0.000) levels than the SED-MCAO group, of which the EX-MCAO group had the highest serum exosome (p = 0.000) and the EX-MCAO-EXO group had the highest brain exosome (p = 0.03) levels. (2) The number of synapses in the EX-MCAO (p = 0.032) and EX-MCAO-EXO groups (p = 0.000) was significantly higher than that in the SED-MCAO group. The EX-MCAO-EXO group exhibited a greater number of synapses than the EX-MCAO (p = 0.000) group. (3) The synaptic plasticity-associated proteins were expressed significantly higher in the EX-MCAO (pSyn = 0.010, pPSD−95 = 0.044) and EX-MCAO-EXO (pSyn = 0.000, pPSD−95 = 0.000) groups than in the SED-MCAO group, and the EX-MCAO-EXO group (pSyn = 0.000, pPSD−95 = 0.046) had the highest expression. (4) Compared with the SED-MCAO group, the EX-MCAO group had significantly improved infarct volume ratio (p = 0.000), rFA value (p = 0.000), and rADC (p = 0.000). Compared with the EX-MCAO group, the EX-MCAO-EXO group had a significantly improved infarct volume ratio (p = 0.000), rFA value (p = 0.000), and rADC value (p = 0.001). (5) Compared with the SED-MCAO group, the EX-MCAO group (p = 0.001) and EX-MCAO-EXO group (p = 0.000) had significantly lower mNSS scores and improved gait. (6) The brain exosome levels were negatively correlated with the mNSS score, infarct volume ratio, and rADC value and positively correlated with the rFA value, Syn, and PSD-95 expression. The serum and brain exosome levels showed a positive correlation. Conclusions: Exercise intervention increases the serum exosome level in MCAO rats, which are recruited into the brain, leading to improved synaptic growth and CST integrity, a reduced infarct volume, and improved neurological function and gait.
Project description:In this study, we investigated whether gongjin-dan improves functional recovery and has neuroprotective effects on reducing the infarct volume after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Infarct volume was measured using TTC staining and glucose utilization by F-18 FDG PET. Functional improvement was evaluated with the Rota-rod, treadmill, Garcia score test, and adhesive removal test. At 14 days after MCAo, neuronal cell survival, astrocytes expansion, and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistofluorescence staining in the peri-infarct region. Also, the expression of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines such as VEGF, BDNF, Cox-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-1? was measured in ischemic hemisphere regions. The gongjin-dan-treated group showed both reduced infarct volume and increased glucose utilization. Behavior tests demonstrated a significant improvement compared to the control. Also in the gongjin-dan treated group, NeuN-positive cells were increased and number of astrocytes, microglia, and apoptotic cells was significantly decreased compared with the control group in the ischemic peri-infarct area. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and BDNF was increased and level of Cox-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-1? was decreased. These results suggest that gongjin-dan may improve functional outcome through the rapid restoration of metabolism and can be considered as a potential neuroprotective agent.
Project description:Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (IV-MSC) protects the ischemic rat brain in a stroke model, but the molecular mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is unclear. We compared genomic profiles using the mRNA microarray technique in a rodent stroke model. Rats were treated with 1 × 10(6) IV-MSC or saline (sham group) 2 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). mRNA microarray was conducted 72 h after MCAo using brain tissue from normal rats (normal group) and the sham and MSC groups. Predicted pathway analysis was performed in differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and functional tests and immunohistochemistry for inflammation-related proteins were performed. We identified 857 DEGs between the sham and normal groups, with the majority of them (88.7%) upregulated in sham group. Predicted pathway analysis revealed that cerebral ischemia activated 10 signaling pathways mainly related to inflammation and cell cycle. IV-MSC attenuated the numbers of dysregulated genes in cerebral ischemia (118 DEGs between the MSC and normal groups). In addition, a total of 218 transcripts were differentially expressed between the MSC and sham groups, and most of them (175/218 DEGs, 80.2%) were downregulated in the MSC group. IV-MSC reduced the number of Iba-1(+) cells in the peri-infarct area, reduced the overall infarct size, and improved functional deficits in MCAo rats. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis revealed that IV-MSC attenuated postischemic genomic alterations in the ischemic brain. Amelioration of dysregulated inflammation- and cell cycle-related gene expression in the host brain is one of the molecular mechanisms of IV-MSC therapy for cerebral ischemia.
