Effect of nutrition education on hemoglobin level in pregnant women: A quasi-experimental study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Anemia during pregnancy is a major public health problem globally with multiple causes including inadequate dietary intakes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nutrition education on nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin level and dietary intake of anemic pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 115 mild to moderately anemic pregnant women attending ante natal clinics. Pregnant women were consecutively enrolled and assigned to receive nutrition education and diet plan in intervention group (n = 58) and general education only in control group (n = 57). The nutrition education was given to pregnant women on individual basis at the time of enrollment and follow-ups were done through biweekly phone calls and every 4 weeks during ANC visits. Baseline data were collected using semi-structure questionnaire for interview and hemoglobin level was also measured. Data were collected after 10 weeks of nutrition education intervention. Independent sample t-test was used to compare differences between the two groups. RESULTS:Out of 115 pregnant women enrolled, 107 completed the study (Intervention: 53; Control: 54). At the end of the nutrition education intervention and iron rich food based diet plan, the change in hemoglobin level was significantly high in the intervention over control group [0.56±0.40gm/dl vs. 0.16±0.82gm/dl, p = 0.002]. The change in the maternal nutritional knowledge score on anemia and iron rich foods was significantly high in the intervention over control group [8.26±4.57 vs. 1.05±6.59, p<0.001].Consumption of iron rich food was significantly high in the intervention group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:Provision of nutrition education and iron rich food based diet plan was significantly associated with improved hemoglobin levels, improved dietary intake and nutritional knowledge on anemia and iron rich foods.
Project description:Background:Anemia in pregnant women, a significant cause of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, has not been adequately studied in the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In this regard, the study was conducted to document the prevalence and severity of anemia and its associated sociodemographic factors in pregnant women in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Methods:The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at G. B. Pant hospital over a period of 6 months. WHO guidelines were used to define and classify anemia as mild, moderate, or severe. A total of 786 pregnant women of age 12-40 years were included in the study. Data were collected by means of interviewer-administered questionnaire and complete blood count of venous blood. IBM SPSS version 21 was used for statistical analysis. Frequency tables and cross-tables were constructed. Corr elations were determined using Kendall's Tau-b, Pearson's r, and Spearman's rho coefficients. Results:Hemoglobin levels of the participants ranged from 4.4 to 15.0 g/dl. Anemia was observed in 50.9% of the sample. Prevalence and severity of anemia decreased with increasing educational levels of both husband and wife and increasing gestational age, and increased with increasing gravidity and parity. Conclusions:Awareness and education helped reduce the prevalence of anemia. Education of husband was seen to have a greater effect than education of wife. Wide coverage, systematic intervention, and disbursement of folic acid and iron supplements to pregnant women by subcenters and primary health centers prior to their visit to G. B. Pant Hospital were also effective.
Project description:We assess and compare the efficacy of anemia treatment in pregnant women with anemia of chronic disease with true iron deficiency and in women with iron deficiency anemia.Fifty patients with moderate anemia (hemoglobin 8.0-9.9?g/dl) and iron deficiency (ferritin < 15??g/l) were treated in the Anemia Clinic at the Department of Obstetrics.All patients showed stimulation of erythropoiesis as evidenced by an increase in reticulocyte count at day eight of therapy and showed an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit at the end of therapy (p < 0.001). The target hemoglobin (?10.5?g/dl) was achieved in 45/50 women (90%). 12 patients showed anemia of chronic disease with true iron deficiency (12/50; 24%). Seven women (7/12; 59%) with anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency responded well to anemia treatment. 50% of women with anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency (3/6) responded well to intravenous iron, and 67% (4/6) responded well to the combination of intravenous iron and recombinant human erythropoietin.Because of frequent true iron deficiency in pregnant women with anemia of chronic disease, anemia of chronic disease in pregnancy is often falsely diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia.
Project description:The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women.In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) and iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus mean corpuscular volume <80fL), and recovery from anemia and iron deficiency anemia through 18 months postpartum at antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2001 and 2005. A total of 2364 non-anemic pregnant women and 4884 anemic women were enrolled between 12 and 27 weeks of gestation.In total, 292 women developed anemia during the postpartum period and 165 developed iron deficiency anemia, whereas 2982 recovered from baseline anemia and 2044 from iron deficiency anemia. Risk factors for postpartum anemia were delivery complications (RR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.22) and low postpartum CD4 cell count (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.96, 3.17). Iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy had a protective relationship with the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Absence of delivery complications, education status and iron/folate supplementation were positively associated with time to recovery from iron deficiency.Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, prenatal iron/folate supplementation, perinatal care, and prevention and management of infections, such as malaria, are modifiable risk factors for the occurrence of, and recovery from, anemia.
