18F-THK5351 PET Imaging in Nonfluent-Agrammatic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia.
ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose:To analyze 18F-THK5351 positron emission tomography (PET) scans of patients with clinically diagnosed nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (navPPA). Methods:Thirty-one participants, including those with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=13), navPPA (n=3), and those with normal control (NC, n=15) who completed 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, 18F-THK5351 PET scans, and detailed neuropsychological tests, were included. Voxel-based and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses were performed to evaluate retention of 18F-THK5351 in navPPA patients. Results:In ROI-based analysis, patients with navPPA had higher levels of THK retention in the Broca's area, bilateral inferior frontal lobes, bilateral precentral gyri, and bilateral basal ganglia. Patients with navPPA showed higher levels of THK retention in bilateral frontal lobes (mainly left side) compared than NC in voxel-wise analysis. Conclusions:In our study, THK retention in navPPA patients was mainly distributed at the frontal region which was well correlated with functional-radiological distribution of navPPA. Our results suggest that tau PET imaging could be a supportive tool for diagnosis of navPPA in combination with a clinical history.
Project description:Background and Purpose:Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a subtype of frontotemporal dementia, which has clinical symptoms of progressive personality and behavioral changes with deterioration of social cognition and executive functions. The pathology of bvFTD is known to be tauopathy or TDP-43 equally. We analyzed the 18F-THK5351 positron emission tomography (PET) scans, which were recently developed tau PET, in patients with clinically-diagnosed bvFTD. Methods:Forty-eight participants, including participants with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n=3), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=21) and normal cognition (NC, n=24) who completed 3T magnetic resonance images, 18F-THK5351 PET scans, and detailed neuropsychological tests were included in the study. Voxel-wise statistical analysis and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses were performed to evaluate the retention of THK in bvFTD patients. Results:In the voxel-based and ROI-based analyses, patients with bvFTD showed greater THK retention in the prefrontal, medial frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, insula, anterior inferior temporal and striatum regions compared to NC participants. Left-right asymmetry was noted in the bvFTD patients. A patient with extrapyramidal symptoms showed much greater THK retention in the brainstem. Conclusions:The distribution of THK retention in the bvFTD patients was mainly in the frontal, insula, anterior temporal, and striatum regions which are known to be the brain regions corresponding to the clinical symptoms of bvFTD. Our study suggests that 18F-THK5351 PET imaging could be a supportive tool for diagnosis of bvFTD.
Project description:The 18F-THK-5351 radiotracer has been used to detect the in vivo tau protein distribution in patients with tauopathy, such as Alzheimer's disease and corticobasal syndrome. In addition, 18F-THK-5351 can also monitor neuroinflammatory process due to high affinity to astrogliosis. We aimed to explore 18F-THK-5351 distribution patterns and characteristics in patients with recent ischemic stroke.Fifteen patients received 18F-THK-5351 positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) approximately 3 months after ischemic stroke. A region of interest (ROI) was placed in the peri-ischemic area and was mirrored on the contralateral side as the control, and a proportional value was derived from the ratio of the peri-ischemic ROI value over the mirrored ROI value. Increased 18F-THK-5351 retention was observed in the areas around and remote from the stroke location. The proportional 18F-THK-5351 values were negatively correlated with the proportional fractional anisotropy values (r?=?-?0.39, P?=?0.04).18F-THK-5351 PET imaging provides a potential tool for in vivo visualization of the widespread ischemia-related changes associated with a microstructural disruption in recent ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition with diverse causes and clinical outcomes that can be categorized into subtypes. [<sup>18</sup>F]THK5351 has been known to detect reactive astrogliosis as well as tau which is accompanied by neurodegenerative changes. Here, we identified heterogeneous groups of MCI patients using THK retention patterns and a graph theory approach, allowing for the comparison of risk of progression to dementia in these MCI subgroups. <b>Methods:</b> Ninety-seven participants including 60 MCI patients and individuals with normal cognition (NC, <i>n</i> = 37) were included and undertook 3T MRI, [<sup>18</sup>F]THK5351 PET, and detailed neuropsychological tests. [<sup>18</sup>F]Flutemetamol PET was also performed in 62 participants. We calculated similarities between MCI patients using their regional standardized uptake value ratio of THK retention in 75 ROIs, and clustered subjects with similar retention patterns using the Louvain method based on the modularity of the graph. The clusters of patients identified were compared with an age-matched control group using a general linear model. Dementia conversion was evaluated after a median follow-up duration of 34.6 months. <b>Results:</b> MCI patients were categorized into four groups according to their THK retention patterns: (1) limbic type; (2) diffuse type; (3) sparse type; and (4) AD type (retention pattern as in AD). Subjects of the limbic type were characterized by older age, small hippocampal volumes, and reduced verbal memory and frontal/executive functions. Patients of the diffuse type had relatively large vascular burden, reduced memory capacity and some frontal/executive functions. Co-morbidity and mortality were more frequent in this subgroup. Subjects of the sparse type were younger and declined only in terms of visual memory and attention. No individuals in this subgroup converted to dementia. Patients in the AD type group exhibited the poorest cognitive function. They also had the smallest hippocampal volumes and the highest risk of progression to dementia (90.9%). <b>Conclusion:</b> Using cluster analyses with [<sup>18</sup>F]THK5351 retention patterns, it is possible to identify clinically-distinct subgroups of MCI patients and those at greater risk of progression to dementia.