Airway Microbiome in Different Inflammatory Phenotypes of Asthma: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.
ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Asthma is a common respiratory disease with a high prevalence and morbidity that can seriously affect quality of life. Microbial colonization of the airway may participate in the pathogenesis of asthma, however the mechanisms involved have not been established. In the present study, we aimed to determine the composition of the microbiota in different asthmatic phenotypes from Northeast China. Methods: 24 mild-to-moderate asthmatics (10 eosinophilic asthma and 14 non-eosinophilic asthma) and 12 healthy volunteers participated in this cross-sectional study. DNA was extracted from their induced sputum and amplified for 16s rRNA gene sequencing on Illumina Miseq platform. Bioinformatic analysis on the microbiome was performed. Results: Alpha-diversity analysis showed that the asthmatics had a decreased richness, evenness and diversity. Non-eosinophilic asthmatics showed a decreased richness, evenness and diversity compared with eosinophilic patients. A different taxonomy of 1 phylum and 6 genera taxa between the phenotypes was identified. Compared with heathy controls, asthmatics existed a larger taxonomic difference (P<0.05 for both EA and NEA vs. HC). 5 genera as the dominance in the microbial co-occurrence network correlated with the spirometry and disease progression of asthma. The function of microbiota genes was predicted to be related with infectious, immune and metabolic diseases. Conclusion: The diversity and composition of the airway microbiome was associated with the pathogenesis of asthma in different phenotypes. The diverse composition has been identified in the present study.
Project description:In order to improve targeted therapeutic approaches for asthma patients, insights into the molecular mechanisms that differentially contribute to disease phenotypes, such as obese asthmatics or severe asthmatics, are required. Here we report immunological and microbiome alterations in obese asthmatics (n?=?50, mean age?=?45), non-obese asthmatics (n?=?53, mean age?=?40), obese non-asthmatics (n?=?51, mean age?=?44) and their healthy counterparts (n?=?48, mean age?=?39). Obesity is associated with elevated proinflammatory signatures, which are enhanced in the presence of asthma. Similarly, obesity or asthma induced changes in the composition of the microbiota, while an additive effect is observed in obese asthma patients. Asthma disease severity is negatively correlated with fecal Akkermansia muciniphila levels. Administration of A. muciniphila to murine models significantly reduces airway hyper-reactivity and airway inflammation. Changes in immunological processes and microbiota composition are accentuated in obese asthma patients due to the additive effects of both disease states, while A. muciniphila may play a non-redundant role in patients with a severe asthma phenotype.
Project description:Abnormalities in the gut microbiome are associated with suppressed Th2 response (Belizario et al., 2018 Mediators Inflamm. 2018:2037838) and predisposition to atopic disease such as asthma and eczema. We investigated if this applies to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Stool bacterial DNA was extracted and followed by 16S rRNA amplification from 12 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and 12 controls. Alpha- and beta-diversity were analyzed. Only two patients had asthma or atopy and one patient was on budesonide. No patients were on PPIs. Patients with EoE had lower gut microbiota alpha diversity (species richness, P = 0.09; Shannon index, P = 0.01). The microbial composition was distinct as evidenced by significantly different beta diversity (P = 0.03) when compared to healthy controls. There were also significant differences in relative abundance at multiple taxonomic levels when comparing the two communities; at the phylum level, we observed a marked decrease in Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes and at the order and family level there were significant decreases in Clostridia and Clostridiales in patients with EoE (q ? 0.1). We conclude that there are significant differences in microbial community structure, microbial richness, and evenness and a significant decrease in taxa within the Clostridia in patients with EoE. Our data suggest that Clostridia based interventions could be tested as adjuncts to current therapeutic strategies in EoE.
Project description:In asthma, airway nerve dysfunction leads to excessive bronchoconstriction and cough. It is well established that eosinophils alter nerve function and that airway eosinophilia is present in 50 to 60% of asthmatics. However, the effects of eosinophils on airway nerve structure have not been established. We tested whether eosinophils alter airway nerve structure and measured the physiological consequences of those changes. Our results in humans with and without eosinophilic asthma showed that airway innervation and substance P expression were increased in moderate persistent asthmatics compared to mild intermittent asthmatics and healthy subjects. Increased innervation was associated with a lack of bronchodilator responsiveness and increased irritant sensitivity. In a mouse model of eosinophilic airway inflammation, the increase in nerve density and airway hyperresponsiveness were mediated by eosinophils. Our results implicate airway nerve remodeling as a key mechanism for increased irritant sensitivity and exaggerated airway responsiveness in eosinophilic asthma.
Project description:Several studies have reported that gut and lung microbiomes are involved in the process of asthma pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear how perinatal or early-life antibiotic intervention affect adult allergic airway inflammation. We assigned C57BL/6 mice randomly to four experimental groups: normal saline control (NS), ovalbumin (OVA), vancomycin pretreated NS (VAN-NS), and vancomycin pretreated OVA (VAN-OVA). The vancomycin groups were orally given the drug from gestational day 14 to 6 week. An OVA-induced asthma model was then established at 6 weeks of age, and airway inflammation was evaluated. In addition, total DNA was extracted from the feces and lung tissue and used for 16S rDNA gene sequencing, to detect the composition of the microbiome. In the VAN-OVA group, airway inflammation and Th2-related cytokines were found to be significantly increased versus the control groups. Gene sequencing showed that vancomycin treatment attenuated the richness and evenness, and altered the composition of the microbiome in the gut and lung. Micrococcaceae and Clostridiaceae-1 were potentially correlated to the severity of allergic airway inflammation. Our study suggests that perinatal and early-life vancomycin intervention aggravates allergic inflammation in adulthood, which might be correlated with imbalanced gut and lung microbiome homeostasis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation.<h4>Methods</h4>A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters.<h4>Results</h4>Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids. OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics. METHODS:A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13) were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6) and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP). Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. RESULTS:Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP), termed AP1 and AP2, with distinct bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory profiles. AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1? and TNF-? and increased IL-2 was observed. A module of highly correlated cytokines that include MIP-1? and TNF-? was identified that negatively correlated with pulmonary function. Independently, IL-2 was positively correlated with pulmonary function. The airway microbiome composition correlated with asthmatic phenotypes. AP2, prior to FP treatment, was enriched with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unique associations between IL-2 or the cytokine module and the microbiota composition of the airways were observed in asthmatics subjects prior to treatment but not after or in controls. CONCLUSION:The underlying inflammation in atopic asthma is related to the composition of microbiota and is associated with severity of airway obstruction. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids was associated with changes in the airway inflammatory response to microbiota.
