A post-translational modification of human Norovirus capsid protein attenuates glycan binding.
ABSTRACT: Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) is essential for infection, but how this binding event promotes the infection of host cells is unknown. Here, we employ protein NMR experiments supported by mass spectrometry and crystallography to study HBGA binding to the P-domain of a prevalent virus strain (GII.4). We report a highly selective transformation of asparagine 373, located in an antigenic loop adjoining the HBGA binding site, into an iso-aspartate residue. This spontaneous post-translational modification (PTM) proceeds with an estimated half-life of a few days at physiological temperatures, independent of the presence of HBGAs but dramatically affecting HBGA recognition. Sequence conservation and the surface-exposed position of this PTM suggest an important role in infection and immune recognition for many norovirus strains.
Project description:Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) is essential for infection, but how this binding event promotes the infection of host cells is unknown. Here, we employed protein NMR experiments supported by mass spectrometry and crystallography to study HBGA binding to the P domain of a prevalent virus strain (GII.4) in more detail . We report a highly selective transformation of N373, located in an antigenic loop adjoining the HBGA binding site, into an iso-aspartate residue. This spontaneous post-translational modification (PTM) proceeds with an estimated half-life of a few days at physiological temperatures, independent of the presence of HBGAs but dramatically affecting HBGA recognition.
Project description:Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) is thought to be essential for infection, although how this binding event promotes infection is unknown. Recent studies have shown that 60% of all GII.4 epidemic strains may undergo a spontaneous post-translational modification (PTM) in an amino acid located adjacent to the binding pocket for HBGAs. This transformation proceeds with an estimated half-life of 1-2 days under physiological conditions, dramatically affecting HBGA recognition. The surface-exposed position of this PTM and its sequence conservation suggests a relevant role in immune escape and host-cell recognition. As a first step towards the understanding of the biological implications of this PTM at atomic resolution, we report the complete assignment of methyl resonances of a MILProSVProSA methyl-labeled sample of a 72 kDa protruding domain from a GII.4 Saga human norovirus strain. Assignments were obtained from methyl-methyl NOESY experiments combined with site-directed mutagenesis and automated assignment. This data provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the PTM-driven modulation of immune recognition in human norovirus on a molecular level.
Project description:Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal αfucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical αfucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.
Project description:Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world. Human noroviruses interact with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. Indeed, synthetic HBGAs or HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria were shown to enhance norovirus infection in B cells. A number of studies have found a possible relationship between HBGA type and norovirus susceptibility. The genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Here we show high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the capsid protruding (P) domains from epidemic GII.4 variants from 2004, 2006, and 2012, cocrystallized with a panel of HBGA types (H type 2, Lewis Y, Lewis B, Lewis A, Lewis X, A type, and B type). Many of the HBGA binding interactions were found to be complex, involving capsid loop movements, alternative HBGA conformations, and HBGA rotations. We showed that a loop (residues 391 to 395) was elegantly repositioned to allow for Lewis Y binding. This loop was also slightly shifted to provide direct hydrogen- and water-mediated bonds with Lewis B. We considered that the flexible loop modulated Lewis HBGA binding. The GII.4 noroviruses have dominated outbreaks over the past decade, which may be explained by their exquisite HBGA binding mechanisms, their fondness for Lewis HBGAs, and their temporal amino acid modifications.Our data provide a comprehensive picture of GII.4 P domain and HBGA binding interactions. The exceptionally high resolutions of our X-ray crystal structures allowed us to accurately recognize novel GII.4 P domain interactions with numerous HBGA types. We showed that the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions involved complex binding mechanisms that were not previously observed in norovirus structural studies. Many of the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions we identified were negative in earlier enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based studies. Altogether, our data show that the GII.4 norovirus P domains can accommodate numerous HBGA types.
Project description:Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required.
Project description:Diverse noroviruses infect humans and animals via the recognition of host-specific glycan ligands. Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses consist of human noroviruses (huNoVs) that generally bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as host factors and three porcine norovirus (porNoV) genotypes (GII.11/18/19) that form a genetic lineage lacking HBGA-binding ability. Thus, these GII porNoVs provide an excellent model to study norovirus evolution with host ligand specificity changes. Here we solved the crystal structures of a native GII.11 porNoV P protein and a closely-related GII.3 huNoV P protein complexed with an HBGA, focusing on the HBGA-binding sites (HBSs) compared with the previously known ones to understand the structural basis of the host ligand specificity change. We found that the GII.3 huNoV binds HBGAs via a conventional GII HBS that uses an arginine instead of the conserved aromatic residue for the required Van der Waals interaction, while the GII.11 porNoV HBS loses its HBGA-binding function because of two mutations (Q355/V451). A mutant that reversed the two mutated residues back to the conventional A355/Y451 restored the HBGA-binding function of the GII.11 porNoV P protein, which validated our observations. Similar mutations are also found in GII.19 porNoVs and a GII.19 P protein mutant with double reverse mutations restored the HBS function. This is the first reconstruction of a functional HBS based on one with new host specificity back to its parental one. These data shed light on the molecular basis of structural adaptation of the GII porNoVs to the pig hosts through mutations at their HBSs.
