Survival and glycemic control in patients with coexisting melanoma and diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Aim:Given the lack of data in the literature, we examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on melanoma survival and the impact of melanoma on glycemic control. Materials & methods:Patients with melanoma with and without DM were matched 1:1 (2005-2016). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS). Mixed models compared hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucose measures over time. Results:Mean HbA1c during the year after cancer diagnosis was 6.7%. The 5-year PFS rate was 89% (95% CI: 81-99%) for patients with DM and 63% (95% CI: 51-79%) for patients without DM (p = 0.02). Conclusion:Melanoma did not adversely impact glycemic control. The DM did not adversely impact survival of patients with melanoma, although increased PFS for melanoma was seen in individuals with DM.
Project description:To investigate whether poor glycemic control status has a negative impact on survival outcomes and tumor response to chemotherapy in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC).A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine LACC patients undergoing NACT and radical hysterectomy between 2002 and 2011. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic patients with good glycemic control, and diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were used to indicate glycemic control status. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models.In total, 388 patients were included and had a median follow-up time of 39 months (range: 4-67 months). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was diagnosed in 89 (22.9%) patients, only 35 (39.3%) of whom had good glycemic control prior to NACT (HbA1c < 7.0%). In survival analysis, compared with patients with good glycemic control and patients without DM, patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ? 7.0%) exhibited decreased recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, HbA1c ? 7.0% was identified as an independent predictor for decreased RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.33, P < 0.0001), CSS (HR = 3.60, P < 0.0001) and OS (HR = 4.35, P < 0.0001). In the subgroup of diabetic patients, HbA1c ? 7.0% prior to NACT had an independent negative effect on RFS (HR = 2.18, P = 0.044) and OS (HR = 2.29, P = 0.012). When examined as a continuous variable, the HbA1c level was independently associated with decreased RFS (HR = 1.39, P = 0.002), CSS (HR = 1.28, P = 0.021) and OS (HR = 1.27, P = 0.004). Both good (odds ratio [OR] = 0.06, P < 0.0001) and poor glycemic control (OR = 0.04, P < 0.0001) were independently associated with a decreased likelihood of complete response following NACT.Poor glycemic control is an independent predictor of survival and tumor response to chemotherapy for patients receiving NACT for LACC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although more than one-third of the patients with acute heart failure (AHF) have diabetes mellitus (DM), it is unclear if DM has an adverse impact on clinical outcomes. This study compared the outcomes in patients hospitalized for AHF stratified by DM and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS:The Korean Acute Heart Failure registry prospectively enrolled and followed 5625 patients from March 2011 to February 2019. The primary endpoints were in-hospital and overall all-cause mortality. We evaluated the impact of DM on these endpoints according to HF subtypes and glycemic control. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, there were 235 (4.4%) in-hospital mortalities and 2500 (46.3%) overall mortalities. DM was significantly associated with increased overall mortality after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.22). In the subgroup analysis, DM was associated with higher a risk of overall mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) only (adjusted HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). Inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c???7.0% within 1 year after discharge) was significantly associated with a higher risk of overall mortality compared with adequate glycemic control (HbA1c?<?7.0%) (44.0% vs. 36.8%, log-rank p?=?0.016). CONCLUSIONS:DM is associated with a higher risk of overall mortality in AHF, especially HFrEF. Well-controlled diabetes (HbA1c?<?7.0%) is associated with a lower risk of overall mortality compared to uncontrolled diabetes. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01389843. Registered July 6, 2011. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01389843.
Project description:To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM) on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level: a no-DM (DM-) group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC) group (HbA1c <6.5%); and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC) group (HbA1c ≥6.5%). For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC) group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5%) and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC) group (HbA1c ≥7.5%).Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7%) had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7%) had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD) (P = 0.037) and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031) among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001) and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016) also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001) but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376). However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048).Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.
Project description:AIM:To assess how hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values might change following the diagnosis of the first complication from diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS:Using a nationwide, longitudinal managed care network claims database (2001-2011), we identified patients with DM who experienced an initial diabetes-related complication. A paired t-test was used to compare average HbA1c levels before the initial complication was first diagnosed to average HbA1c levels following the diagnosis of the complication. RESULTS:518 enrollees met study inclusion criteria. Patients with suboptimally controlled DM (defined as HbA1c>7% (53 mmol/mol)) prior to the diagnosis of their first diabetic complication demonstrated a clinically significant reduction in average HbA1c following the diagnosis of their first complication (mean pre-complication HbA1c=8.5 ± 1.5% (69 ± 17 mmol/mol) vs. mean post-complication HbA1c=7.9 ± 1.7% (63 ± 18 mmol/mol) (p<0.0001)). CONCLUSION:Enrollees with suboptimally controlled DM may achieve better glycemic control following the diagnosis of a complication from DM. The results from this study, if confirmed in prospective studies, may provide a rationale for the earlier detection of complications from DM to facilitate improved glycemic control among patients with DM.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations.To evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients.Between January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. An equal number of non-DM patients with similar demographics was included as the control group. Glycemic status was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and a cutoff of 8% was used to further investigate radiological features of diabetic PTB. Two radiologists and one pulmonologist reviewed the chest images independently.Compared with non-DM patients, primary PTB pattern and extensive disease on CXRs as well as primary PTB pattern, large non-cavitary nodule, more than one cavity in a single lesion, unusual location, and all lobe involvement of lesions on thoracic CT scans were more common in DM patients. Furthermore, diabetics with HbA1c > 8% were more likely to exhibit unusual findings (P < 0.001), far advanced extensive lesions (P < 0.001) on CXRs, lymphadenopathy (P = 0.028), more than one cavity in a single lesion (P < 0.001) and all lobe involvement (P = 0.041) on thoracic CT scans.Glycemic status influenced radiological manifestations of diabetic PTB. Given an increased risk of atypical radiological presentations of PTB in DM patients, physicians should be alert and pay more attention to those with poor glycemic control.
