Bcd1p controls RNA loading of the core protein Nop58 during C/D box snoRNP biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Biogenesis of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (C/D snoRNPs) is guided by conserved trans-acting factors that act collectively to assemble the core proteins SNU13/Snu13, NOP58/Nop58, NOP56/Nop56, FBL/Nop1, and box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (C/D snoRNAs), in human and in yeast, respectively. This finely elaborated process involves the sequential interplay of snoRNP-related proteins and RNA through the formation of transient pre-RNP complexes. BCD1/Bcd1 protein is essential for yeast cell growth and for the specific accumulation of box C/D snoRNAs. In this work, chromatin, RNA, and protein immunoprecipitation assays revealed the ordered loading of several snoRNP-related proteins on immature and mature snoRNA species. Our results identify Bcd1p as an assembly factor of C/D snoRNP biogenesis that is likely recruited cotranscriptionally and that directs the loading of the core protein Nop58 on RNA.
Project description:Posttranslational SUMO modification is an important mechanism of regulating protein function, especially in the cell nucleus. The nucleolus is the subnuclear organelle responsible for rRNA synthesis, processing, and assembly of the large and small ribosome subunits. Here, we have used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to identify nucleolar SUMOylated proteins. This reveals a role for SUMOylation in the biogenesis and/or function of small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complexes (snoRNPs) via the targeting of Nhp2 and Nop58. Using combined in vitro and in vivo approaches, both Nhp2 and Nop58 (also known as Nop5) are shown to be substrates for SUMOylation. Mutational analyses revealed the sites of modification on Nhp2 as K5, and on Nop58 as K467 and K497. Unlike Nop58 and Nhp2, the closely related Nop56 and 15.5K proteins appear not to be SUMO targets. SUMOylation is essential for high-affinity Nop58 binding to snoRNAs. This study provides direct evidence linking SUMO modification with snoRNP function.
Project description:Biogenesis of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (C/D snoRNPs) involves conserved trans-acting factors, which are proposed to facilitate the assembly of the core proteins Snu13p/15.5K, Nop58p/NOP58, Nop56p/NOP56 and Nop1p/Fibrillarin on box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (C/D snoRNAs). In yeast, protein Rsa1 acts as a platform, interacting with both the RNA-binding core protein Snu13 and protein Pih1 of the Hsp82-R2TP chaperone complex. In this work, a proteomic approach coupled with functional and structural studies identifies protein Hit1 as a novel Rsa1p-interacting partner involved in C/D snoRNP assembly. Hit1p contributes to in vivo C/D snoRNA stability and pre-RNA maturation kinetics. It associates with U3 snoRNA precursors and influences its 3'-end processing. Remarkably, Hit1p is required to maintain steady-state levels of Rsa1p. This stabilizing activity is likely to be general across eukaryotic species, as the human protein ZNHIT3(TRIP3) showing sequence homology with Hit1p regulates the abundance of NUFIP1, the Rsa1p functional homolog. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the Rsa1p317-352-Hit1p70-164 complex reveals a novel mode of protein-protein association explaining the strong stability of the Rsa1p-Hit1p complex. Our biochemical data show that C/D snoRNAs and the core protein Nop58 can interact with the purified Snu13p-Rsa1p-Hit1p heterotrimer.
Project description:The U3 box C/D snoRNA is one key element of 90S pre-ribosome. It contains a 5΄ domain pairing with pre-rRNA and the U3B/C and U3C΄/D motifs for U3 packaging into a unique small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP). The RNA-binding protein Snu13/SNU13 nucleates on U3B/C the assembly of box C/D proteins Nop1p/FBL and Nop56p/NOP56, and the U3-specific protein Rrp9p/U3-55K. Snu13p/SNU13 has a much lower affinity for U3C΄/D but nevertheless forms on this motif an RNP with box C/D proteins Nop1p/FBL and Nop58p/NOP58. In this study, we characterized the influence of the RNP assembly protein Rsa1 in the early steps of U3 snoRNP biogenesis in yeast and we propose a refined model of U3 snoRNP biogenesis. While recombinant Snu13p enhances the binding of Rrp9p to U3B/C, we observed that Rsa1p has no effect on this activity but forms with Snu13p and Rrp9p a U3B/C pre-RNP. In contrast, we found that Rsa1p enhances Snu13p binding on U3C΄/D. RNA footprinting experiments indicate that this positive effect most likely occurs by direct contacts of Rsa1p with the U3 snoRNA 5΄ domain. In light of the recent U3 snoRNP cryo-EM structures, our data suggest that Rsa1p has a dual role by also preventing formation of a pre-mature functional U3 RNP.
