Gendered perceptions of fairness in housework and shared expenses: Implications for relationship satisfaction and sex frequency.
ABSTRACT: There is a demonstrated relationship between couples' division of household chores-and, to a lesser extent, the division of shared expenses-and their relationship quality. Less is known, however, about whether and how individuals' perceived fairness of these arrangements is associated with couples' relationships in different ways. Using a gendered equity framework, and drawing on 10,236 responses collected via an online national news website, this study examines how equity evaluations of housework and shared expenses are related to relationship satisfaction and sex frequency among different-gender household partners. Consistent with previous findings, the results indicate that evaluations of unfairness to oneself are a stronger predictor of relationship quality than perceived unfairness to one's partner. Additionally, fairness evaluations over shared expenses are a stronger predictor of relationship quality than perceived equity in housework. Incorporating notions about traditional gender norms and expectations into the justice framework, the results point to some variation in relationship outcomes based on men's and women's differential equity evaluations.
Project description:Married women often undertake a larger share of housework in many countries and yet they do not always perceive the inequitable division of household labor to be "unfair." Several theories have been proposed to explain the pervasive perception of fairness that is incongruent with the observed inequity in household tasks. These theories include 1) economic resource theory, 2) time constraint theory, 3) gender value theory, and 4) relative deprivation theory. This paper re-examines these theories with newly available data collected on Japanese married women in 2014 in order to achieve a new understanding of the gendered nature of housework. It finds that social comparison with others is a key mechanism that explains women's perception of fairness. The finding is compatible with relative deprivation theory. In addition to confirming the validity of the theory of relative deprivation, it further uncovers that a woman's reference groups tend to be people with similar life circumstances rather than non-specific others. The perceived fairness is also found to contribute to the sense of overall happiness. The significant contribution of this paper is to explicate how this seeming contradiction of inequity in the division of housework and the perception of fairness endures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs.<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8%) were females and 198 (40.2%) were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had 'good' or 'very good' access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA). With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001), 6.0%(p<0.01), 100.0% (p<0.001), 9.0% (p<0.05) and 6.0% (p<0.05) respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, perceived financial fairness, transportation convenience and satisfaction with services were correlates of perceived access and affected healthcare performance. Interventions targeted at improving access to HIV/AIDS treatment and care services should address these factors. Further studies may be needed to confirm the findings.
Project description:Background: One of the fundamental objectives of the basic medical security system is to provide institutional guarantees for the appropriate medical needs of different groups. Among them, achieving fairness of benefits is the first principle of the system. This study aims to explore the benefit equity of preventive health care for different groups and the specific path to promote fairness. Methods: Based on the 2015 CHNS survey data, through the theory construction of benefit fairness in the basic medical insurance and using the two-stage IV-Heckman model, the paper analyzes the benefit fairness of the basic medical insurance in urban and rural China. Results: This study indicates that (1) the results of empirical and theoretical models are not consistent with the sample of the insured population. (2) As private medical insurance and medical assistance are restricted in the model, the reimbursement ratio of medical insurance in other income groups is all higher than the highest one. However, the coefficient is getting larger, with the lowest income group having the largest coefficient. After controlling for variables of disease and severity, the results suggest that the main impact path is hospitalization costs. (3) Taking the highest income group as a reference, the compensation proportion of preventive health care in other groups is higher, respectively, than the reference group, while the groups below middle income have a significant relationship with compensation for preventive health care. Conclusions: Supplementary private medical insurance and medical assistance have important protection functions for low- and middle-income populations. However, owing to the actual income threshold, the two groups cannot benefit from the medical security system. This result is still valid in the field of preventive health care. The increase of preventive health care expenditure reduces the cost of individual hospitalization, but the high-income group has emerged with more preventive health care expenditures, creating new unfairness.
Project description:This study investigated the moderating role of household registration in the relationship between housework division and second-child fertility anxiety among Chinese couples of childbearing ages. Multilevel cluster sampling was used to select 1834 respondents aged 20-45 years from Jilin Province in China between 2016 and 2017. A sample of 542 adults who were married and had only one child was included in the final analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the proposed hypothesis. The results showed that the association between housework division and second-child fertility anxiety was significant in rural areas. However, the above association was not significant in urban areas. Household registration status was found to have a moderating effect on the relationship between housework division and second-child fertility anxiety. Differences in gender and fertility ideology have led to different housework divisions in urban and rural areas, which in turn have led to different effects on the second-child fertility anxiety of couples of childbearing ages in these areas.
Project description:Humans have evolved strong preferences for equity and fairness. Neuroimaging studies suggest that punishing unfairness is associated with the activation of a neural network comprising the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, the ventral striatum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here, we report the neuronal correlates of retribution and "forgiveness" in a scenario, in which individuals first acted as a recipient in an Ultimatum Game, and subsequently assumed the position of a proposer in a Dictator Game played against the same opponents as in the Ultimatum Game. Most subjects responded in a tit-for-tat fashion, which was accompanied by activation of the ventral striatum, corroborating previous findings that punishing unfair behaviour has a rewarding connotation. Subjects distinguished between the human opponent and computer condition by activation of the ventromedial PFC in the human condition, indicative of mentalising. A substantial number of subjects did not retaliate. Neurally, this "forgiveness" behaviour was associated with the activation of the right (and to a lesser degree left) DLPFC, a region that serves as a cognitive control region and thus may be involved in inhibiting emotional responses against unfairness.