Project description:To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of antenatal women regarding nutrition and drug compliance in a maternal and child health center in Navi Mumbai.This study was carried out on 250 pregnant females visiting a maternal and child health center over a period of 4 months from November 2012 to February 2013. Women attending the antenatal OPD were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding anemia so as to test their knowledge, attitudes, and practices pertaining to anemia and role of their diet.The observations were analyzed. This study reflects the ignorance and lack of education among the majority of child-bearing women of low socioeconomic class.Educating antenatal women about the importance of diet and implementing this into practice will help in the prevention of anemia. It is also seen that drug compliance for iron and folic acid (free supply) has significantly improved, not only because of the cost factor but also due to the reinforcement of knowledge by the staff so as to achieve the minimum WHO target hemoglobin of 10.5 g% in all mothers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Iron deficiency anemia is common in pregnancy with a prevalence of approximately 16% in Austria; however, international guideline recommendations on screening and subsequent treatment with iron preparations are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to find out how often pregnant women take iron-containing supplements, and who recommended them. As hemoglobin data were available for a sub-group of women, hemoglobin status during pregnancy and associated consumption of iron-containing medications were also recorded. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Mother-Child-Booklet service center of the Styrian Health Insurance Fund in Graz, Austria. A questionnaire containing seven questions was developed. Absolute and relative numbers were determined, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS:A total of 325 women completed the questionnaire, 11% had been diagnosed with anemia before becoming pregnant, 67% reported taking iron-containing compounds. The women reported taking 45 different products but 61% took 1 of 3 different supplements. Overall, 185 (57%) women had not been diagnosed with anemia before becoming pregnant but reported taking an iron-containing supplement and 89% of the women took supplements on the recommendation of their physician. Of the 202 women whose hemoglobin status was assessed, 92% were found not to be anemic. CONCLUSION:Overall, 67% of pregnant women took iron-containing compounds, irrespective of whether they were deficient in iron. Physicians were generally responsible for advising them to take them. No standardized procedure is available on which to base the decision whether to take iron during pregnancy, even in guidelines. As most guidelines only recommend taking iron supplements in cases of anemia, the high percentage of women taking them in Austria is incomprehensible.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adolescence is a critical period for physical and psychological growth and development, and vitamin and mineral requirements are correspondingly increased. Health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence to adulthood. Developing a preconception care package for adolescent and young women in resource-limited settings could serve to empower them to make informed decisions about their nutrition, health, and well-being, as well as function as a platform for the delivery of basic nutrition-related interventions to address undernutrition. METHODS:In this population-based two-arm, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of life skills building education (provided bi-monthly) and multiple micronutrient supplementation (provided twice-weekly; UNIMMAP composition), we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on the prevention of anemia (hemoglobin concentration?<?12 g/dL) among adolescent and young women (15-24 years) in Matiari district, Pakistan compared to the standard of care. Several secondary objectives related to nutrition (anthropometry [height, weight, middle upper arm circumference (MUAC)], nutritional status [iron, vitamin A, vitamin D]); general health (morbidity, mortality); and empowerment (age at marriage, completion of the 10th grade, use of personal hygienic materials during menstruation) will also be assessed. Participants will be enrolled in the study for a maximum of 2 years. DISCUSSION:Empowering adolescent and young women with the appropriate knowledge to make informed and healthy decisions will be key to sustained behavioural change throughout the life-course. Although multiple micronutrient deficiencies are known to exist among adolescent and young women in low-resource settings, recommendations on preconception multiple micronutrient supplementation do not exist at this time. This study is expected to offer insight into providing an intervention that includes both education and supplements to non-pregnant adolescent and young women for a prolonged duration of time within the existing public health programmatic context. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is part of the Matiari emPowerment and Preconception Supplementation (MaPPS) Trial. The MaPPS Trial was registered retrospectively on clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03287882 ) on September 19, 2017.
Project description:Background:Anemia in young children is a global health problem. Risk factors include poor nutrient intake and poor water quality, sanitation, or hygiene. Objective:We evaluated the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions on micronutrient status and anemia among children in rural Kenya and Bangladesh. Design:We nested substudies within 2 cluster-randomized controlled trials enrolling pregnant women and following their children for 2 y. These substudies included 4 groups: water, sanitation, and handwashing (WSH); nutrition (N), including lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs; ages 6-24 mo) and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling; WSH+N; and control. Hemoglobin and micronutrient biomarkers were measured after 2 y of intervention and compared between groups using generalized linear models with robust SEs. Results:In Kenya, 699 children were assessed at a mean ± SD age of 22.1 ± 1.8 mo, and in Bangladesh 1470 participants were measured at a mean ± SD age of 28.0 ± 1.9 mo. The control group anemia prevalences were 48.8% in Kenya and 17.4% in Bangladesh. There was a lower prevalence of anemia in the 2 N intervention groups in both Kenya [N: 36.2%; prevalence ratio (PR): 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.94; WSH+N: 27.3%; PR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.75] and Bangladesh (N: 8.7%; PR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.78; WSH+N: 7.9%, PR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.73). In both trials, the 2 N groups also had significantly lower prevalences of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and low vitamin B-12 and, in Kenya, a lower prevalence of folate and vitamin A deficiencies. In Bangladesh, the WSH group had a lower prevalence of anemia (12.8%; PR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.00) than the control group, whereas in Kenya, the WSH+N group had a lower prevalence of anemia than did the N group (PR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.07), but this was not significant (P = 0.102). Conclusions:IYCF counseling with LNSs reduced the risks of anemia, iron deficiency, and low vitamin B-12. Effects on folate and vitamin A varied between studies. Improvements in WSH also reduced the risk of anemia in Bangladesh but did not provide added benefit over the nutrition-specific intervention. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01590095 (Bangladesh) and NCT01704105 (Kenya).