2017-01-01 | S-EPMC5499572 | BioStudies
Project description:SUMOylation plays a crucial role in regulating diverse cellular processes including ribosome biogenesis. Proteomic analyses and experimental evidence showed that a number of nucleolar proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis are modified by SUMO. However, how these proteins are SUMOylated in cells is less understood. Here, we report that USP36, a nucleolar deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), promotes nucleolar SUMOylation. Overexpression of USP36 enhances nucleolar SUMOylation, whereas its knockdown or genetic deletion reduces the levels of SUMOylation. USP36 interacts with SUMO2 and Ubc9 and directly mediates SUMOylation in cells and in vitro. We show that USP36 promotes the SUMOylation of the small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) components Nop58 and Nhp2 in cells and in vitro and their binding to snoRNAs. It also promotes the SUMOylation of snoRNP components Nop56 and DKC1. Functionally, we show that knockdown of USP36 markedly impairs rRNA processing and translation. Thus, USP36 promotes snoRNP group SUMOylation and is critical for ribosome biogenesis and protein translation.
Project description:2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (r)RNA, essential for ribosome function, is catalysed by box C/D small nucleolar (sno)RNPs. The RNA components of these complexes (snoRNAs) contain one or two guide sequences, which, through base-pairing, select the rRNA modification site. Adjacent to the guide sequences are protein-binding sites (the C/D or C'/D' motifs). Analysis of >2000 yeast box C/D snoRNAs identified additional conserved sequences in many snoRNAs that are complementary to regions adjacent to the rRNA methylation site. This 'extra base-pairing' was also found in many human box C/D snoRNAs and can stimulate methylation by up to five-fold. Sequence analysis, combined with RNA-protein crosslinking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, identified highly divergent box C'/D' motifs that are bound by snoRNP proteins. In vivo rRNA methylation assays showed these to be active. Our data suggest roles for non-catalytic subunits (Nop56 and Nop58) in rRNA binding and support an asymmetric model for box C/D snoRNP organization. The study provides novel insights into the extent of the snoRNA-rRNA interactions required for efficient methylation and the structural organization of the snoRNPs.
Project description:In vitro, assembly of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs) involves the sequential recruitment of core proteins to snoRNAs. In vivo, however, assembly factors are required (NUFIP, BCD1, and the HSP90-R2TP complex), and it is unknown whether a similar sequential scheme applies. In this paper, we describe systematic quantitative stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture proteomic experiments and the crystal structure of the core protein Snu13p/15.5K bound to a fragment of the assembly factor Rsa1p/NUFIP. This revealed several unexpected features: (a) the existence of a protein-only pre-snoRNP complex containing five assembly factors and two core proteins, 15.5K and Nop58; (b) the characterization of ZNHIT3, which is present in the protein-only complex but gets released upon binding to C/D snoRNAs; (c) the dynamics of the R2TP complex, which appears to load/unload RuvBL AAA(+) adenosine triphosphatase from pre-snoRNPs; and (d) a potential mechanism for preventing premature activation of snoRNP catalytic activity. These data provide a framework for understanding the assembly of box C/D snoRNPs.
