Afatinib in patients with metastatic or recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers: a retrospective international multicentre study.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:HER2 mutations occur in 1-3% of lung adenocarcinomas. With increasing use of next-generation sequencing at diagnosis, more patients with HER2-mutant tumours present for treatment. Few data are available to describe the clinical course and outcomes of these patients when treated with afatinib, a pan-HER inhibitor. METHODS:We identified patients with metastatic or recurrent HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas treated with afatinib among seven institutions across Europe, Australia, and North America between 2009 and 2017. We determined the partial response rate to afatinib, types of HER2 mutations, duration of response, time on treatment, and survival. RESULTS:We collected information on 27 patients with stage IV or recurrent HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas treated with afatinib. Of 23 patients evaluable for response, three partial responses were noted (13%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4-33%). In addition, 57% of patients (13/23) had stable disease, and 30% (7/23) had progressive disease. We documented partial responses in patients with HER2 exon 20 insertions, including two with YVMA insertion and one with VAG insertion. Two patients with partial responses were previously treated with trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Median duration of response to afatinib was 6 months (range 5-10); median time on treatment was 3 months (range 1-30) and median overall survival from the date of diagnosis of metastatic or recurrent disease was 23 months (95% CI 18-53 months). CONCLUSIONS:Afatinib is modestly active in patients with HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, including responses after progression on prior HER2-targeted therapies. However, investigations into the biology of HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and development of better HER2-directed therapies are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HER2 mutation is found in 1%-2% of lung cancer patients. Studies comparing chemotherapy to HER2-TKIs are limited. This study aimed to investigate the molecular and clinical patterns of HER2 mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and compare the different outcomes between chemotherapy and HER2-TKIs. METHODS:Advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer patients with de novo HER2 mutations (N =?75) were included in this study. Molecular information, clinical features, and treatment outcomes were retrospectively collected from a web-based patient registry and hospital chart review. RESULTS:Between October 2012 and December 2018, 65 patients with in-frame insertion mutations, eight with point mutations and two with gene amplification were found. The most common subtypes of insertion mutations were A775_G776insYVMA, G776delinsVC, and V777_G778insGSP. HER2 mutated patients were mostly young-aged, females, never or light smokers, with adenocarcinoma. Chemotherapy achieved better outcomes than HER2-TKIs (median PFS: 5.5 vs. 3.7?months in the first-line setting and 4.2 vs. 2.0?months in the second-line setting, P =?0.001 and 0.031, respectively). In particular for the most common subtype, YVMA insertions, PFS was significantly longer in chemotherapy than HER2-TKIs both in the first-line (6.0 vs. 2.6?months, P =?0.008) and the second-line (4.2 vs. 2.6?months P <?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:HER2 mutated lung cancer patients were younger, mostly females, never or light smokers, with histologically diagnosed adenocarcinomas. Compared with afatinib, chemotherapy might bring more benefit to HER2 mutated advanced lung cancer patients, especially the most common type of HER2 exon 20 insertions, A775_G776insYVMA subtype. KEY POINTS:Chemotherapy achieved better outcomes than afatinib for Chinese HER2 mutated advanced NSCLC patients, especially for the most common subtype, YVMA insertions.
Project description:EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers eventually become resistant to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). The combination of EGFR-TKI afatinib and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab can overcome acquired resistance in mouse models and human patients. Because afatinib is also a potent HER2 inhibitor, we investigated the role of HER2 in EGFR-mutant tumor cells. We show in vitro and in vivo that afatinib plus cetuximab significantly inhibits HER2 phosphorylation. HER2 overexpression or knockdown confers resistance or sensitivity, respectively, in all studied cell line models. FISH analysis revealed that HER2 was amplified in 12% of tumors with acquired resistance versus only 1% of untreated lung adenocarcinomas. Notably, HER2 amplification and EGFR(T790M) were mutually exclusive. Collectively, these results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs and provide a rationale to assess the status and possibly target HER2 in EGFR-mutant tumors with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
Project description:Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) mutations in lung cancers are oncogenic drivers that respond to HER2 targeted therapies. Little is known about the sensitivity of subtypes of HER2 mutant lung cancers to targeted agents. We present a patient with HER2 mutant lung cancer with a 12 base pair insertion YVMA (p.A775_G776insYVMA), who had a long natural history and durable partial response to afatinib. We demonstrate that afatinib has activity in patients with HER2 mutant lung cancers with exon 20 YVMA insertions, the most common variant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n =?86; cohort B, n =?32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n =?14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n =?10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n =?8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION:G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.
