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PPARα and PPARγ activation attenuates total free fatty acid and triglyceride accumulation in macrophages via the inhibition of Fatp1 expression.


ABSTRACT: Lipid accumulation in macrophages interacts with microenvironment signals and accelerates diabetic atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which macrophage metabolism interacts with microenvironment signals during lipid accumulation are not clearly understood. Accordingly, an untargeted metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic reprogramming, and to identify potential regulatory targets related to lipid accumulation in macrophages treated with oleate, an important nutrient. The metabolomics approach revealed that multiple metabolic pathways were significantly disturbed in oleate-treated macrophages. We discovered that amino acids, nucleosides, lactate, monoacylglycerols, total free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides (TGs) accumulated in oleate-treated macrophages, but these effects were effectively attenuated or even abolished by resveratrol. Notably, 1-monooleoylglycerol and 2-monooleoylglycerol showed the largest fold changes in the levels among the differential metabolites. Subsequently, we found that oleate triggered total FFA and TG accumulation in macrophages by accelerating FFA influx through the activation of Fatp1 expression, but this effect was attenuated by resveratrol via the activation of PPARα and PPARγ signaling. We verified that the activation of PPARα and PPARγ by WY14643 and pioglitazone, respectively, attenuated oleate triggered total FFA and TG accumulation in macrophages by repressing FFA import via the suppression of Fatp1 expression. Furthermore, the inhibition of Fatp1 by tumor necrosis factor α alleviated oleate-induced total FFA and TG accumulation in macrophages. This study provided the first demonstration that accumulation of amino acids, nucleosides, lactate, monoacylglycerols, total FFAs, and TGs in oleate-treated macrophages is effectively attenuated or even abolished by resveratrol, and that the activation of PPARα and PPARγ attenuates oleate-induced total FFA and TG accumulation via suppression of Fatp1 expression in macrophages. Therapeutic strategies aim to activate PPAR signaling, and to repress FFA import and triglyceride synthesis are promising approaches to reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

SUBMITTER: Ye G 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6426939 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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