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Screening and diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is cumbersome as it may require testing for hemoglobin, ferritin, and an inflammatory biomarker. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic capacity of hematologic biomarkers to detect IDA among pregnant women in Tanzania. SUBJECTS/METHODS:We pooled data from an iron supplementation trial of 1500 iron-replete pregnant woman and a prospective cohort of 600 iron-deficient pregnant women. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for hematologic biomarkers were used to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), crude, or corrected for inflammation. Regression models assessed the relationship of baseline biomarker categories (gestational age <27 weeks) and IDA at delivery. RESULTS:Hemoglobin had the largest AUC for crude ID (0.96), while hepcidin had the largest AUC for corrected ID (0.80). The optimal hepcidin cutoff for the diagnosis of corrected IDA based on maximal sensitivity and specificity was ?1.6?µg/L. An hepcidin cutoff of <4.3?µg/L had a sensitivity of 95% for regression-corrected ID. Among iron-replete women who did not receive iron, the association of baseline hemoglobin >110?g/L with IDA at delivery (RR?=?0.73; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.13) was attenuated. Baseline hepcidin >1.6?µg/L was associated with reduced risk of anemia at delivery by 49% (95% CI: 27%, 45%). CONCLUSIONS:Ascertaining hemoglobin and hepcidin levels may improve the targeting of iron supplementation programs in resource-limited countries, though hepcidin's high costs may limit its use.
Project description:Anemia in women of reproductive age is highly prevalent globally and remains a public health problem. In Ethiopia, despite efforts to minimize the burden of anemia, it is still a moderate public health problem. Anemia has various etiologies including nutritional deficiency, parasitic infection, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine contributing factors to anemia in lactating women. Following ethical approval, and six months after delivery, all lactating women (n = 150) were recruited to participate in this study from eight randomly selected rural villages. Anthropometric and socio-economic factors were assessed. From each, a blood sample was collected for measuring hemoglobin, iron biomarkers, zinc, selenium, and inflammation markers. The median (IQR) hemoglobin (Hb) was 132 (123, 139) g/L. Of the women, 19% were anemic and 7% had iron deficiency anemia; 31% were iron deficient and 2% had iron overload. Also, 8% had functional iron deficit, 6% had acute inflammation, 13% had chronic inflammation, and 16% had tissue iron deficiency. The majority (78%) of the women had low plasma zinc out of which more than 16% were anemic. Hb was positively associated with plasma iron and plasma zinc and negatively associated with transferrin receptor (TfR) and ?-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Plasma iron, AGP, TfR, hepcidin and plasma zinc were significant predictors of maternal anemia. Additionally MUAC and level of education were associated positively with maternal hemoglobin. This study showed that maternal anemia was associated with multiple factors including nutritional deficiencies, inflammation and limited education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Relative contribution of these infections on anemia in pregnancy is not certain. While measures to protect pregnant women against malaria have been scaling up, interventions against helminthes have received much less attention. In this study, we determine the relative impact of helminthes and malaria on maternal anemia. METHODS:A prospective observational study was conducted in coastal Kenya among a cohort of pregnant women who were recruited at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit and tested for malaria, hookworm, and other parasitic infections and anemia at enrollment. All women enrolled in the study received presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, iron and multi-vitamins and women diagnosed with helminthic infections were treated with albendazole. Women delivering a live, term birth, were also tested for maternal anemia, fetal anemia and presence of infection at delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Of the 706 women studied, at the first ANC visit, 27% had moderate/severe anemia and 71% of women were anemic overall. The infections with highest prevalence were hookworm (24%), urogenital schistosomiasis (17%), trichuria (10%), and malaria (9%). In adjusted and unadjusted analyses, moderate/severe anemia at first ANC visit was associated with the higher intensities of hookworm and P. falciparum microscopy-malaria infections. At delivery, 34% of women had moderate/severe anemia and 18% of infants' cord hemoglobin was consistent with fetal anemia. While none of the maternal infections were significantly associated with fetal anemia, moderate/severe maternal anemia was associated with fetal anemia. CONCLUSIONS:More than one quarter of women receiving standard ANC with IPTp for malaria had moderate/severe anemia in pregnancy and high rates of parasitic infection. Thus, addressing the role of co-infections, such as hookworm, as well as under-nutrition, and their contribution to anemia is needed.