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to compare the topographical subcortical shape and to investigate the effects of tau or amyloid burden on atrophic patterns in early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). One hundred and sixty-one participants (53 EOAD, 44 LOAD, 33 young controls, and 31 older controls) underwent [18F]THK5351 positron emission tomography (PET), [18F]flutemetamol (FLUTE) PET, and 3T MRI scans. We used surface-based analysis to evaluate subcortical structural shape, permutation-based statistics for group comparisons, and Spearman's correlations to determine associations with THK, FLUTE, cortical thickness, and neuropsychological test results. When compared to their age-matched controls, EOAD patients exhibited shape reduction in the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, and putamen, while in LOAD patients, the bilateral amygdala and hippocampus showed decreased shapes. In EOAD, widespread subcortical shrinkage, with less association of the hippocampus, correlated with THK retention and cortical thinning, while in LOAD patients, subcortical structures were limited which had significant correlation with THK or mean cortical thickness. Subcortical structural shape showed less correlation with FLUTE global retention in both EOAD and LOAD. Multiple cognitive domains, except memory function, correlated with the bilateral amygdala, caudate, and putamen in EOAD patients, while more restricted regions in the subcortical structures were correlated with neuropsychological test results in LOAD patients. Subcortical structures were associated with AD hallmarks in EOAD. However, the correlation was limited in LOAD. Moreover, relationship between subcortical structural atrophy and cognitive decline were quite different between EOAD and LOAD. These findings suggest that the effects of Alzheimer's pathologies on subcortical structural changes in EOAD and LOAD and they may have different courses of pathomechanism.
Project description:Introduction:The molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration, including tau and neurite complexity, is an important topic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Methods:We recruited 27 amyloid-positive individuals identified through 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) and 31 amyloid-negative individuals with normal cognition. All participants underwent 11C-PiB and 18F-THK5351 PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) protocol. The neurite density index (NDI), orientation dispersion index (ODI), and PET images were analyzed to calculate voxel-wise correlations among the imaging modalities and correlations with cognitions. Results:In the amyloid-positive participants, there were significant negative correlations between 18F-THK5351 and NDI and between 18F-THK5351 and ODI. The bilateral mesial and lateral temporal lobes were mainly involved. Regarding cognition, 18F-THK5351 showed more marked associations with all cognitive domains than the other modalities. Discussion:Tau and neuroinflammation in AD may reduce the neurite density and orientation dispersion, particularly in the mesial and lateral temporal lobes.
Project description:Introduction: We aimed to determine whether in vivo tau deposits and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) detection using 18F-THK5351 positron emission tomography (PET) can assist in the differential distribution in patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and whether 18F-THK5351 retention of lesion sites in CBS and PSP can correlate with clinical parameters. Methods: 18F-THK5351 PET was performed in 35 participants, including 7, 9, and 10 patients with CBS, PSP, and AD, respectively, and 9 age-matched normal controls. In CBS and PSP, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, and Frontal Assessment Battery, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Score, and PSP Rating Scale. Results: 18F-THK5351 retention was observed in sites susceptible to disease-related pathologies in CBS, PSP, and AD. 18F-THK5351 uptake in the precentral gyrus clearly differentiated patients with CBS from those with PSP and AD. Furthermore, 18F-THK5351 uptake in the inferior temporal gyrus clearly differentiated patients with AD from those with CBS and PSP. Regional 18F-THK5351 retention was associated with the cognitive function in CBS and PSP. Conclusion: Measurement of the tau deposits and MAO-B density in the brain using 18F-THK5351 may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of tauopathies and for understanding disease stages.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition with diverse clinical outcomes and subgroups. Here we investigated the topographic distribution of tau in vivo using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [¹?F]THK5351 in MCI subgroups. METHODS:This study included 96 participants comprising 38 with amnestic MCI (aMCI), 21 with nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), and 37 with normal cognition (NC) who underwent 3.0-T MRI, [¹?F]THK5351 PET, and detailed neuropsychological tests. [¹?F]flutemetamol PET was also performed in 62 participants. The aMCI patients were further divided into three groups: 1) verbal-aMCI, only verbal memory impairment; 2) visual-aMCI, only visual memory impairment; and 3) both-aMCI, both visual and verbal memory impairment. Voxel-wise statistical analysis and region-of-interest -based analyses were performed to evaluate the retention of [¹?F]THK5351 in the MCI subgroups. Subgroup analysis of amyloid-positive and -negative MCI patients was also performed. Correlations between [¹?F]THK5351 retention and different neuropsychological tests were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping analyses. RESULTS:[¹?F]THK5351 retention in the lateral temporal, mesial temporal, parietal, frontal, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus was significantly greater in aMCI patients than in NC subjects, whereas it did not differ significantly between naMCI and NC participants. [¹?F] THK5351 retention was greater in the both-aMCI group than in the verbal-aMCI and visualaMCI groups, and greater in amyloid-positive than amyloid-negative MCI patients. The cognitive function scores were significantly correlated with cortical [¹?F]THK5351 retention. CONCLUSIONS:[¹?F]THK5351 PET might be useful for identifying distinct topographic patterns of [¹?F]THK5351 retention in subgroups of MCI patients who are at greater risk of the progression to Alzheimer's dementia.