Project description:Stroke is one of the main causes of disease‑related mortality worldwide. Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) has been used to protect against stroke and stroke‑induced disability for several years in China. Studies have shown that BHD can relieve neuronal damage in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO‑R) model was used in the present study. The animals were treated with BHD (5, 10 and 20 g/kg) or rapamycin. Infarct size and modified neurological severity score were calculated on day 5 following MCAO‑R surgery. Cellular changes around the ischemic penumbra were revealed by hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining. The protein expression levels of nestin, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), doublecortin on the X chromosome (DCX) and autophagy‑related proteins (beclin 1, LC3‑II and p62) in the peri‑ischemic area of the brain were detected. The results demonstrated that post‑surgical treatment with BHD reduced the brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits in MCAO‑R rats. BHD protected against MCAO‑R‑induced neuronal impairment and promoted neurogenesis, increased the protein expression of nestin, BDNF and DCX and markedly enhanced autophagy by increasing beclin 1 and LC3‑II and decreasing p62. Meanwhile, BHD promoted the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of autophagy. In conclusion, the present study suggested that post‑surgical treatment with BHD could protect rat brains from I/R injury, potentially through the SIRT1/autophagy pathway.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with limited therapeutic options. It is very urgent to find a new target for drug development. Here we found that the blood level of MIF in ischemic stroke patients is upregulated. To figure out the pathological role of MIF in ischemic stroke, both in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. For in vitro studies, primary cortical neuron cultures and adult rat brain endothelial cells (ARBECs) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rodent models were used for in vivo studies. The results show that MIF exerts no direct neuronal toxicity in primary culture but disrupts tight junction in ARBECs. Furthermore, administration of MIF following MCAo shows the deleterious influence on stroke-induced injury by destroying the tight junction of blood-brain barrier and increasing the infarct size. In contrast, administration of MIF antagonist ISO-1 has the profound neuroprotective effect. Our results demonstrate that MIF might be a good drug target for the therapy of stroke.
Project description:Inhibition and deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been suggested to ameliorate infarction in experimental ischemic stroke possibly via vasoactive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. However, it is unknown whether the neuroprotective mechanisms involve alteration of post-ischemic neuronal transmission and neurotrophic signaling. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in adult wild-type mice with the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid (AUDA) post-treatment and in sEH knockout (sEH KO) mice. We found that sensorimotor recovery was significantly enhanced after MCAO in both AUDA-treated and sEH KO mice, with decreased sEH activity and brain infarction. Decreased post-ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) was observed in an ex vivo hippocampal oxygen-glucose deprivation model. Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) activation, rather than glutamate receptor alteration, was consistently found after the different manipulations. Immunohistochemistry further revealed peri-infarct neuronal TrkB activation and microvasculature augmentation in AUDA-treated and sEH KO mice, suggesting parallel neurovascular enhancement. Mechanistically, pretreatment with a selective TrkB antagonist ANA12 countered the effect of iLTP attenuation induced by sEH deletion ex vivo and abolished the infarct reduction in vivo. Together, the neuroprotective effects of sEH inhibition and gene deletion can both be mediated partially via enhancement of TrkB signaling which attenuated post-ischemic neuroexcitation and neurological deficits.
Project description:The present study elucidates the neuroprotective mechanisms of the PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) agonist pioglitazone in survival of ischemic neurons following middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular infusion of pioglitazone over 5 days before and 24 or 48 h after MCAO alleviated neurological impairments, inhibited apoptosis 24 h, and activated the PI3K/Akt pathway along with increased phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) and GSK-3β (ser9) in the peri-infarct cortical areas 48 h after MCAO. In primary cortical neurons, pioglitazone suppressed the glutamate-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase by a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. This protective effect was reversed after co-treatment with PI3K and Akt inhibitors, LY294002 and SH-6, respectively. Pioglitazone enhanced the expression of the antioxidative transcription factor Nrf2 and its target gene protein, heme oxidase-1, in the peri-infarct area. Pioglitazone also increased activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) in neuronal PC12 cells transfected with the pNQO1-rARE plasmid. We demonstrate in primary cortical neurons from Nrf2 knockout mice that the lack of Nrf2 completely abolished the neuroprotective effects of pioglitazone against oxidative and excitotoxic damage. Our results strongly suggest that the neuroprotective effects of PPARγ in peri-infarct brain tissues comprise the concomitant activation of the PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/ARE pathways. KEY MESSAGES: Pioglitazone inhibits apoptosis in ischemic brain tissue. Pioglitazone acting on PPARγ activates PI3K/Akt pathway in ischemic brain tissue. Pioglitazone activates via Nrf2 the antioxidant defense pathway in injured neurons. Pioglitazone activates the antioxidant response element in neuronal PC12 cells. Pioglitazone fails to protect primary neurons lacking Nrf2 against oxidative damage. Activation of PPARγ supports the survival of viable neurons in peri-infarct regions.