Patterns of statin utilisation for new users and market dynamics in South Korea: a 13-year retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study analysed utilisation of statins for new statin users and assessed market dynamics of statins in South Korea. DESIGN:This study is a retrospective cohort study. SETTING:The yearly claims data for statins were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:We are interested in new statin users during 2003-2015 in Korea. Information on prescribed statins, including intensity of statins and entry of new and follow-on statins in the market, and healthcare institutions that prescribed the statins were also collected. In time series analysis, we estimated the effect of introduction of generics in the market, specifically for newly prescribed statin users. RESULTS:This 13-year longitudinal study of a sample cohort provided by the National Health Insurance Service found that the incidence of new statin user increase from 838.1/100 000 persons in 2003 to 1626.9/100 000 persons in 2015. Most new users were initiated on a monotherapy that was prescribed at primary healthcare institutions. However, the statin market for new users were quite dynamic in Korea. First, the most commonly prescribed statin changed several times during the study period. Second, the use of moderate-intensity statins increased from 57% in 2003 to 92% in 2015. In line with this result, we could not observe substantial differences in prescription of statins in groups having selected diseases history. Lastly, we found market invasion or switch of statins among new statin users, specifically at primary healthcare institutions. CONCLUSION:Similar to other countries, the incidence of new statin users has been increased in Korea. However, the statin market in Korea is quite dynamic compared with other countries. Interestingly, discounted price of originals after the introduction of generics immediately expand markets or substitute the market particularly in primary healthcare institutions in Korea.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Statins have been commonly used to treat patients with hypercholesterolaemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. This study examined trends in use of statins in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. DESIGN:This is a retrospective observational study focusing on the utilisation of statins. SETTING:The monthly claims data for statins between 2002 and 2011 were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We calculated the yearly prescription rate per new user for each statin. Products were classified as high-intensity/moderate-intensity/low-intensity statins by type of statin and dosage. Users were also classified based on disease histories. RESULTS:The number of statin users increased from 10?299 (~1.4% of adults) in 2002 to 50?687 (~6.3% of adults) in 2011. Atorvastatin was the most commonly used agent (28.4%-36.7%) during the study period. After 2007, simvastatin ranked second with 21.7% market share, followed by rosuvastatin, a newer agent that exhibited a substantial growth in prescription rates (3.4% in 2005 and 19.5% in 2011). In 2011, 94.0% of new statin users used statin monotherapies, and 6.0% used combination therapies. Use of moderate-intensity statins increased from 49.0% in 2002 to 71.0% in 2011, while high-intensity statins remained low. Patients with history of coronary events or cerebrovascular events were more likely to be prescribed higher intensity statins compared with those without. Prescribing of higher intensity statins was not greater among people with diabetes compared with those without during 2007-2011. Selection of statins did not differ between people with versus without history of myopathy or liver injury. CONCLUSION:Atorvastatin was the most commonly used statin in Taiwan during 2002-2011. While patients with history of CVD were more likely to be prescribed higher intensity statins compared with those without, this difference was not found comparing those with and without diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>High blood lipoprotein concentrations are one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Drug therapy is the base of treatment; statins in particular. Both brand-name and generic presentations are available for statin therapy of high cholesterol levels. Factors that may influence their use in routine medical practice include, among others, patient persistence and adherence to treatment as prescribed by physicians. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to provide real-world evidence of treatment persistence and adherence and their consequences on economic and patient outcomes of generic versus brand-name statins routinely used to treat high cholesterol levels in Spain.<h4>Methods</h4>Existing real-world electronic medical records abstracted from a database of two regions in Spain were analyzed. The analysis compared generic versus brand-name statins data from subjects' who started treatment between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Treatment persistence, adherence expressed as medication possession ratio (MPR), healthcare resource utilization and their costs were analyzed together with patient's at-goal rates of low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), incidence of any major cardiovascular event (CVE) and all-cause mortality during a 5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analyses were applied.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 13,244 records were included. Persistence was lower with generics; adjusted hazard ratio -HR- [95% confidence interval]: 0.86 [0.82-0.91], p?<?0.001) and MPR was also lower: 61.5% vs. 65.1% (p?<?0.001). Less patients with generics reached their LDL-c goal: 39.2% [38.3-40.2%] vs. 42.0% [40.2-43.7%]; adjusted odds ratio; 0.87 [0.80-0.95], p?