Project description:Genomic aberrations involving the erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (ERBB2) are driver oncogenes in approximately 2% of lung adenocarcinomas. However, the use of daily dosing of ERBB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)-including afatinib-has been fraught with plasma concentrations that barely achieve preclinical model inhibition, significant patient-reported toxicities, and limited clinical activity. We hypothesized that alternative dosing strategies could improve tolerability and efficacy.We profiled lung cancer cell lines against TKIs and retrospectively evaluated the toxicity of and response to pulse afatinib (280 mg once weekly) in lung cancers with ERBB2 mutations.An ERBB2 exon 20 insertion-mutated lung cancer cell line had a 50% inhibitory concentration in response to afatinib that was higher than the reported plasma concentration of afatinib, 40 mg daily. Three patients with advanced ERBB2-mutated lung adenocarcinomas were treated with off-label pulse afatinib. The 280-mg weekly dose was well tolerated with no reported rash and minimal diarrhea. One TKI-naive patient achieved a partial response for 5 months and another achieved stable disease for 11 months.Pulse afatinib at a weekly dosing scheme induced antitumor activity in ERBB2 exon 20 insertion-mutated lung adenocarcinomas. Future clinical trials of alternative dosing schemes of ERBB TKIs as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies are warranted for ERBB2-mutated tumors.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are associated with favorable response in EGFR mutant lung cancer. Acquired resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs remains a significant barrier, and acquired EGFR T790M-mutation is the major mechanism. Second-generation irreversible EGFR TKI, afatinib, had also been approved for treating EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, but the mechanism of acquired resistance to afatinib has not been well studied.Forty-two patients had tissue specimens taken after acquiring resistance to afatinib. The sensitizing EGFR mutation were all consistent between pre- and post-afatinib tissues. Twenty patients (47.6%) had acquired T790M mutation. T790M rate was not different between first-generation EGFR TKI-naïve patients (50%) and first-generation EGFR TKI-treated patients (46.4%) (p = 0.827). No clinical characteristics or EGFR mutation types were associated with the development of acquired T790M. No other second-site EGFR mutations were detected. There were no small cell or squamous cell lung cancer transformation. Other genetic mutations were not identified in PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2.Afatinib-prescription record of our department of pharmacy from January 2007 and December 2014 was retrieved. We investigated patients with tissue specimens available after acquiring resistance to afatinib. Enrolled patients should have partial response or durable stable disease of treatment response to afatinib. Various mechanisms of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR TKIs were evaluated. Histology and cytology were reviewed. EGFR, PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2 genetic alterations were evaluated by sequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method.T790M was detected in half of the lung adenocarcinoma after acquiring resistance to afatinib. T790M is still the major acquired resistance mechanism. First-generation EGFR TKI exposure did not influence the prevalence of T790M in lung cancer acquired resistance to afatinib.
Project description:HER2 mutation has been found to be an oncogenic driver gene in non-small cell lung cancers(NSCLC) and HER2-directed therapies have shown promising results in this unique population, while little is known about its association with outcomes of chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of first line chemotherapy in patients with advanced HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.Patients with advanced NSCLC(N?=?1714) initially underwent testing for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF mutations and ALK, ROS1 rearrangements, and negative cases were then assessed for HER2 mutations using the method of amplification refractory mutation system(ARMS). The efficacy of first line pemetrexed-based chemotherapy was investigated in patients with HER2-mutant and those with EGFR-mutant, ALK/ROS1-rearranged and KRAS-mutant advanced adenocarcinomas.HER2 mutations were detected in 29 of 572(5.1%) specimens from a selected population of EGFR/KRAS/BRAF/ALK/ROS1 negative patients. All of them are adenocarcinomas. Among patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers, 25 received pemetrexed-based first line chemotherapy. The objective response rate(ORR) was 36.0%. Their median progression free survival(PFS) was 5.1 months, which was similar with that of KRAS-mutant group (n?=?40,5.0 months, p?=?0.971), numerically shorter than that of EGFR-mutant group(n?=?74, 6.5 months, p?=?0.247) and statistically significantly shorter than that of ALK/ROS1-rearranged group (n?=?39,9.2 months, p?=?0.004). Furthermore, HER2 variants subgroup analysis showed that PFS was inferior in A775_G776insYVMA group compared with other variants (4.2 vs 7.2 months, p?=?0.085).Patients with advanced HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas showed an inferior outcome of first line pemetrexed-based chemotherapy compared to those with ALK/ROS1 rearrangements, which strengthen the need for effective HER2-targeted drugs in clinical practice.