Project description:The transition to parenthood (TTP) is a stressful life event for most couples. Therefore, the way both partners jointly cope with stress (i.e., dyadic coping) is important for the prevention of individual adjustment problems (e.g., depression). For dyadic coping to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, efforts of both partners should be equal. However, many couples experience a decrease of equity in task division within the domestic sphere across the TTP. The current study investigates the equity of a specific skill within the 'relationship sphere', because similarly to a decreased equity in household and childcare, a decreased equity of dyadic coping is likely to be associated with poorer individual adjustment. We collected longitudinal self-report data on dyadic coping and depressive symptoms from 104 mixed-gender first-time parents (n = 208 individuals) from pregnancy until 40 weeks postpartum. We created an equity score for men and women that measured their perceived difference between received and provided dyadic coping. On average, women reported providing more and receiving less dyadic coping than men. While both genders agreed on this distribution, men did perceive a higher equity of dyadic coping than women. Furthermore, the decrease of equity perceived by women across TTP was not visible in men. In line with our assumptions based on the equity theory, perceived equity of dyadic coping was associated with depressive symptoms in a curvilinear manner: Decreases in women's perceived equity in either direction (over- or underbenefit) were associated with more depressive symptoms in women and their male partners. This association was found above and beyond the beneficial effect of dyadic coping itself. This implies that not only how well partners support each other in times of stress, but also how equal both partners' efforts are, is important for their individual adjustment across TTP.
Project description:Decades of research have demonstrated that we like people who are more similar to us. The present research tested a potential mechanism for this similarity-liking effect in the domain of politics: the stereotype that people's political orientation reflects their morals. People believe that Democrats are more likely to endorse individualizing morals like fairness and Republicans are more likely to endorse binding morals like obedience to authority. Prior to the 2016 election, American participants (N = 314) viewed an ostensible Facebook profile that shared an article endorsing conservative ideals (pro-Trump or pro-Republican), or liberal ideals (pro-Clinton or pro-Democrat). Participants rated the favorability of the profile-owner, and completed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire for the profile-owner and themselves. As predicted, participants liked the profile-owner more when they shared political beliefs, and used political stereotypes to infer the moral foundations of the profile-owner. Additionally, the perceived moral foundation endorsement of the profile owner differentially mediated the relationship between the ideology and evaluations of the profile owner based on the party affiliation of the participant: perceived individualizing foundations mediated the relationship for Democratic participants and perceived binding foundations mediated the relationship for Republican participants. In other words, people liked their in-group members more because they thought that the profile-owner endorsed a specific type of morals. In Study 2 (N = 486), we ruled out the potential explanation that any political stereotype can account for the similarity-liking effect, replicating the results of Study 1 even when controlling for perceptions of other personality differences. Taken together, these studies highlight that there may be something unique about the perceived type of morality of political in-group and out-group members that may be contributing to the similarity-liking effect in politics.
Project description:Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.
Project description:Human beings often curb self-interest to develop and enforce social norms, such as fairness, as exemplified in the ultimatum game (UG). Inspired by the dual-system account for the responder's choice during the UG, we investigated whether the neural basis of psychological process induced by fairness is under genetic control using a twin fMRI study (62 monozygotic, 48 dizygotic; mean age: 19.32?±?1.38 years). We found a moderate genetic contribution to the rejection rate of unfair proposals (24%-35%), independent of stake size or proposer type, during the UG. Using a voxel-level analysis, we found that genetic factors moderately contributed to unfairness-evoked activation in the bilateral anterior insula (AI), regions representing the intuition of fairness norm violations (mean heritability: left 37%, right 40%). No genetic contributions were found in regions related to deliberate, controlled processes in the UG. This study provides the first evidence that evoked brain activity by unfairness in the bilateral AI is influenced by genes and sheds light on the genetic basis of brain processes underlying costly punishment.
Project description:Institution-centered accounts of generalized trust rely on the idea that law-breaking and state's unfairness lower individuals' propensity to trust fellow citizens because of a weaker confidence in the state. Despite the theoretical relevance attributed to this mediation mechanism, no empirical analysis in the literature has focused on examining its correlational validity. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), the Quality of Government EU Regional data, and EUROSTAT, this paper assesses the intervening role of institutional trust on the relationship between crime rates, state's fairness, and generalized trust. Results from a Multilevel SEM (MSEM) mediation analysis indicate that trust in institutions strongly mediates the relationship between violent crimes (i.e. homicide) and generalized trust but not the one between property crimes (i.e. vehicle thefts and robberies) and generalized trust. On the other hand, indicators of fairness (i.e. impartiality and corruption) are all mediated by institutional trust, though impartiality maintains a significant direct effect. Overall, findings support the institutional approach, confirming that the negative relationship between ineffective and unfair institutions and generalized trust passes mostly through people's lost faith in the state.