=?0.003. Compared to brand-name statins, the observed probability of occurrence of a CVE; HR: 1.31 [1.15-1.50], p?<?0.001, and also all-cause deaths; HR: 1.36 [1.15-1.62], was significantly higher with generics; p?<?0.001 in both cases. Adjusted mean total healthcare cost per patient was also higher with generic than with brand-name statins: €9118 (9059-9176) vs. €7980 (7853-8808) [adjusted difference: €1137 (997-1277), p?<?0.001].<h4>Conclusion</h4>This retrospective cost-consequences analysis found poorer treatment persistence and adherence in patients who first started therapy with generic instead of brand-name statins in routine medical practice in Spain. Also, patients receiving generics were more unlikely to reach LDL-c goals, showed increased probability of having CVE and all-cause mortality at a higher cost to payers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Statins, which are lipid-lowering agents, have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties that may affect the occurrence of various infectious diseases. We assessed whether statins increase the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) with propensity score-matching. METHODS:The study was based on the National Health Insurance database and its subset database of the "medical check-up" population of South Korea. These cohorts consist of about one million and 570,000 people, respectively, representative of the entire population of South Korea. We identified 103,930 statin users and 430,685 non-statin users. After propensity score-matching, 25,726 statin users and the same number of non-statin users were finally analyzed. The development of HZ was monitored in these matched pairs over the 11 years from 2003 to 2013. RESULTS:Statin users had a significantly higher risk of HZ than non-statin users: hazard ratio (HR) 1.25 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.37) (p < .0001). The risk of HZ associated with statins was especially high in the elderly: HR 1.39 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.73) in the over 70-year-olds (p = 0.003) and HR 1.18 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.39) in the 60-to-69-year-olds (p = 0.056). Furthermore, there was a significant p for trend in terms of cumulative dose effect between the risk of HZ and the duration of statin use (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:These epidemiologic findings provide strong evidence for an association between HZ and statin use, and suggest that unnecessary statins should be avoided.
Project description:To determine whether statins protect against all cause mortality after a diagnosis of pneumonia.Cohort study using propensity score based method to control for differences between people prescribed and not prescribed statins.United Kingdom Health Improvement Network database, which contains electronic primary care medical records of more than six million patients.Every patient starting a statin between 1995 and 2006 (129,288) matched with up to five non-statin users (n = 600,241); 9073 patients had a recorded diagnosis of pneumonia, of whom 1398 were using a statin.All cause mortality within six months of diagnosis of pneumonia.Among users and non-users of statins with comparable propensity scores, 95/942 users and 686/3615 non-users died on the day that pneumonia was diagnosed. In the following six month period, 109/847 statin users died compared with 578/2927 non-users, giving an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.67 (0.49 to 0.91). If these observed benefits translated into clinical practice, 15 patients would need to be treated with a statin for six months after pneumonia to prevent one death.Compared with people who were not taking statins, the risk of dying in the six month period after pneumonia was substantially lower among people who were already established on long term statin treatment when the pneumonia occurred. Whether some or all of this protective effect would be obtained if statin treatment begins when a patient first develops pneumonia is not known. However, given that statins are cheap, safe, and well tolerated, a clinical trial in which people with pneumonia are randomised to a short period of statin treatment is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Statins are first-line for cholesterol lowering and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but their use is complicated by side effects and potential for drug-drug interactions. Provider-patient communication is the basis of the recommended shared decision-making, but relatively little is known about this in the context of statin use. METHODS:We surveyed 5014 US adults prescribed a statin for hypercholesterolemia to learn their perspectives on communication with their provider. RESULTS:Ninety-four percent reported currently taking a statin while 6% had stopped. Past users vs current users were more likely to be female, age < 65 years, and to have fewer cardiovascular disease-related comorbidities (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease, respectively). Although 93% of current statin users were taking ≥1 other prescription medications (median of 4), 76% were "not at all"/"not very concerned" about potential drug-drug interactions with their statin, and fewer than one-quarter recalled mention of these from their provider. Ninety-five percent of subjects said it was "extremely"/"somewhat" important that their healthcare provider take "an individualized approach to selecting the right statin," but 73% and 76%, respectively, said their statin choice was made with little or no input from them. Only 25% were told that "some statins might be more likely than others to interact with other medications," and only 18% (and only 20% of past users) were told that "their particular statin might interact with other medications." CONCLUSION:Provider-patient communication regarding statin therapy appears inadequate, by patient recall, and efforts to improve it are warranted.