Project description:In the present study, the aim was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and measures of glycemic control including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in adult patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) from the north of Jordan. Another aim was to compare serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D between patients with good glycemic control and patients with uncontrolled DM. This was a cross-sectional study that included 261 participants with DM. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, HbA1c was measured using turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay and FBG was measured using the hexokinase method. Data regarding other clinical variables were obtained from medical records or by self-reporting. Participants with good glycemic control exhibited significantly higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared with participants with uncontrolled DM (P=0.03). Participants with sufficient vitamin D status (>30 ng/ml in serum) exhibited significantly lower HbA1c level compared with participants with deficient vitamin D (<20 ng/ml) status (P=0.02). Correlation analysis determined significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and HbA1c and FBG levels (r=-0.23 and -0.17, respectively, both P<0.01). There were also significant correlations between duration of DM and HbA1c and FBG levels (both r=0.21, P<0.01). HbA1c level was also inversely correlated with participants' age (r=-0.19, P<0.01). Further multiple linear regression analysis revealed an inverse significant association between HbA1c and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (F=12.95, R2=0.48, P<0.01) but did not identify a similar association between FBG and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These findings may encourage further research to identify if vitamin D supplementation may improve measures of glycemic control, and how vitamin D may affect glucose homeostasis in patients with DM.
Project description:There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital.In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA1C?7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1c<7%). Patients were started on anti-TB treatment and followed for 2 years for severity and treatment outcome. ANOVA was used for numerical variables in the univariable analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis of treatment outcome. The significance level was kept at a P?0.05.A total of 630 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed; of which 423 patients had poor glycemic control (PGC) and 207 patients had optimal glycemic control (OGC). The average HbA1c was 10±2.6 and 5±1.50 in the PGC and OGC groups, respectively. The mean symptom score was significantly higher in the PGC group compared with patients in the OGC group (4.55±0.80 vs. 2.70±0.82, P<0.001). PGC was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation, and positive sputum smear at the baseline. In PGC, sputum smears were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. PGC patients had significantly higher rates of treatment failure (adj. OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P<0.001) and relapse (adj. OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.60-2.92, P<0.001).Poor glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of advanced and more severe TB disease in the form of lung cavitations, positive sputum smear, and slower smear conversion. It has a profound negative effect on treatment completion, cure, and relapse rates in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
Project description:Previous studies reported an association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with TB susceptibility. Many studies were retrospective, had weak diagnostic criteria for DM, and did not assess other comorbidities. The Effects of Diabetes on Tuberculosis Severity (EDOTS) study is addressing these limitations with a longitudinal comparison of patients with TB who are classified as diabetic or normoglycemic according to World Health Organization criteria. We report interim findings after enrolling 159 of a planned 300 subjects.A cohort study of patients with TB in South India with DM or normoglycemia defined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fasting glucose. Glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, lipids, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured at enrollment. Patients were monitored monthly during TB treatment, and HbA1c measurement was repeated after 3 months.Of 209 eligible patients, 113 (54.1%) were classified as diabetic, 44 (21.0%) with impaired glucose tolerance, and 52 (24.9%) as normoglycemic. More patients with diabetes were detected by OGTT than by HbA1c. Diabetes was a newly received diagnosis for 37 (32.7%) in the DM group, and their median HbA1c (6.8%) was significantly lower than in those with previously diagnosed DM (HbA1c, 10.4%). Among 129 patients monitored for 3 months, HbA1c declined in all groups, with the greatest difference in patients with a newly received diagnosis of DM.Early EDOTS study results reveal a strikingly high prevalence of glycemic disorders in South Indian patients with pulmonary TB and unexpected heterogeneity within the patient population with diabetes and TB. This glycemic control heterogeneity has implications for the TB-DM interaction and the interpretation of TB studies relying exclusively on HbA1c to define diabetic status.
Project description:Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices.
Project description:Although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the best dialysis modality in end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes, results were inconsistent and varied with the baseline characteristics of patients. Furthermore, none of the previous studies on diabetic dialysis patients accounted for the impact of glycemic control. We explored whether glycemic control had modifying effect on mortality between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in incident dialysis patients with diabetes. A total of 902 diabetic patients who started dialysis between August 2008 and December 2013 were included from a nationwide prospective cohort in Korea. Based on the interaction analysis between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and dialysis modalities for patient survival (P for interaction?=?0.004), subjects were stratified into good and poor glycemic control groups (HbA1c< or ?8.0%). Differences in survival rates according to dialysis modalities were ascertained in each glycemic control group after propensity score matching. During a median follow-up duration of 28 months, the relative risk of death was significantly lower in PD compared with HD in the whole cohort and unmatched patients (whole cohort, hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47-0.90, P?=?0.01; patients with available HbA1c [n?=?773], HR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.46-0.91, P?=?0.01). In the good glycemic control group, there was a significant survival advantage of PD (HbA1c <8.0%, HR?=?0.59, 95% CI?=?0.37-0.94, P?=?0.03). However, there was no significant difference in survival rates between PD and HD in the poor glycemic control group (HbA1c ?8.0%, HR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?0.46-2.76, P?=?0.80). This study demonstrated that the degree of glycemic control modified the mortality risk between dialysis modalities, suggesting that glycemic control might partly contribute to better survival of PD in incident dialysis patients with diabetes.