Project description:Airway inflammation in asthma involves innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are thought to be involved in airway inflammation, but their expression in asthmatics' both large and small airways has not been investigated.To analyse the expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TSLP in large and small airways of asthmatics and compare their expression in smoking and non-smoking asthmatics; to investigate whether TLR expression is associated with eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation and with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection.Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we investigated TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TSLP expression in large and small airways of 24 victims of fatal asthma, FA, (13 non-smokers, 11 smokers) and nine deceased control subjects (DCtrl). TLRs were also measured in 18 mild asthmatics (MA) and 12 healthy controls (HCtrl). M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae in autopsy lung tissue were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Airway eosinophils and neutrophils were measured in all subjects.Fatal asthma patients had higher TLR2 in the epithelial and outer layers of large and small airways compared with DCtrls. Smoking asthmatics had lower TLR2 levels in the inner and outer layers of the small airways than non-smoking asthmatics. TSLP was increased in the epithelial and outer layers of the large airways of FA. FA patients had greater TLR3 expression in the outer layer of large airways and greater TLR4 expression in the outer layer of small airways. Eosinophilic airway inflammation was associated with TLR expression in the epithelium of FA. No bacterial DNA was detected in FA or DCtrls. MA and HCtrls had only a small difference in TLR3 expression.Increased expression of TLR 2, 3 and 4 and TSLP in fatal asthma may contribute to the acute inflammation surrounding asthma deaths.
Project description:High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis of microbial communities from the respiratory airways has heavily relied on the 16S rRNA gene. Given the intrinsic limitations of this approach, airway microbiome research has focused on assessing bacterial composition during health and disease, and its variation in relation to clinical and environmental factors, or other microbiomes. Consequently, very little effort has been dedicated to describing the functional characteristics of the airway microbiota and even less to explore the microbe-host interactions. Here we present a simultaneous assessment of microbiome and host functional diversity and host-microbe interactions from the same RNA-seq experiment, while accounting for variation in clinical metadata.Transcriptomic (host) and metatranscriptomic (microbiota) sequences from the nasal epithelium of 8 asthmatics and 6 healthy controls were separated in silico and mapped to available human and NCBI-NR protein reference databases. Human genes differentially expressed in asthmatics and controls were then used to infer upstream regulators involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Concomitantly, microbial genes were mapped to metabolic databases (COG, SEED, and KEGG) to infer microbial functions differentially expressed in asthmatics and controls. Finally, multivariate analysis was applied to find associations between microbiome characteristics and host upstream regulators while accounting for clinical variation.Our study showed significant differences in the metabolism of microbiomes from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children for up to 25% of the functional properties tested. Enrichment analysis of 499 differentially expressed host genes for inflammatory and immune responses revealed 43 upstream regulators differentially activated in asthma. Microbial adhesion (virulence) and Proteobacteria abundance were significantly associated with variation in the expression of the upstream regulator IL1A; suggesting that microbiome characteristics modulate host inflammatory and immune systems during asthma.
Project description:PURPOSE:Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS:Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-?), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1?), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (p < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (p < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (p < 0.05). IL-1? concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (p < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (p = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.
Project description:Background:Fungal and bacterial microbiota play an important role in development of asthma. We aim to characterize airway microbiome (mycobiome, bacteriome) and functional genes in asthmatics and controls. Methods:Sputum microbiome of controls, untreated asthma patients and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) receiving patients was detected using high throughput sequencing. Metagenomic sequencing was used to examine the functional genes of microbiome. Results:1. Mycobiome: ? diversity was lower in untreated asthma group than that in controls. Mycobiome compositions differed among the three groups. Compared with controls, untreated asthma group has higher abundance of Wallemia, Mortierella and Fusarium. Compared with untreated asthma patients, ICS receiving patients has higher abundance of Fusarium and Mortierella, lower frequency of Wallemia, Alternaria and Aspergillus. 2. Bacteriome: ? diversity was lower in untreated asthma group than that in controls. There are some overlaps of bacteriome compositions between controls and untreated asthma patients which were distinct from ICS receiving patients. Untreated asthma group has higher Streptococcus than controls. 3. Potential fungal and bacterial biomarkers of asthma: Trametes, Aspergillus, Streptococcus, Gemella, Neisseria, etc. 4. Correlation network: There are dense and homogenous correlations in controls but a dramatically unbalanced network in untreated asthma and ICS receiving patients, which suggested the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom and intra-kingdom alterations. 5. Metagenomic analysis: functional pathways were associated with the status of asthma, microbiome and functional genes showed different correlations in different environment. Conclusion:We showed mycobiome and bacteriome dysbiosis in asthma featured by alterations in biodiversity, community composition, inter-kingdom and intra-kingdom network. We also observed several functional genes associated with asthma.