Project description:Statins have been known to increase the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, other factors, especially hypertension, are also associated with DM development.We investigated whether statin use increases the risk of DM and further analyzed whether the relation between statin use and incident DM differs according to the presence of hypertension and gender.From a nationwide health-screening cohort, 40,164 participants with total cholesterol levels ?eve mg/dL and without pre-diagnosed DM, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, who underwent a series of regular health check-ups, were enrolled. Statin users were defined as participants who were prescribed statins more than twice during 6 months.There were 17,798 statin non-users and 22,366 statin users. During 7.66±3.21 years of follow-up, incident DM developed in 5.68% of statin non-users and 7.64% of statin users. Among the entire study population, statin use was associated with new-onset DM after adjusting for clinical risk factors. In sub-analysis according to hypertension, statin use significantly increased the risk of incident DM only in normotensive patients [hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 1.58, p = 0.004], and not in hypertensive patients (p>0.05). Furthermore, continuous statin use was strongly associated with new-onset DM in women, regardless of hypertension presence (all p<0.05). However, in men, statin was associated with new-onset DM only in normotensive males (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.92, p<0.001) and not in hypertensive males (p>0.05).Statin use increased the risk of new-onset DM only in normotensive patients and hypertensive women, suggesting that these groups should be more carefully monitored for the development of DM during the course of follow-up.
Project description:To evaluate the incremental increase in new onset diabetes from higher potency statins compared with lower potency statins when used for secondary prevention.Eight population based cohort studies and a meta-analysis.Six Canadian provinces and two international databases from the UK and US.136,966 patients aged ? 40 years newly treated with statins between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2011.Within each cohort of patients newly prescribed a statin after hospitalisation for a major cardiovascular event or procedure, we performed as-treated, nested case-control analyses to compare diabetes incidence in users of higher potency statins with incidence in users of lower potency statins. Rate ratios of new diabetes events were estimated using conditional logistic regression on different lengths of exposure to higher potency versus lower potency statins; adjustment for confounding was achieved using high dimensional propensity scores. Meta-analytic methods were used to estimate overall effects across sites.Hospitalisation for new onset diabetes, or a prescription for insulin or an oral antidiabetic drug.In the first two years of regular statin use, we observed a significant increase in the risk of new onset diabetes with higher potency statins compared with lower potency agents (rate ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.26). The risk increase seemed to be highest in the first four months of use (rate ratio 1.26, 1.07 to 1.47).Higher potency statin use is associated with a moderate increase in the risk of new onset diabetes compared with lower potency statins in patients treated for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Clinicians should consider this risk when prescribing higher potency statins in secondary prevention patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of statins, as determined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), in children and adolescents with dyslipidemia in real-world clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN:Clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected between September 2010 and March 2014. We compared ALT levels between patients prescribed versus not prescribed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), and then compared ALT before and after initiation of statins. RESULTS:Over the 3.5-year observation period, there were 2704 ALT measurements among 943 patients. The mean age was 14 years; 54% were boys, 47% obese, and 208 patients were treated with statins. Median follow-up after first ALT was 18 months. The mean (SD) ALT in statin and non-statin users was 23 (20) U/L and 28 (28) U/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, sex, and race, ALT was 2.1?U/L (95% CI 0.1 to 4.4; P?