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are known to have heterogeneous clinical presentation and pathologic patterns. We hypothesize that AD dementia can be categorized into subtypes based on multimodal imaging biomarkers such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tau positron emission tomography (PET), and amyloid PET. We collected 3T MRI, 18F-THK5351 PET, and 18F-flutemetamol (FLUTE) PET data from 83 patients with AD dementia [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) ?1] and 60 normal controls (NC), and applied surface-based analyses to measure cortical thickness, THK5351 standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and FLUTE SUVR for each participant. For the patient group, we performed an agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis using the three multimodal imaging features on the vertices (n = 3 × 79,950). The identified AD subtypes were compared to NC using general linear models adjusting for age, sex, and years of education. We mapped the effect size within significant cortical regions reaching a corrected p-vertex <0.05 (random field theory). Our surface-based multimodal framework has revealed three distinct subtypes among AD patients: medial temporal-dominant subtype (MT, n = 44), parietal-dominant subtype (P, n = 19), and diffuse atrophy subtype (D, n = 20). The topography of cortical atrophy and THK5351 retention differentiates between the three subtypes. In the case of FLUTE, three subtypes did not show distinct topographical differences, although cortical composite retention was significantly higher in the P type than in the MT type. These three subtypes also differed in demographic and clinical features. In conclusion, AD patients may be clustered into three subtypes with distinct topographical features of cortical atrophy and tau deposition, although amyloid deposition may not differ across the subtypes in terms of topography.
Project description:[18F]THK5351, a recently-developed positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for measuring tau neurofibrillary tangle accumulation, may help researchers examine aging, disease, and tau pathology in living human brains. We examined THK5351 tracer pharmacokinetics to define an optimal acquisition time for static late images.Primary measurements were calculation of regional values of distribution volume ratios (DVR) and standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in 6 healthy older control and 10 Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants. We examined associations between DVR and SUVR, searching for a 20 min SUVR time window that was stable and comparable to DVR. We additionally examined diagnostic group differences in this 20 min SUVR.In healthy controls, [18F]THK5351 uptake was low, with increased temporal relative to frontal binding. In AD, regional uptake was substantially higher than in healthy controls, with temporal exceeding frontal binding. Retention in cerebellar gray matter, which was used as the reference region, was low compared to other regions. Both DVR and SUVR values showed minimal change over time after 40 min. SUVR 20-40, 30-50, and 40-60 min were most consistently correlated with DVR; SUVR 40-60 min, the most stable time window, was used in further analyses. Significant (AD > healthy control) group differences existed in temporoparietal regions, with marginal medial temporal differences. We found high basal ganglia SUVR 40-60 min signal, with no group differences.We examined THK5351, a new PET tracer for measuring tau accumulation, and compared multiple analysis methods for quantifying regional tracer uptake. SUVR 40-60 min performed optimally when examining 20 min SUVR windows, and appears to be a practical method for quantifying relative regional tracer retention. The results of this study offer clinical potential, given the usefulness of THK5351-PET as a biomarker of tau pathology in aging and disease.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the binding of the PET tracer [18F]THK5351 in patients with different primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants and its correlation with clinical deficits. The majority of patients with nonfluent variant (NFV) and logopenic variant (LV) PPA have underlying tauopathy of the frontotemporal lobar or Alzheimer disease type, respectively, while patients with the semantic variant (SV) have predominantly transactive response DNA binding protein 43-kDa pathology. METHODS:The study included 20 PPA patients consecutively recruited through a memory clinic (12 NFV, 5 SV, 3 LV), and 20 healthy controls. All participants received an extensive neurolinguistic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid biomarker tests. [18F]THK5351 binding patterns were assessed on standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) images with the cerebellar grey matter as the reference using statistical parametric mapping. Whole-brain voxel-wise regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between [18F]THK5351 SUVR images and neurolinguistic scores. Analyses were performed with and without partial volume correction. RESULTS:Patients with NFV showed increased binding in the supplementary motor area, left premotor cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain compared with controls and patients with SV. Patients with SV had increased binding in the temporal lobes bilaterally and in the right ventromedial frontal cortex compared with controls and patients with NFV. The whole-brain voxel-wise regression analysis revealed a correlation between agrammatism and motor speech impairment, and [18F]THK5351 binding in the left supplementary motor area and left postcentral gyrus. Analysis of [18F]THK5351 scans without partial volume correction revealed similar results. CONCLUSION:[18F]THK5351 imaging shows a topography closely matching the anatomical distribution of predicted underlying pathology characteristic of NFV and SV PPA. [18F]THK5351 binding correlates with the severity of clinical impairment.