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Moderate hypobaric hypoxia induces cerebral ischemic tolerance. We investigated the optimal method for applying hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning at 5,000 m to ischemic brain tissue and combined it with proteomics to determine the mechanisms underlying this effect. <b>Methods:</b> Male SD rats were randomly grouped as S (sham, <i>n</i> = 20), M (middle cerebral artery occlusion [MCAO], <i>n</i> = 28), H2M (intermittent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioned MCAO group, 2 h/day, 10 days, <i>n</i> = 20), H6M (intermittent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioned MCAO group, 6 h/day, 10 days, <i>n</i> = 28), and HpM (persistent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioned MCAO group, 10 days, <i>n</i> = 28). The permanent MCAO model was established based on the Zea Longa method. Infarction was assessed with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. The total protein expression of the neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3 (caspase-3), cleaved-caspase-3, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was determined using western blotting. We assessed the peri-infarct cortex's ultrastructural changes. A label-free proteomic study and western blot verification were performed on the most effective preconditioned group. <b>Results:</b> The H6M group showed a lower infarct volume (<i>p</i> = 0.0005), lower mNSS score (<i>p</i> = 0.0009) than the M group. The H2M showed a lower level of IL-6 (<i>p</i> = 0.0213) than the M group. The caspase-3 level decreased in the H2M (<i>p</i> = 0.0002), H6M (<i>p</i> = 0.0025), and HpM groups (<i>p</i> = 0.0054) compared with that in the M group. Cleaved-caspase-3 expression decreased in the H2M (<i>p</i> = 0.0011), H6M (<i>p</i> < 0.0001), and HpM groups (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) compared with that in the M group. The neurons' ultrastructure and the blood-brain barrier in the peri-infarct tissue improved in the H2M and H6M groups. Immunofluorescence revealed increased NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct tissue in the H6M group (<i>p</i> = 0.0003, H6M vs. M). Protein expression of Chmp1a, Arpc5, and Hspa2 factors related to endocytosis were upregulated in the H6M compared with those of the M group (<i>p</i> < 0.05 for all) on western blot verification of label-free proteomics. <b>Conclusions:</b> Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning exerts a neuroprotective effect in a rat stroke model. Persistent hypobaric hypoxia stimulation exhibited no significant neuroprotective effect. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning for 6 h/day for 10 days upregulates key proteins in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of neurons in the cortex.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Animal models are essential to study the pathophysiological changes associated with focal occlusive stroke and to investigate novel therapies. Currently used rodent models have yielded little clinical success, however large animal models may provide a more suitable alternative to improve clinical translation. We sought to develop a model of acute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke in sheep, including both permanent occlusion and transient occlusion with reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 adult male and female Merino sheep were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n?=?6/gp): 1) sham surgery; 2) permanent proximal MCA occlusion (MCAO); or 3) temporary MCAO with aneurysm clip. All animals had invasive arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen monitoring. At 4 h following vessel occlusion or sham surgery animals were killed by perfusion fixation. Brains were processed for histopathological examination and infarct area determination. 6 further animals were randomized to either permanent (n?=?3) or temporary MCAO (n?=?3) and then had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4 h after MCAO. RESULTS: Evidence of ischemic injury in an MCA distribution was seen in all stroke animals. The ischemic lesion area was significantly larger after permanent (28.8%) compared with temporary MCAO (14.6%). Sham animals demonstrated no evidence of ischemic injury. There was a significant reduction in brain tissue oxygen partial pressure after permanent vessel occlusion between 30 and 210 mins after MCAO. MRI at 4 h demonstrated complete proximal MCA occlusion in the permanent MCAO animals with a diffusion deficit involving the whole right MCA territory, whereas temporary MCAO animals demonstrated MRA evidence of flow within the right MCA and smaller predominantly cortical diffusion deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal MCAO can be achieved in an ovine model of stroke via a surgical approach. Permanent occlusion creates larger infarct volumes, however aneurysm clip application allows for reperfusion.
Project description:Ischemic brain injury provokes complex, time-dependent downstream pathways that ultimately lead to cell death. We aimed to demonstrate the levels of a wide range of metabolites in brain lysates and their on-tissue distribution following neonatal stroke and cell therapies. Postnatal day 12 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were administered 1?×?10<sup>5</sup> cells after 48 h. Metabolomic analysis of the injured hemisphere demonstrated that a variety of amino acids were significantly increased and that tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and some related amino acids, such as glutamate, were decreased. With the exception of the changes in citric acid, neither mesenchymal stem/stromal cells nor CD34<sup>+</sup> cells ameliorated these changes. On-tissue visualization with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging revealed that the signal intensity of glutamate was significantly decreased in the infarct area, consistent with the metabolomic analysis, while its intensity was significantly increased in the peri-infarct area after MCAO. Although cell therapies did not ameliorate the changes in metabolites in the infarct area, mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated the increased levels of glutamate and carnitine in the peri-infarct area. MALDI-MS imaging showed the location-specific effect of cell therapies even in this subacute setting after MCAO. These methodologies may be useful for further investigation of possible treatments for ischemic brain injury.