Project description:Human noroviruses are the major viral pathogens of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. These genetically diverse viruses comprise two major genogroups (GI and GII) and approximately 30 genotypes. Noroviruses recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in a diverse, strain-specific manner. Recently the crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the GI Norwalk virus and the GII VA387 have been determined, which allows us to examine the genetic and structural relationships of the HBGA-binding interfaces of noroviruses with variable HBGA-binding patterns. Our hypothesis is that, if HBGAs are the viral receptors necessary for norovirus infection and spread, their binding interfaces should be under a selection pressure in the evolution of noroviruses.Structural comparison of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the two noroviruses has revealed shared features but significant differences in the location, sequence composition, and HBGA-binding modes. On the other hand, the primary sequences of the HBGA-binding interfaces are highly conserved among strains within each genogroup. The roles of critical residues within the binding sites have been verified by site-directed mutagenesis followed by functional analysis of strains with variable HBGA-binding patterns.Our data indicate that the human HBGAs are an important factor in norovirus evolution. Each of the two major genogroups represents an evolutionary lineage characterized by distinct genetic traits. Functional convergence of strains with the same HBGA targets subsequently resulted in acquisition of analogous HBGA binding interfaces in the two genogroups that share an overall structural similarity, despite their distinct locations and amino acid compositions. On the other hand, divergent evolution may have contributed to the observed overall differences between and within the two lineages. Thus, both divergent and convergent evolution, as well as the polymorphic human HBGAs, likely contribute to the diversity of noroviruses. The finding of genogroup-specific conservation of HBGA binding interfaces will facilitate the development of rational strategies to control and prevent norovirus-associated gastroenteritis.
Project description:Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Susceptibility to the majority of NoV infections is determined by genetically controlled secretor-dependent expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also critical for NoV attachment to host cells. Human NoVs are classified into two major genogroups (genogroup I [GI] and GII), with each genogroup further divided into several genotypes. GII NoVs are more prevalent and exhibit periodic emergence of new variants, suggested to be driven by altered HBGA binding specificities and antigenic drift. Recent epidemiological studies show increased activity among GI NoVs, with some members showing the ability to bind nonsecretor HBGAs. NoVs bind HBGAs through the protruding (P) domain of the major capsid protein VP1. GI NoVs, similar to GII, exhibit significant sequence variations in the P domain; it is unclear how these variations affect HBGA binding specificities. To understand the determinants of possible strain-specific HBGA binding among GI NoVs, we determined the structure of the P domain of a GI.7 clinical isolate and compared it to the previously determined P domain structures of GI.1 and GI.2 strains. Our crystallographic studies revealed significant structural differences, particularly in the loop regions of the GI.7 P domain, altering its surface topography and electrostatic landscape and potentially indicating antigenic variation. The GI.7 strain bound to H- and A-type, Lewis secretor, and Lewis nonsecretor families of HBGAs, allowing us to further elucidate the structural determinants of nonsecretor HBGA binding among GI NoVs and to infer several contrasting and generalizable features of HBGA binding in the GI NoVs. IMPORTANCE:Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown increased prevalence of genogroup I (GI) NoVs. Although secretor-positive status is strongly correlated with NoV infection, cases of NoV infection associated with secretor-negative individuals are reported. Biochemical studies have shown that GI NoVs exhibit genotype-dependent binding to nonsecretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). From our crystallographic studies of a GI.7 NoV, in comparison with previous studies on GI.1 and GI.2 NoVs, we show that genotypic differences translate to extensive structural changes in the loop regions that significantly alter the surface topography and electrostatic landscape of the P domain; these features may be indicative of antigenic variations contributing to serotypic differentiation in GI NoVs and also differential modulation of the HBGA binding characteristics. A significant finding is that the threshold length and the structure of one of the loops are critical determinants in the binding of GI NoVs to nonsecretor HBGAs.
Project description:Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1) and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387), have been elucidated. In this study we determined the crystal structures of the P domain protein of the first Lewis-binding norovirus (VA207, GII.9) that has a distinct binding property from those of Norwalk virus and VA387. Co-crystallization of the VA207 P dimer with Le(y) or sialyl Le(x) tetrasaccharides showed that VA207 interacts with these antigens through a common site found on the VA387 P protein which is highly conserved among most GII noroviruses. However, the HBGA-binding site of VA207 targeted at the Lewis antigens through the ?-1, 3 fucose (the Lewis epitope) as major and the ?-N-acetyl glucosamine of the precursor as minor interacting sites. This completely differs from the binding mode of VA387 and Norwalk virus that target at the secretor epitopes. Binding pocket of VA207 is formed by seven amino acids, of which five residues build up the core structure that is essential for the basic binding function, while the other two are involved in strain-specificity. Our results elucidate for the first time the genetic and structural basis of strain-specificity by a direct comparison of two genetically related noroviruses in their interaction with different HBGAs. The results provide insight into the complex interaction between the diverse noroviruses and the polymorphic HBGAs and highlight the role of human HBGA as a critical factor in norovirus evolution.