Project description:Afatinib has improved the prognosis of epidermal growth factor receptor-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer and has been explored in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified breast cancer. However, its clinical efficacy in HER2-amplified endometrial cancer has not been reported. Herein, we present the clinical benefit of afatinib in a case of stage IIIC endometrioid adenocarcinoma refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy and eventually developed pulmonary, abdominal and pelvic metastasis. Upon referral to our clinic, capture-based targeted sequencing was performed on both blood and tumor samples and revealed HER2 amplification. The patient was administered with afatinib and achieved partial response (PR) after two months of treatment, reflected by a significant reduction in pulmonary lesions and serum levels of tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19-9, 125, 15-3 and cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CY211). The patient passed away after 3 months of afatinib treatment due to suspected complications of severe intestinal obstruction. Our report demonstrates the efficacy of afatinib in a heavily pre-treated HER2-amplified endometrial cancer patient with multi-organ metastasis. This case also highlights the need to include comprehensive mutational profiling in the standard management of endometrial cancer patients for treatment guidance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effective targeted therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mutations remains an unmet need. This study investigated the antitumor effect of an irreversible pan-HER receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, pyrotinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Using patient-derived organoids and xenografts established from an HER2-A775_G776YVMA-inserted advanced lung adenocarcinoma patient sample, we investigated the antitumor activity of pyrotinib. Preliminary safety and efficacy of pyrotinib in 15 HER2-mutant NSCLC patients in a phase II clinical trial are also presented. RESULTS:Pyrotinib showed significant growth inhibition of organoids relative to afatinib in vitro (P?=?0.0038). In the PDX model, pyrotinib showed a superior antitumor effect than afatinib (P?=?0.0471) and T-DM1 (P?=?0.0138). Mice treated with pyrotinib displayed significant tumor burden reduction (mean tumor volume, -52.2%). In contrast, afatinib (25.4%) and T-DM1 (10.9%) showed no obvious reduction. Moreover, pyrotinib showed a robust ability to inhibit pHER2, pERK and pAkt. In the phase II cohort of 15 patients with HER2-mutant NSCLC, pyrotinib 400?mg resulted in a objective response rate of 53.3% and a median progression-free survival of 6.4?months. CONCLUSION:Pyrotinib showed activity against NSCLC with HER2 exon 20 mutations in both patient-derived organoids and a PDX model. In the clinical trial, pyrotinib showed promising efficacy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02535507.
Project description:Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ( HER2, ERBB2)-activating mutations occur in 2% of lung cancers. We assessed the activity of ado-trastuzumab emtansine, a HER2-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, in a cohort of patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers as part of a phase II basket trial. Patients and Methods Patients received ado-trastuzumab emtansine at 3.6 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks until progression. The primary end point was overall response rate using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. A Simon two-stage optimal design was used. Other end points included progression-free survival and toxicity. HER2 testing was performed on tumor tissue by next generation sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and protein mass spectrometry. Results We treated 18 patients with advanced HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas. The median number of prior systemic therapies was two (range, zero to four prior therapies). The partial response rate was 44% (95% CI, 22% to 69%), meeting the primary end point. Responses were seen in patients with HER2 exon 20 insertions and point mutations in the kinase, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. Concurrent HER2 amplification was observed in two patients. HER2 immunohistochemistry ranged from 0 to 2+ and did not predict response, and responders had low HER2 protein expression measured by mass spectrometry. The median progression-free survival was 5 months (95% CI, 3 to 9 months). Toxicities included grade 1 or 2 infusion reactions, thrombocytopenia, and elevated hepatic transaminases. No patient stopped therapy as a result of toxicity or died on study. Conclusion Ado-trastuzumab emtansine is an active agent in patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers. This is the first positive trial in this molecular subset of lung cancers. Further use and study of this agent are warranted.