=?0.04) lower among statin users, which was attenuated after adjustment for weight category. Patients started on statins during the observation period did not demonstrate an increase in ALT over time (ALT 0.9?U/L [95% confidence interval -5.2 to 3.4] increase per year; P?=?0.7). CONCLUSIONS:In our study population, we did not observe a higher burden of ALT elevations among pediatric patients on statins as compared to those with dyslipidemia who are not on statins, supporting the hepatic safety of statin use in childhood.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA), result in tremendous disability and cost. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed medications and their use for primary prevention in many otherwise healthy individuals, including those who are physically active, is increasing. There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions. Given the rising disability associated with musculoskeletal conditions, understanding predisposing factors, including medication-related exposures, deserves further attention. OBJECTIVES:We examined the association between statin use and the risk of being diagnosed with non-traumatic arthropathies, use-related injury, and undergoing rehabilitation in a cohort with longitudinal follow-up. METHODS:Patients enrolled in a regional military healthcare system between 2003 and 2012 were evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. A propensity score was generated to match statin-users and nonusers using 115 baseline characteristics. Outcomes included ICD-9 diagnoses codes for Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality disease categories of: non-traumatic arthropathies, use-related injury and undergoing rehabilitation. Primary analysis examined the outcomes in statin-users and nonusers after propensity score matching using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Initially, 60,455 patients were identified. We propensity score-matched 6728 statin users with 6728 nonusers (52 years of age,?~?47% women). In the propensity score-matched cohort, non-traumatic arthropathies occurred in 59.8% of statin users and 56.0% of nonusers [odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.09-1.25] and use related injury occurred in 31.9% of statin users and 29.8% of nonusers (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19). There was no difference between statin users and nonusers undergoing rehabilitation (22.6% among statin users, 21.9% among nonusers, OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13). CONCLUSION:Statin use was associated with a significant increased risk of non-traumatic arthropathies and use-related injury. Our results provide additional data that can inform patient and clinician conversations about the benefits and risks of statin use.
Project description:To examine whether the use of statins is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and changes in glucose metabolism among individuals at high risk for T2D participating in 1-year lifestyle intervention in primary healthcare setting.Prospective follow-up study.In all, 400 primary healthcare centres and occupational healthcare clinics in Finland.We screened altogether 10 149 individuals at increased risk for T2D; of these, 2798 non-diabetic individuals verified by a 2 h glucose tolerance test participated in the 1-year follow-up.Lifestyle intervention (individual and/or group-based counselling).Incidence of T2D and fasting and 2 h glucose measured at baseline and follow-up.A total of 484 individuals (17.3%) used statins at the baseline. Of them 31 (7.5%) developed T2D during the follow-up, compared to 126 (6.5%) of statin non-users (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.76, p=0.442). Interestingly, fasting glucose increased by 0.08 mmol/l in statin users, but remained unchanged in non-users, the difference being 0.074 mmol/l (95% CI 0.014 to 0.134) and remained significant even after adjustment for age, sex, baseline fasting glucose, the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), use of antihypertensive and/or coronary artery disease medication, weight and 1-year weight change (adjusted p=0.042).The incidence of T2D did not differ between the statin users and non-users. The finding that fasting glucose slightly increased in statin users in spite of lifestyle interventions suggests the view that the use of statins might have unfavourable effects on glucose metabolism and that statins might hamper beneficial effects of lifestyle intervention in people at high risk of T2D.