Project description:Most eukaryotic C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide 2'-O methylation (Nm) on rRNA and are also involved in rRNA processing. The four core proteins that bind C/D snoRNA in Trypanosoma brucei are fibrillarin (NOP1), NOP56, NOP58, and SNU13. Silencing of NOP1 by RNA interference identified rRNA-processing and modification defects that caused lethality. Systematic mapping of 2'-O-methyls on rRNA revealed the existence of hypermethylation at certain positions of the rRNA in the bloodstream form of the parasites, suggesting that this modification may assist the parasites in coping with the major temperature changes during cycling between their insect and mammalian hosts. The rRNA-processing defects of NOP1-depleted cells suggest the involvement of C/D snoRNA in trypanosome-specific rRNA-processing events to generate the small rRNA fragments. MRP RNA, which is involved in rRNA processing, was identified in this study in one of the snoRNA gene clusters, suggesting that trypanosomes utilize a combination of unique C/D snoRNAs and conserved snoRNAs for rRNA processing.
Project description:The box C/D small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) are essential for the processing and modification of rRNA. The core box C/D proteins are restructured during human U3 box C/D snoRNP biogenesis; however, the molecular basis of this is unclear. Here we show that the U8 snoRNP is also restructured, suggesting that this may occur with all box C/D snoRNPs. We have characterized four novel human biogenesis factors (BCD1, NOP17, NUFIP, and TAF9) which, along with the ATPases TIP48 and TIP49, are likely to be involved in the formation of the pre-snoRNP. We have analyzed the in vitro protein-protein interactions between the assembly factors and core box C/D proteins. Surprisingly, this revealed few interactions between the individual core box C/D proteins. However, the novel biogenesis factors and TIP48 and TIP49 interacted with one or more of the core box C/D proteins, implying that they mediate the assembly of the pre-snoRNP. Consistent with this, we show that NUFIP bridges interactions between the core box C/D proteins in a partially reconstituted pre-snoRNP. Restructuring of the core complex probably reflects the conversion of the pre-snoRNP, where core protein-protein interactions are maintained by the bridging biogenesis factors, to the mature snoRNP.
Project description:The U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) plays an essential role in ribosome biogenesis but, like many RNA-protein complexes, its architecture is poorly understood. To address this problem, binding sites for the snoRNP proteins Nop1, Nop56, Nop58, and Rrp9 were mapped by UV cross-linking and analysis of cDNAs. Cross-linked protein-RNA complexes were purified under highly-denaturing conditions, ensuring that only direct interactions were detected. Recovered RNA fragments were amplified after linker ligation and cDNA synthesis. Cross-linking was successfully performed either in vitro on purified complexes or in vivo in living cells. Cross-linking sites were precisely mapped either by Sanger sequencing of multiple cloned fragments or direct, high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Analysis of RNAs associated with the snoRNP proteins revealed remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios and identified specific binding sites for each of these proteins on the U3 RNA. The results were consistent with previous data, demonstrating the reliability of the method, but also provided insights into the architecture of the U3 snoRNP. The snoRNP proteins were also cross-linked to pre-rRNA fragments, with preferential association at known sites of box C/D snoRNA function. This finding demonstrates that the snoRNP proteins directly contact the pre-rRNA substrate, suggesting roles in snoRNA recruitment. The techniques reported here should be widely applicable to analyses of RNA-protein interactions.
Project description:Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are among the first discovered and most extensively studied group of small non-coding RNA. However, most studies focused on a small subset of snoRNAs that guide the modification of ribosomal RNA. In this study, we annotated the expression pattern of all box C/D snoRNAs in normal and cancer cell lines independent of their functions. The results indicate that C/D snoRNAs are expressed as two distinct forms differing in their ends with respect to boxes C and D and in their terminal stem length. Both forms are overexpressed in cancer cell lines but display a conserved end distribution. Surprisingly, the long forms are more dependent than the short forms on the expression of the core snoRNP protein NOP58, thought to be essential for C/D snoRNA production. In contrast, a subset of short forms are dependent on the splicing factor RBFOX2. Analysis of the potential secondary structure of both forms indicates that the k-turn motif required for binding of NOP58 is less stable in short forms which are thus less likely to mature into a canonical snoRNP. Taken together the data suggest that C/D snoRNAs are divided into at least two groups with distinct maturation and functional preferences.